Skip to main content

Full text of "Vedic grammar"

See other formats




M.A., PH.D. 














A PRACTICAL Vedic grammar has long been a desideratum. 
It is one of the chief aids to the study of the hymns of the 
Veda called for forty-three years ago in the preface to his 
edition of the Kigveda by Max Miiller, who adds, ' I doubt 
not that the time will come when no one in India will call 
himself a Sanskrit scholar who cannot construe the hymns 
of the ancient Rishis of his country'. It is mainly due 
to the lack of such a work that the study of Vedic literature, 
despite its great linguistic and religious importance, has 
never taken its proper place by the side of the study of 
Classical Sanskrit either in England or India. Whitney's 
excellent Sanskrit Grammar, indeed, treats the earlier lan- 
guage in its historical connexion with the later, but for this 
very reason students are, as I have often been assured, 
unable to acquire from it a clear knowledge of either the 
one or the other, because beginners cannot keep the two 
dialects apart in the process of learning. Till the publica- 
tion of my large Vedic Grammar in 1910, no single work 
comprehensively presented the early language by itself. 
That work is, however, too extensive and detailed for the 
needs of the student, being intended rather as a book of 
reference for the scholar. Hence I have often been urged 
to bring out a short practical grammar which would do for 
the Vedic language what my Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners 
does for the Classical language. In the second edition 
(1911) of the latter work I therefore pledged myself to 


meet this demand as soon as I could. The present volume 
redeems that pledge. 

When planning the book I resolved, after much reflection, 
to make it correspond paragraph by paragraph to the 
Sanskrit Grammar' this being the best way to enable students 
to compare and contrast every phenomenon of the earlier 
and the later language. To this extent the present book 
presupposes the other ; but it can quite well be used inde- 
pendently. The experience of many years' teaching, however, 
leads me to dissuade beginners from starting the study of 
Sanskrit by means of the present grammar. Students 
should, in my opinion, always commence with classical 
Sanskrit, which is more regular and definite, as well as 
much more restricted in the number of its inflexional forms. 
A good working knowledge of the later language should 
therefore be acquired before taking up Vedic grammar, 
which can then be rapidly learned. 

In carrying out the parallelism of this grammar \vith 
the other I have experienced a good deal of difficulty in 
numbering the corresponding paragraphs satisfactorily, 
because certain groups of matter are found exclusively in 
the Vedic language, as the numerous subjunctive forms, or 
much more fully, as the dozen types of infinitive compared 
with only one in Sanskrit ; while some Sanskrit formations, 
as the periphrastic . future, are non-existent in the earlier 
language. Nevertheless, I have, I think, succeeded in 
arranging the figures in such a way that the corresponding 
paragraphs of the two grammars can always be easily 
compared. The only exception is the first chapter, con- 
sisting of fifteen paragraphs, which in the Sanskrit Grammar 
deals with the Nagarl alphabet. As the present work 
throughout uses transliteration only, it seemed superfluous 
to repeat the description of the letters given in the earlier 
work. I have accordingly substituted a general phonetic 


survey of Vedic sounds as enabling the student to understand 
clearly the linguistic history of Sanskrit. The employment 
of transliteration has been necessary because by this means 
alone could analysis by hyphens and accentuation be 
adequately indicated. Duplication with Nagarl characters, 
as in the Sanskrit Grammar, would have increased the size 
and the cost of the book without any compensating advan- 
tage. An account of the accent, as of vital importance in 
Vedic grammar, would naturally have found a place in the 
body of the book, but owing to the entire absence of this 
subject in the Sanskrit Grammar and to the fulness which 
its treatment requires, its introduction there was impossible. 
The accent is accordingly dealt with in Appendix III as 
a substitute for the ' Chief Peculiarities of Vedic Grammar ' 
appearing at the end of the Sanskrit Grammar. 

The term Vedic is here used to comprehend not only the 
metrical language of the hymns, but also the prose of 
the Brahmanas and of the Bi ahmana-like portions of the 
Atharvaveda and of various recensions of the Yajurveda. 
The grammatical material from the later period is mainly 
given in small type, and is in any case regularly indicated 
by the addition of the letter B (for Brahmana). Otherwise 
the phase of the earlier language presented is that of the 
Rigveda, as being both the oldest and furnishing the most 
abundant material. But forms from the other Vedas are 
often also supplied without any distinguishing mark as long 
as they conform to the standard of the Rigveda. If, how- 
ever, such forms are in any way abnormal, or if it seemed 
advisable to point out that they do not come from the 
Rigveda, this is indicated by an added abbreviation in 
brackets, as * (AV.) ' for ' (Atharvaveda).' On the other hand 
* (RV.) ' is sometimes added in order to indicate, for some 
reason or other, that a form is restricted to the Rigveda. 
It is. of course, impossible to go much into detail thus in 


a practical work ; but the exact source of any particular 
form can always be ascertained by reference to the large 
Vcdic Grammar. The grammatical usage of the other Vedas, 
when it differs from that of the Rigveda, is regularly ex- 
plained. The reference is given with precise figures when 
syntactical examples are taken from the Rigveda, but with 
abbreviations only (as TS. for Taittiriya Samhita or SB. for 
Satapatha Brahmana) when they come from elsewhere. 
Syntactical citations are not always metrically intact because 
words that are unnecessary to illustrate the usage in question 
are often omitted. The accent in verbal forms that happen 
to occur in Vedic texts without it, is nevertheless given 
if its position is undoubted, but when there is any uncer- 
tainty it is left out. In the list of verbs (Appendix I) the 
third person singular is often given as the typical form even 
when only other persons actually occur. Otherwise only 
forms that have been positively noted are enumerated. 

I ought to mention that in inflected words final s, r, and d 
of endings are given in their historical form, not according 
to the law of allowable finals ( 27) ; e.g. dutas, not dutah ; 
tasmad, not tasmat ; pitiir, not pituh. ; but when used 
syntactically they appear in accordance with the rules of 
Sandhi ; e. g. devanam dutah ; vrtrasya vadhat. 

The present book is to a great extent based 011 my large 
Vedic Grammar. It is, however, by no means simply an 
abridgement of that work. For besides being differently 
arranged, so as to agree with the scheme of the Sanskrit 
Grammar, it contains much matter excluded from the Vedic 
Grammar by the limitations imposed on the latter work' as 
one of the volumes of Btihler's Encyclopaedia of Indo- Aryan 
Research. Thus it adds a full treatment of Vedic Syntax 
and an account of the Vedic metres. Appendix I, moreover, 
contains a list of Vedic verbs (similar to that in the Sanskrit 
Grammar), which though all their forms appear in their 


appropriate place within the body of the Vedic Grammar, are 
not again presented there in the form of an alphabetical list, 
as is done here for the benefit of the learner. Having 
subjected all the verbal forms to a revision, I have classified 
some doubtful or ambiguous ones more satisfactorily, and 
added some others which were inadvertently omitted in the 
large work. Moreover, a full alphabetical list of conjunctive 
and adverbial particles embracing forty pages and describing 
the syntactical uses of these words has been added in order 
to correspond to 180 of the Sanskrit Grammar. The 
present work therefore constitutes a supplement to, as well 
as an abridgement of, the Vedic Grammar, thus in reality 
setting forth the subject with more completeness as a whole, 
though in a comparatively brief form, than the larger work. 
I may add that this grammar is shortly to be followed by 
a Vedic Header consisting of selected hymns of the Rigveda 
and supplying microscopic explanations of every point on 
which the elementary learner requires information. These 
two books will, I hope, enable him in a short time to become 
an independent student of the sacred literature of ancient 

For the purposes of this book I have chiefly exploited 
my own Vedic Grammar (1910), but I have also utilized 
Delbriick's Altindische Syntax (1888) for syntactical material, 
and Whitney's Roots (1885) for the verbal forms of the 
Brahmana literature. In describing the metres (Appen- 
dix II) I have found Oldenberg's Die Hymnen des Rigveda 
(1888), and Arnold's Vedic Metre (1905) very useful. 

I am indebted to Dr. James Morison and to my former 
pupil, Professor A. B. Keith, for reading all the first proofs 
with great care, and thus saving me from many misprints 
that would have escaped my own notice. Professor Keith 
has also suggested important modifications of some of my 
grammatical statements. Lastly, I must congratulate 


Mr. J. C. Pembrey, Hon. M.A., Oriental Reader at the 
Clarendon Press, on having completed the task of reading 
the final proofs of this grammar, now all but seventy years 
after correcting Professor H. H. Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar 
in 1847. This is a record in the history of Oriental, and 
most probably of any. professional proof reading for the 


March 30, 1916. 



PREFACE iii-viii 




Kelation of Vedic to Sanskrit Oral tradition and 
Writing Sounds of the Vedic Language The Vowels-^ 
Vowel Gradation The Consonants Ancient Pronuncia- 
tion 1-19 


External Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of Con- 
sonantsInternal Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of 
Consonants 20-47 


Nouns : Consonant Stems unchangeable changeable : 
with Two Stems; with Three Stems Vowel Stems 
Degrees of Comparison Numerals : Cardinals ; Ordinals ; 
Numeral Derivatives Pronouns: Personal Demonstra- 
tive Interrogative Relative Reflexive Possessive 
Compound Derivative Indefinite Pronominal Adjec- 
tives 47-117 


Introductory The Present System First Conjugation 
Second Conjugation The Augment Reduplication 
Terminations Paradigms Irregularities The Perfect 
The Pluperfect- The Aorist : First Aorist; Second 
Aorist Benedictive The Future: Simple; Periphrastic 


Mr. J. C. Pembrey, Hon. M.A., Oriental Reader at the 
Clarendon Press, on having completed the task of reading 
the final proofs of this grammar, now all but seventy years 
after correcting Professor H. H. Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar 
in 1847. This is a record in the history of Oriental, and 
most probably of any. professional proof reading for the 


March 30, 1916. 



PREFACE iii-viii 




Kelation of Vedic to Sanskrit Oral tradition and 
Writing Sounds of the Vedic Language The Vowels * 
Vowel Gradation The Consonants Ancient Pronuncia- 
tion 1-19 


External Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of Con- 
sonantsInternal Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of 
Consonants 20-47 


Nouns : Consonant Stems unchangeable changeable : 
with Two Stems; with Three Stems Vowel Stems 
Degrees of Comparison Numerals : Cardinals ; Ordinals ; 
Numeral Derivatives Pronouns: Personal Demonstra- 
tive Interrogative Relative Reflexive Possessive 
Compound Derivative Indefinite Pronominal Adjec- 
tives 47-117 


Introductory The Present System First Conjugation 
Second Conjugation The Augment Reduplication- 
Terminations Paradigms Irregularities The Perfect 
The Pluperfect- The Aorist : First Aorist; Second 
Aorist Benedictive The Future: Simple; Periphrastic 



Conditional The Passive Participles Gerund In- 
finitive Derivative Verbs : Causative Desiderative 
Intensive Denominative 117-207 


Prepositions Adverbial Case-forms Adverbs formed 
with Suffixes Conjunctive and Adverbial Particles In- 
terjections 208-253 


Primary Suffixes Secondary Suffixes Gender Verbal 
Compounds Nominal Compounds: Co-ordinatives Deter- 
minatives : Dependent and Descriptive Possessives 
Governing Compounds Syntactical Compounds Itera- 
tive Compounds ......... 254-282 


Introductory Order of Words Number Concord 
Pronouns Use of the Cases Locative and Genitive 
Absolute Participles Gerund Infinitive Use of the 
Tenses Use of the Moods: Imperative Injunctive Sub- 
junctive Optative Precative Conditional . . . 283-368 

APPENDIX I. List of Verbs . . . . . .369-435 

APPENDIX II. Vedic Metre ' 436-447 

APPENDIX III. The Vedic Accent 448-469 

VEDIC INDEX 471-498 

GENERAL INDEX . 499-508 


A. = accusative case. 

A. = Atmanepada, middle voice. 
A A. Aitareya Aranyaka. 

AB. = Aitareya Brahmana. 
Ab. = ablative case, 
act. = active voice. 
AV. = Atharvaveda. 
Av. = Avesta. 

B. = Brahmana. 

C. = Classical Sanskrit. 

D. = dative case, 
du. = dual number, 
f. = feminine. 

G. = genitive case. 

Gk. = Greek. 

I. = instrumental case. 

IE. = Indo-European. 

I-Ir. = Indo-Iranian. 

ind. = indicative mood. 

K. = Kathaka Samhita. 

KB. = Kausltaki Brahmana. 

L. = locative case. 

Lat. = Latin. 

m. = masculine. 

mid. = middle voice. 

MS. = Maitrayam Samhita. 

N. = nominative case. 

P. = Parasmaipada, active voice. 

PB. = Pancavims'a (= Tandya) Brahmana. 

pi. = plural number. 

RV. = Rigveda. 

&B. = ^atapatha Brahmana. 

s. = singular number. 

SV. = Samaveda. 

TA. = Taittirlya Aranyaka. 

TB. = Taittirlya Brahmana. 

TS. = Taittirlya Samhita. 

V. = Vedic (in the narrow sense as opposed to B. = Brahmana). 

VS. = Vajasaneyi Samhita. 

YV. = Yajurveda. 

N.B. Other abbreviations will be found at the beginning of 
Appendix I and of the Vedic Index. 


P. 25, line 24, for ami iti read ami iti. 

P. 27, line 29, last word, read a-srat. 

P. 133, line 5, for bibhrmdhe read bibhrmahe. 

P. 144, line 31, for stride read strike. 

P. 156, lines 6 and 10, for ci-ket-a-t and ci-ket-a-thas read oi-ket-a-t 


P. 158, line 21, for (vas desire) read (va bellow}. 
P. 174, lines 30 and 31, delete cucyuvlmahi and cucyavirata (cp. 

p. 382 under cyu). 

P. 188, footnote, for 'gerundive' read 'gerund'. 
P. 200, line 6, for < f yaj ' read < of yaj Y 
P. 215, line 32, for tavan read tavam ; similarly, pp. 220, line 15, 

221, line 4, 222, line 4, 238, line 9, 242, line 30, for n read m. 
P. 273, footnote, last line but one, for < briefly ' read ' chiefly '. 
P. 286, line 15, for < follows ' read 'precedes'. 
P. 340, line 17, for tani read tyani. 
P. 347, at the end of line 10, add (i. 81 5 ). 
,, ,, line 17, for va read va. 
,, line 21, for duscarma read dusc&rma. 
P. 348, line 28, for vettu read vettu. 
P. 350, line 20, after icisdom add (i. 42 7 ). 
P. 351, line 28, for abhi read abhi. 

352, line 31, for vayum read vaytim. 
line 34, for (v. 69 l ) read (vi. 59 1 ). 



1. Vedic, or the Language of the literature of the Vedas, 
is represented by two main linguistic strata, in each of 
which, again, earlier and later phases may be distinguished. 
The older period is that of the Mantras, the hymns and 
spells addressed to the gods, which are contained in the 
various Samhitas. Of these the Kigveda, which is the most 
important, represents the earliest stage. The later period 
is that of the prose theological treatises called Brahmanas. 
Linguistically even the oldest of them are posterior to most 
of the latest parts of the Samhitas, approximating to the 
stage of Classical Sanskrit. But they still retain the use 
of the subjunctive and employ many different types of the 
infinitive, while Sanskrit has lost the former and preserves 
only one single type of the latter. The prose of these 
works, however, to some extent represents better than the 
language of the Mantras the normal features of Vedic 
syntax, which in the latter is somewhat interfered with by 
the exigences of metre. 

The language of the works forming appendices to the 
Brahmanas, that is, of the Aranyakas and Upanisads, forms 
a transition to that of the Sutras, which is practically 
identical with Classical Sanskrit! 

The linguistic material of the Kigveda, being more ancient, 
extensive, and authentic than that of the other Samhitas, all 
of which borrow largely from it, is taken as the basis of 
this grammar. It is, however, considerably supplemented 
from the other Samhitas. The grammatical forms of the 
BiTihmanas, where they differ from those of Classical 
Sanskrit, have been indicated in notes, while their syntax 

1819 B 


is fully dealt with, because it illustrates the construction of 
sentences better than the metrical hymns of the Vedas. 

2. The hymns of the Vedas were composed many centuries 
before the introduction of writing into India, which can 
hardly have taken place much earlier than 600 B. c. They 
were handed down till probably long after that event by 
oral tradition, which has lasted down to the present day. 
Apart from such tradition, the text of the Samhitas has 
been preserved in manuscripts, the earliest of which, owing 
to the adverse climatic conditions of India, are scarcely five 
centuries old. How soon they were first committed to 
writing, and whether the hymns of the Rigveda were edited 
in the form of the Samhita and Pada texts with the aid of 
writing, there seems insufficient evidence to decide ; but it 
is almost inconceivable that voluminous prose works such 
as the Brahmanas, in particular the Satapatha Brahmana, 
could have been composed and preserved without such 
aid. 1 

3. The sounds of the Vedic language. There are 
altogether fifty-two sounds, thirteen of which are vocalic 
and thirty-nine consonantal. They are the following : 

a. Nine simple vowels: aaiiuurfl; four diphthongs : 
e o ai au. 

I. Twenty-two mutes divided into five classes, each of 
which has its nasal, making a group of twenty-seven : 

(a) five gutturals (velars) : k kh g gh n ; 

(0) five palatals : c ch j jh 2 n ; 

1 The text of the Vedas, with the exception of Aufrecht's and 
Weber's transliterated editions of the RV. and theTS., is always printed 
in the Devanagaii character. The latter having been fully described 
in my Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners ( 4-14), it is unnecessary to 
repeat what is there stated. It will suffice here to give a summary 
account of all the sounds of the Vedic language. 

2 This sound is very rare, occurring only once in the RV. and not 
at all in the AV. 

3-4] THE VOWELS 3 

(y) seven cerebrals j : t th, d and I, 2 dh. and lh, 2 n ; 
(8) five dentals : t th d dh n ; 
(e) five labials : p ph. b bh m ; 

c. Four semivowels : y (palatal), r (cerebral), 1 (dental), 
v (labial) ; 

d. Three sibilants : s (palatal), s (cerebral), s (dental) ; 

e. One aspiration : h ; 

f. One pure nasal : m (m) called Anusvara (after-sound). 

g. Three voiceless spirants: h (Visarjanlya), h (Jihva- 
m ally a), h (Upadhrnaniya). 

4. a. The simple vowels : 

a ordinarily represents an original short vowel (IE. a e 6) ; 
but it also often replaces an original sonant nasal, represent- 
ing the reduced form of the unaccented syllables an and 
am, as sat-a beside sant-am being ; ga-ta gone beside 
a-gam-at has gone. 

a represents both a simple long vowel (IE. a e 6) and 
a contraction ; e. g. matar (Lat. mater) mother ; asam = 
a-as-am I was. It frequently also represents the unaccented 
syllable an ; e. g. kha-ta dug from khan dig. 

i is ordinarily an original vowel ; e. g. div-i (Gk. Sift) 
in heaven. It is also frequently the low grade of e and ya ; 
e. g. vid-ma (iSpev) tve know beside v6d-a (o!8a) I know ; 
nav-istha newest beside nav-yas newer. It also represents the 
low grade of radical a ; e. g. sis-ta taught beside sas-ti teaches. 

I is an original vowel ; e. g. jiv-a living. But it also often 
represents the low grade of ya ; e. g. as-i-mahi we would 
attain beside as-yam I would attain ; or a contraction ; e. g. 
isiir they have sped (= i-is-ur 3. pi. pf. of is) ; mati by 
thought (= matia). 

1 This is much the rarest class of mutes, being scarcely half as 
common as even the palatals. 

2 These two sounds take the place of d dh respectively between 
vowels in the RV. texts ; e. g. lie (but idya), mllhuse (but midhvan). 



u is an original vowel ; e. g. madhu (Gk. /j.6v) honey. 
It is also the low grade of o and va ; e. g. yug-a n. yoke 
beside y6g-a m. yoking ; sup-ta asleep beside svap-na m. 

u is an original vowel ; e. g. bhru (6-(ppv-s) f. brotv. It is 
also the low grade of au and va ; e. g. dhu-ta shaken beside 
dhau-tari f. shaking ; sud sweeten beside svad enjoy 
and often represents a contraction; e.g. uc-ur = u -uc-iir 
they have spoken (3. pi. pf. of vac) ; bahu the two arms 

r is a vocalic r, being the low grade of ar and ra ; e. g. 
kr-ta done beside ca-kar-a I have done-, grbh-i-ta seized 
beside grabh-a m. seizure. 

r occurs only in the ace. and gen. pi. m. and f. of ar stems 
(in which it is the lengthened low grade) ; e. g. pitrn, 
matfh; pitrnam, svasrnam. 

1 is a vocalic 1, being the low grade of al, occurring only 
in a few forms or derivatives of the verb kip (kalp) be in 
order : caklpre* 3. pi. pf. ; ciklpati 3. s. aor. subj. ; klpti 
(VS.) f. arrangement beside kalpasva 2. s. impv. mid., 
kalp-a m. pious work. 

1). The diphthongs. 

e and 6 stand for the original genuine diphthongs ai au. 
They represent (1) the high grade corresponding to the 
weak grade vowels i and u ; e. g. se'e-ati pours beside 
sik-ta poured ; bh6j-am beside bhuj-am aor. of bhuj enjoy 
(2) the result of the coalescence of a with i and u in external 
and internal Saridhi ; e. g. e"ndra = a indra ; 6 cit = a u cit ; 
pade" = pada I du. n. tivo steps ; bhaveta = bhava Ita 3. s. 
opt. might be ; maghtfn (= magha un) weak stem of 
maghavan bountiful ; I S ) e = az in a few words before 
d, dh, h ; e.g. e-dhi be 2. s. impv. of as beside as-ti ; o = az 
before bh of case-endings, and before y and v of secondary 
suffixes ; e. g. dve"so-bhis inst. pi. of dve~sas n. hatred ; 


duvo-yu wishing to give (beside duvas-yu) ; saho-van 
mighty beside sahas-vant. 

ai and au etymologically represent ai and au, as is 
indicated by the fact that they become ay and av in Sandhi ; 
e. g. gav-as cows beside gau-s ; and that the Sandhi of a 
with e (= ai) and o (= au) is ai and au respectively. 

5. Vowel gradation. Simple vowels are found to inter- 
change in derivation as well as in verbal and nominal in- 
flexion with fuller syllables, or if short also with long vowels. 
This change is dependent on shift of accent : the fuller or 
long syllable remains unchanged while it bears the accent, 
but is reduced to a simple or short vowel when left by the 
accent. This interchange is termed vowel gradation. Five 
different series of such gradation may be distinguished. 

a. The Guna series. Here the accented high grade 
syllables e, o, ar, al, constituting the fundamental stage 
and called Guna (cp. 17 a) by the native grammarians, inter- 
change with the unaccented low grade syllables i, u, r, 1 
respectively. Beside the Guna syllables appear, but much 
less frequently, the syllables ai, au, ar (al does not occur), 
which are called Vrddhi by the same authorities and may be 
regarded as a lengthened variety of the Guna syllables. 
Examples are : did6s-a has pointed out : dis-ta pointed out ; 
6-mi I go : i-mas we go ; ap-no-mi I obtain : ap-nu-mas we 
obtain; vardhaya to further: vrdhaya, id. 

a. The low grade of both Guna and Vrddhi may be i, u, !r, ur ; as 
bibhay-a / have feared and bibhay-a has feared : bhl-ta frightened ; juhav-a 
has invoked : hu-td invoked ; tatar-a has crossed : tir-ate crosses and tir-nd 

J). The Samprasarana series. Here the accented high 
grade syllables ya, va, ra (corresponding to the Guna stage 
e, o, ar) interchange with the unaccented low grade vowels 
i, u, r; e.g. i-yaj-a I have sacrificed : is-ta sacrificed; vas-ti 
desires : us-masi we desire ; ja-grah-a I have seized : ja-grh-iir 
they have seized. 


a. Similarly the long syllables y a, va, ra are reduced to I, u, Ir ; e. g. 
jya f. might : jl-yd-te is overcome ; bru-ya-t would say : bruv-I-ta id. ; 
svad-u sweet : sud-aya-ti sweetens ; dragh-iyas longer : dirgh-a' long. 

c. The a series. 

1. In its low grade stage a would normally disappear, but 
as a rule it remains because its loss would in most cases 
lead to unpronounceable or obscure forms ; e. g. as-ti is : 
s-anti they are ; ja-gam-a I have gone : ja-gm-iir they have 
gone ; pad-ya4e goes : pi-bd-ana standing firm ; han-ti slays : 
ghn-anti they slay. 

2. The low grade of the Vrddhi vowel a is either a or 
total loss ; e. g. pad m. foot : pad-a tvith the foot ; dadha-ti 
puts : dadh-masi we put ; pu-na-ti purifies : pu-n-anti they 
purify ; da-da-ti gives : deva-t-ta given l>y the gods. 

3. When a represents the Guna stage its low grade is 
normally i ; e. g. stha-s thou hast stood : sthi-ta stood. 

a. Sometimes it is I owing to analogy ; e. g. pu-na-ti purifies : 
pu-ni-hi purify. Sometimes, especially when the low grade syllable 
has a secondary accent, it is a ; e. g. gah-ate plunges : g&h-ana n. depth. 

d. The ai and au series. 

The low grade of ai (which appears as ay before vowels 
and a before consonants) is i ; e. g. gay-ati sings, ga-tha m. 
song : gi-ta sung. 

The low grade of au (which is parallel to va : 5 & a) is u ; 
e. g. dhav-ati washes : dhu-ta washed ; dhau-tari f. shaking : 
dhu-ti m. shabcr, dhu-ma m. smoke. 

e. Secondary shortening of I, u, f. The low grade 
syllables I, u, ir and ur (= r) are further reduced to i, u, r, 
owing to shift of accent from its normal position in a word 
to its beginning, in compounds, reduplicated forms, and 
vocatives; e. g. a-huti f. invocationi-huticatt', &idi-vi shining: 
di-paya "kindle ; car-kr-se thou commemoratest : kir-ti f. 
praise (from root kr) ; pi-pr-tam 3. du. : pur-ta full (root 
pf) ; d6vi voc. : devi nom. goddess ; svasru voc. : sva-sru-s 
nom. mother-in-law. 


The Consonants. 

6. The guttural mutes represent the Indo-European 
velars (that is, q-sounds). In the combination k-s the 
guttural is the regular phonetic modification of a palatal 
before s ; e. g. drs see : aor. adrk-sata ; vac speak : fut. 

7. The palatals form two series, the earlier and the later. 
a. Original palatals are represented by ch and s, and to 

some extent by j and h. 

1. The aspirate ch is derived from an IE. double sound, 
s+ aspirated palatal mute; e. g. chid cut off=Gk. ax 1 ^- 
But in the inchoative suffix cha it seems to represent s + 
unaspirated palatal mute ; e. g. gacha-mi = Gk. fid&KO). 

2. The sibilant s represents an IE. palatal (which seems 
to have been pronounced dialectically either as a spirant or 
a mute) ; e. g. satam 100 = Lat. centum, Gk. l-Karov. 

3. The old palatal j (originally the media of s = I-Ir. z, 
French j) is recognizable by appearing as a cerebral when 
final or before mutes ; e. g. yaj-ati sacrifices beside aor. 
a-yat has sacrificed, yas-tr sacrificer, is-td sacrificed. 

4. The breathing h represents the old palatal aspirate 
I-Ir. zh. It is recognizable as an old palatal when, either as 
final or before t, it is replaced by a cerebral ; e. g. vah-ati 
carries beside a-vat has carried. 

1). The new palatals are c and to some extent j and h. 
They are derived from gutturals (velars), being interchange- 
able, in most roots and formatives, with gutturals ; e. g. 
s6c-ati shines beside sok-a m. flame, suk-van flaming, suk-ra 
brilliant ; yuj-e I yoke beside yug-a n. yoke, y<5g-a m. yoking, 
yuk-ta yoked, -yiig-van yoking-, du-droh-a has injured 
beside dr6gh-a injurious. 

a. The original gutturals were changed to palatals by the palatal 
sounds i, I, y immediately following ; e. g. eit-t noticed beside ke"t-a 
m. will from cit perceive ; 6j-iyas stronger beside ug-rd strong ; druh-yu, a 
proper name, beside dr6gh-a injurious. 


8. The cerebrals are entirely secondary, being a specifically 
Indian product and unknown in the Indo-Iranian period. 
They are probably due to aboriginal, especially Dravidian, 
influence. They are still rare in the EV., where they never 
occur initially, but only medially and finally. They have 
as a rule arisen from dentals immediately following the 
cerebral s (= original s, s, j, h) or r-sounds (r, r, r) ; e. g. 
dus-tara (= dus-tara) invincible-, vas-ti (= vas-ti) wishes ; 
mrs-ta (= mrj-ta) cleansed] mda (= nizda) T nest ; du-dhi 
(= duz-dhi) ill-disposed] drdha 2 (= drh-ta) firm ; nr-nam 
(= nr-nam) of men. 

Final cerebral mutes represent the old palatals j, s, h ; 
e. g. rat (= raj) m. ruler nom. s. ; vipat (= vi-pas) f. a river ; 
sat (= sah) overcoming ; a- vat (= a-vah-t) lias conveyed 
(3. s. aor. of vah). 

9. a. The dentals are original sounds, representing the 
corresponding IE. dentals. The mutes t and d, however, 
sometimes take the place of original s before s and bh 
respectively ; e. g. a- vat-sis (AV.) aor. of vas dwell ] 
mad-bhis inst. pi. of mas month. 

1). The labials as a rule represent the corresponding IE. 
sounds. But b is very rarely inherited ; the number of 
words containing this sound has, however, been greatly 
increased in various ways. Thus it often replaces p or bh 
in Sandhi and bh in reduplication ; e. g. pi-bd-ana firm 
beside pad-a n. place ; rab-dha taken beside rabhante tJiey 
take ] ba-bhuva lias been from bhu "be. There are also many 
words containing b which seem to have a foreign origin. 

10. The nasals. Of the five nasals belonging to the 
corresponding five classes of mutes, only the dental n and 
the labial m appear independently and in any part of a word, 

1 z ( = s or old palatal zh), the soft form of s, has always disappeared 
after cerebralizing d or dh and lengthening the preceding vowel. 

2 Though written as a short vowel the r is prosodically long. 

10] NASALS 9 

initially, medially, and finally ; e. g. matr f. mother, naman 
n. name. The remaining three are always dependent on 
a contiguous sound. The guttural n, the palatal n, and the 
cerebral n are never initial, and the last two are never final. 
The guttural n appears finally only when a following k or g 
has been dropped, as in stems ending in nc or nj and in 
those compounded with drs ; e. g. pratyan nom. s. of 
pratyanc facing ; ki-drn nom. s. of ki-drs of what kind? 

a. Medially n appears regularly only before gutturals ; 

e. g. anka m. hooJc ; ankhaya embrace ; anga n. limb ; jangha 

f. leg. Before other consonants it appears only when k or g 
has been dropped ; e.g. yun-dhi for yung-dhi (=yunj-dhi) 

2. s. impv. of yuj join. 

b. The palatal nasal occurs only before or after c or j, and 
before ch ; e. g. panca five ; yaj-na m. sacrifice ; vanchantu 
let them desire. 

c. The cerebral n appears within a word only, either 
before cerebral mutes or replacing dental n after r, r, or s 
(either immediately preceding or separated from it by certain 
intervening letters); e.g. danda m. staff; nr-nam of men; 
varna m. colour ; usna hot ; kramana n. step. 

d. The dental n is the commonest of the nasals ; it is 
more frequent than m, and about three times as frequent as 
the other three taken together. As a rule it represents 
IE. n ; but it also appears in place of the dental d or t, and 
of labial m before certain suffixes. It is substituted for d 
before the suffix -na ; and for d or t before the m of 
secondary suffixes ; e. g. an-na n. food (from ad eat) ; 
vidyiin-mant gleaming (vidyiit f. lightning) ; mrn-maya 
earthen (mrd f. earth). It is substituted for m before t ; 
before suffixal m or v ; and before suffixal s or t that have 
been dropped as final ; e. g. yan-tra n. rein (yam restrain) ; 
a-gan-ma, gan-vahi (aor. of gam go) ; a-gan (= a-gam-s, 
a-gam-t) 2. 3. s. aor. of gam go-, a-yan ( a-yam-s-t) 

3. s. aor. of yam restrain ; dan gen. of dam house ( dam-s). 


e. The labial m as a rule represents IE. m ; e. g. naman, 
Lat. nomen. It is by far the commonest labial sound, being 
more frequent than the four labial mutes taken together. 

/. The pure nasal. Distinct from the five class nasals is 
the pure nasal, variously called Anusvara and Anunasika, 
which always follows a vowel and is formed by the breath 
passing through the nose unmodified by the influence of any 
consonant. The former is usually written with a dot before 
consonants, the latter as ^ before vowels. The proper use 
of Anusvara is not before mutes, but before sibilants and h 
(which have no class nasal). When final, Anusvara usually 
represents m, sometimes n (66 A 2). Medially Anusvara 
regularly appears before sibilants and h ; e. g. vamsa m. 
reed ; havimsi offerings ; mamsa n. flesh ; simha m. lion. 
It usually appears before s, where it always represents 
m or n ; e. g. mamsate 3. s. subj. aor. of man think ; 
pimsanti beside pinasti from pis crush ; kramsyate fut. of 
kram stride. When Anusvara appears before s or h (= IE. 
guttural or palatal) it represents the corresponding class 

11. The semivowels. The semivowels y, r, 1, v are 
peculiar in having each a vowel corresponding to it, viz. 
i, r, 1, u respectively. They are called anta(h)stha in the 
Pratisakhyas, or ' intermediate ', as standing midway between 
vowels and consonants. 

a. The semivowel y is constantly written for i before 
other vowels within the Veda itself. It also sometimes 
appears without etymological justification, especially after 
roots in -a, before vowel suffixes ; e. g. da-y-i 3. s. aor. pass, 
of da give. Otherwise it is based either on IE. i (= Gk. 
spiritus asper) or voiced palatal spirant y (= Gk. f) ; e. g. 
ya-s who (Gk. o-y), yaj sacrifice (Gk. ay-Los) ; but yas loil 
(Gk. eo>), yuj yoke (Gk. wy-). It is probably due to this 
difference of origin that yas boil and yam restrain reduplicate 
with ya in the perfect, but yaj sacrifice with i. 


&. The semivowel v is constantly written for u before 
other vowels within the Veda itself. Otherwise it seems 
always to be based on IE. u, that is, on a v interchangeable 
with u, but never on an IE. spirant v not interchangeable 
with u. 

c. The semivowel r generally corresponds to IE. r, but 
also often to IE. 1. As Old Iranian invariably has r for 
both, it seems as if there had been a tendency to rhotacism 
in the Indo-Iranian period. In order to account for the 
Vedic relation of r to 1, it appears necessary to assume 
a mixture of three dialects: one in which the IE. r and 1 
were kept apart ; another in which IE. 1 became r (the 
Vedic dialect) ; and a third in which IE. r became 1 
throughout (the later Magadhi). 

r is secondary when it takes the place of phonetic d (= z) 
as the final of stems in is and us before endings beginning 
with bh ; e. g. havir-bhis and vapur-bhis. This substitution 
is due to the influence of external Sandhi, where is and us 
would become ir and ur. 

a. Metathesis of r takes place when ar would be followed by s or h 
-f consonant. It appears in forms of drs see and srj send forth; e.g. 
drastum to see, sdmsrastr one ivho engages in battle ; also in brahmdn m. 
t, brahman n. devotion beside barhis n. sacrificial litter (from brh or 
>arh make big) ; and in a few other words. 

d. The semivowel 1 represents IE. 1 and in a few instances 
r. It is rarer than in any cognate language except Old 

rauian, in which it does not occur at all. It is much rarer 
than r, which is seven times as frequent. A gradual increase 
)f 1 is apparent in the RV. ; thus in the tenth book are 
found the verbs mluc and labh, and the nouns Ionian, 
lohita, which in the earlier books appear as mruc sink, 
rabh seize, rdman n. hair, rohita red. This letter occurs 
eight times as often in the latest parts of the RV. as in the 
oldest ; and it is seven times as common in the AV. as in 
the RV. It seems likely that the recorded Vedic dialect 


was descended from an Indo-Iraman one in which rhotacism 
had removed every 1 ; but that there must have been another 
Vedic dialect in which IE. r and 1 were kept distinct, and 
a third in which IE. r became 1 throughout ; from the 
latter two 1 must have found its way into the literary 
language to an increasing extent. In the oldest parts of the 
RV. there are no verbal forms preserving IE. 1, and only a few 
nouns : (u)loka m. free space, sloka m. call, and -misla mixed. 

a. In the later Samhitas 1 occasionally occurs both medially and 
finally for d ; e. g. lie (VS. Kanva) = ide ^RV, lie) ; bal iti (AV.), cf. 
RV. bal itthsi. In a good many words 1 is probably of foreign origin. 

12. The sibilants are all voiceless, but there are various 
traces of the earlier existence of voiced sibilants (cp. 7 a 3 ; 
8 ; 15, 2 &). There is a considerable interchange between 
the sibilants, chiefly as a result of assimilation. 

a. The palatal sibilant s represents an IE. palatal (mute 
or spirant). Besides being the regular substitute for dental s 
in external Sand hi before voiceless palatals (e. g. indras ca), 
it occasionally represents that sibilant within words by 
assimilation ; e. g. svasura (Lat. socer) father-in-law ; sasa 
(IE. Jcasd) m. hare. Sometimes this substitution takes place, 
without assimilation, under the influence of allied words, as 
in k6sa m. hair beside ke*sara (Lat. caesaries). It is also to 
some extent confused with the other two sibilants in the 
Samhitas, but here it interchanges much oftener with s 
than with s. Before s the palatal s becomes k, regularly 
when medial, sometimes when final ; e. g. drk-s-a-se 2. s. aor. 
subj. mid., and -drk[s] nom. s. from drs see. 

&. The cerebral s is, like the cerebral mutes, altogether 
secondary, always representing either an original palatal or 
an original dental sibilant. Medially it represents the 
palatals s (= I-Ir. s) and j ( I-Ir. z) and the combination ks 
before the cerebral tenues t th (themselves produced from 
dental tenues by this s) ; e. g. nas-ta from nas be lost ; 
mrs-ta 3. s. impf., from mrj wipe ; tas-ta from taks hew. 


Medially it is regularly, and initially very frequently, 
substituted for dental s after vowels other than a and after 
the consonants k, r, s ; e. g. tisthati from stha stand ; 
su-sup-ur 3. pi. pf. from svap sleep; rsabha m. bull; 
uksan m. ox ; varsa n. rain havis-su in oblations ; anu 
stuvanti they praise ; go-sani winning cattle ; divi san being 
in heaven. 

Occasionally s represents dental s as a result of assimila- 
tion ; e. g. sas six (Lat. sex) ; sat victorious nom. s. from 
sah overcoming. 

c. The dental s as a rule represents IE. s ; e. g. asva-s 
horse, Lat. equo-s ; as-ti, Gk. ecr-n. In Sandhi it is often 
replaced by the palatal s and still oftener by the cere- 
bral s. 

13. The breathing h is a secondary sound representing 
as a rule the second half of an original guttural or palatal 
aspirate, but occasionally of the dental dh and the labial bh. 
It usually stands for palatalized gh, this origin being 
recognizable by the appearance of the guttural in cognate 
forms ; e. g. han-ti strikes beside ghn-anti, jaghana ; dudrdha 
has injured beside drdgha injurious. It sometimes represents 
an old palatal aspirate ( I-Ir. zh), as is recognizable by its 
being replaced as final or before t by a cerebral ; e. g. vah-ati 
carries beside a-vat has carried, iidha (= uz-dha) for vah-ta. 
It stands for dh e. g. in gab-ate plunges beside gadha n. 
ford ; hi-ta placed beside dhi-ta from dha put. It represents 
bh in the verb grab seize beside grabh. The various origins 
of h led to a certain amount of confusion in the groups of 
forms from roots containing that sound. Thus beside 
mugdha, the phonetic past participle of muh be confused, 
appears mudha (AV.) beivildered. 

14. Voiceless spirants. There are three such represent- 
ing original final s or r. Visarjanlya has its proper place in 
pausa. Jihvamuliya (formed at the root of the tongue) is the 
guttural spirant and is appropriate before initial voiceless 


gutturals (k, kh). Upadhmaniya (on-breathing) is the bi-labial 
spirant f and appears before voiceless labials (p, ph). 
Visarjamya may take the place of the latter two, and always 
does so in the printed texts of the Samhitas. 

15. Ancient pronunciation. As regards the pronuncia- 
tion prevailing about 500 B.C. we have a sufficiently exact 
knowledge derived from the transcription of Sanskrit words 
in foreign languages, especially Greek ; from the information 
contained in the old grammarians, Panini and his school ; and 
especially from the detailed statements of the Pratisakhyas, 
the ancient phonetic works dealing with the Samhitas. 
The internal evidence supplied by the phonetic changes 
occurring in the language of the texts themselves and the 
external evidence of comparative philology justify us in 
concluding that the pronunciation in the period of the 
Samhitas was practically the same as in Panini's time. 
The only possible exceptions are a very few doubtful points. 
The following few remarks will therefore suffice on the 
subject of pronunciation : 

1. a. The vowels. The simple vowels i, u and a were 
pronounced as in Italian. But a in the time of the 
Pratisakhyas was already sounded as a very short close 
neutral vowel like the u in English 'but. It is, however, 
probable from the fact that the metre hardly ever admits 
of a being elided after e and o in the RV., though the 
written text drops it in about 75 per cent, of the occurrences, 
that at the time when the hymns were composed the 
pronunciation of a was still open, but that, at the time 
when the Samhita text was constituted, the close pronun- 
ciation was already becoming general. 

The vowel r, now usually sounded as ri (an early pro- 
nunciation as shown by the confusion of r and ri in ancient 
inscriptions and MSS.), was in the Samhitas pronounced as 
a vocalic r, somewhat like the sound in the final syllable of 
the French chambre. It is described in the RV. Pratisakhya 


as containing an r in the middle. This agrees with ere, 
the equivalent of r in Old Iranian. 

The very rare vowel 1, now usually pronounced as Iri, was 
in the Samhitas a vocalic 1, described in the RV. Pratisakhya 
as corresponding to 1 representing an original r. 

b. The diphthongs e and o were already pronounced as 
the simple long vowels e and 6 in the time of thePratisakhyas ; 
and that this was even the case in the Samhitas is shown by 
the fact that their Sandhi before a was no longer ay and av, 
and that the a was beginning to be elided after e and o. 
But that they represent the original genuine diphthongs ai 
and au is shown by the fact that they are produced in 
Sandhi by the coalescence of a with i and u. 

The diphthongs ai and au are at the present day pro- 
nounced as ai and au, and were so pronounced even at the 
time of the Pratisakhyas. But that they etymologically 
represent ai and au is shown by their Sandhi. 

c. Lengthened vowels. The vowels i and u were often 
pronounced long before suffixal y ; e. g. su-ya-te is pressed 
(\/su) ; jam-yant desiring a wife (jani) ; also before r when 
a consonant follows ; e. g. gir-bhis (but gir-as) ; a, i, u 
often become long before v; e.g. a-vidh-yat he wounded 
(a is augment) ; ji-gi-vams having conquered ( Vji) ; rta-van 
observing order (rta) ; ya-vant lioiv great as compensation 
for the loss of a following consonant ; e. g. gu-dha for guh-ta 
(15, 2 Jc) ; they are also often pronounced long for metrical 
reasons ; e. g. srudhi havam hear our prayer. 

d. Svarabhakti. 1 When a consonant is in conjunction 
with r or a nasal, the metre shows that a very short vowel 2 
must often be pronounced between them ; e. g. indra = 
ind a ra ; yajna = yaj a na sacrifice ; gna = g n na woman. 

1 A term used in the PratiSakhyas and meaning ' vowel-part '. 

2 Described by the PratiSakhyas as equal to |-, , or | mora in length 
and generally as equivalent to a in sound. 


e. Loss of vowels. With very few exceptions the only 
vowel lost is initial a which, in one per cent, of its occurrences 
in the RV. and about 20 per cent, in the AV. and the metrical 
portions of the YV., is dropped in Sandhi after e and o. 
In a few words the disappearance of initial a is prehistoric ; 
e. g. vi bird (Lat. avi-s) ; santi they are (Lat. sunt). 

f. Hiatus. In the written text of the Samhitas hiatus, 
though as a rule tolerated in diphthongs only, appears in 
Sandhi when a final s, y, v has been dropped before 
a following vowel ; when final I, u, e of dual endings are 
followed by vowels ; and when a remains after final e 
and o. 

Though not written, hiatus is common elsewhere also in 
the Samhitas : y and v must often be pronounced as i and u, 
and a long vowel or diphthong as two vowels, the original 
vowels of contractions having often to be restored both 
within a word and in Sandhi; e.g. jy^stha mightiest as 
jya-istha (= jya-istha from jya be miglity). 

2. Consonants, a. The aspirates were double sounds, 
consisting of mutes followed by a breathing ; thus k-h is 
pronounced as in ' ink-horn ' ; t-h as in ' pot-house ' ; p-h as 
in * top-heavy ' ; g-h. as in ' log-house ' ; d-h as in ' mad-house '; 
b-h as in ' Hob-house '. 

1}. The gutturals were no doubt velars or sounds pro- 
duced by the back of the tongue against the soft palate. 
They are described by the Pratisakhyas as formed at the 
' root of the tongue ' and at the ' root of the jaw '. 

c. The palatals c, j, ch. are pronounced like ch in ' church ', 
j in 'join', and ch in the second part of .' Churchill'. 

d. The cerebrals were pronounced somewhat like the 
so-called dentals t, d, n in English, but with the tip of 
the tongue turned farther back against the roof of the 
mouth. They include the cerebral 1 and Ih which in 
Rigvedic texts take the place of d and dh between vowels. 
The latter occurs medially only ; the former finally also. 


Examples are: ila refreshment; tura-sal abhi-bhutyojah. ; 
a-salha invincible. 

e. The dentals in the time of the Pratisakhyas were 
post-dentals, being produced by the tongue, according to 
their description, at the ' root of the teeth ' (danta-mula). 

/. The class nasals are produced with organs of speech 
in the same position as for the formation of the correspond- 
ing mutes while the breath passes through the nose. 
The pure nasal, when called Anunasika, combines with the 
preceding vowel to form a single sound, a nasalized vowel, 
as in the French 'bon'; when called Anusvara (after- 
sound), it forms in combination with the preceding vowel 
two successive sounds, a pure vowel immediately followed 
by the pure nasal, though seeming to form a single sound, 
as in the English 'ba-ng' (where, however, the nasal is 
guttural, not pure). 

g. The semivowel y is the voiced palatal spirant produced 
in the same place as the palatal vowel i. The semivowel v 
is described by the Pratisakhyas as a voiced labio-dental 
spirant. It is like the English v or the German w. The 
semivowel r must originally have been a cerebral, as is 
shown by its phonetic effect on a following dental n. By 
the time of the Pratisakhyas it was pronounced in other 
positions also. Thus the RV. Pratisakhya speaks of it as 
either post-dental or produced farther back (but not as 

The semivowel 1 is described in the Pratisakhyas as 
pronounced in the same position as the dentals, which 
means that it was a post-dental. 

h. The sibilants are all voiceless. The dental s sounds 
like s in ' sin ' ; the cerebral s like sh in ' shun ' (but with 
the tip of the tongue farther back) ; while the palatal is 
produced midway between the two, being the sibilant pro- 
nounced in the same place as the spirant in the German 
ich. Though the voiced sibilants z, z (palatal = French j), 


z, zh (cerebral) have entirely disappeared, they have generally 
left traces of their former existence in the phonetic changes 
they have produced. 

i. The sound h was undoubtedly pronounced as a voiced 
breathing in the Samhitas. The Pratisakhyas describe it as 
voiced and as identical with the second element of voiced 
aspirates (g-h, d-h, b-h). This is corroborated by the 
spelling ^ 1-h (= dh) beside 35 1 (= d). 

j. There are three voiceless spirants appearing only as 
finals. The usual one, called Visarjanlya in the Pratisakhyas, 
is according to the Taittirlya Pratisakhya articulated in the 
same place as the end of the preceding vowels. Its place 
may be taken by Jihvamullya before the voiceless initial 
gutturals k, kh ; and by Upadhmanlya before the voiceless 
initial labials p, ph. These two are regarded by the RV. 
Pratisakhya as forming the second half of the voiceless 
aspirates kh and ph respectively (just as h forms the second 
half of gh, bh, &c.). They are therefore the guttural spirant 
(Greek) x an< ^ the bilabial spirant f respectively. 

k. Loss of consonants. This is almost entirely confined 
to groups of consonants. When the group is final, all but 
the first element, as a rule, is dropped in pausa and in 
Sandhi (28). In initial consonant groups a sibilant is often 
lost before a mute ; e. g. candra shining beside s*candra ; 
stanayitmi m. beside tanayitmi thunder-, tayu m. beside 
stayii thief; if beside str m. star ; pdsyati sees beside spas 
m. spy, -spas-ta seen. In a medial group the sibilants s 
and s regularly disappear between mutes ; e. g. a-bhak-ta, 
3. s. aor. for a-bhak-s-ta beside a-bhak-s-i. A mute may 
disappear between a nasal and a mute ; e. g. yun-dhi for 

a. Medially, voiced sibilants, the dental z, the cerebral z, 
and the palatal z, have disappeared before the voiced dentals 
d, dh, and h, but nearly always leaving a trace of their 
former existence. Only in the two roots containing a, 


as sit, sas order, the sibilant has disappeared without a trace : 
a-dhvam, sa-sa-dhi. But when a preceded the z the loss 
of the sibilant is indicated by e taking the place of az ; 
e. g. e-dhi (for az-dhi) from as be ; sed, perfect stem of sad 
sit for sazd ; similarly in de-hi give (for daz-dhi) beside 
dad-dhi. When other vowels than a preceded, the z was 
cerebralized and disappeared after cerebralizing the follow- 
ing dental and lengthening the preceding vowel ; thus 
a-stodhvam (= a-stoz-dhvam for a-sto-s-dhvam) 2. pi. 
aor. beside a-sto-s-ta ; similarly midha n. reward (Gk. 
/xio-tfo'-s). Similarly the old voiced palatal z disappeared after 
cerebralizing a following d or dh and lengthening the 
preceding vowel ; e. g. ta-dhi for taz-dhi (= tak-s-dhi) from 
taks fashion ; so-dha for sas-dha (= sak-s-dha) beside 
sas-tha sixth. Still commoner is the loss of the old aspirated 
palatal zh represented by h, which was dropped after 
cerebralizing and aspirating a following t and lengthening 
the preceding vowel ; e. g. sa-dhr for sah-tr conqueror from 
sah ; gudha concealed for guh-ta (from guzh-ta). 

I. Haplology. When two identical or similar syllables 
are in juxtaposition, one of them is sometimes dropped ; 
e. g. tuvi-ra[va]-van roaring mightily beside tuvi-rava ; 
ir[adh]adhyai inf. of iradh seek to win ; ma-dugha m. 
a plant yielding honey, beside madhu-dugha shedding sweet- 
ness ; sirsa-[sa]kti f. headache. 




16. Though the sentence is naturally the unit of speech, 
which forms an unbroken chain of syllables euphonically 
combined, it is strictly so only in the prose portions of the 
AV. and the YV. But as the great bulk of the Vedas is 
metrical, the editors of the Samhita text treat the hemistich 
(generally consisting of two Padas or verses) as the euphonic 
unit, being specially strict in applying the rules of Sandhi 
between the verses forming the hemistich. But the evidence 
of metre supported by that of accent shows that the Pada is 
the true euphonic unit. The form which the final of a word 
shows varies according as it appears in pausa at the end of 
a Pada, or in combination with a following word within the 
Pada. With the former is concerned the law of finals in 
pausa, with the latter the rules of Sandhi. Avoidance 
of hiatus and assimilation are the leading principles on 
which the rules of Sandhi are based. 

Though both are in general founded on the same phonetic 
laws, it is necessary, owing to certain differences, to dis- 
tinguish external Sandhi, which determines the changes 
of final and initial letters of words, from internal Sandhi, 
which applies to the final letters of verbal roots and 
nominal stems when followed by certain suffixes and 

a. The rules of external Sandhi apply with few exceptions 
(which are survivals from an earlier stage of external Sandhi) 
to words forming compounds, and to final letters of nominal 
stems before the case-endings beginning with consonants 
(-bhyam -bhis, -bhyas, -su) or before secondary (182, 2) 
suffixes beginning with any consonant except y. 


A. External Sandhi. 
Classification of Vowels. 

17. Vowels are divided into 

A. 1. Simple vowels :aa;ii;uu;rf; 1. 

2. Guna vowels : a a ; e o ar al. 

3. Vrddhi vowels: a ; ai ; au ; ar. 1 

a. Guna (secondary quality) has the appearance of being 
the simple vowel strengthened by combination with a pre- 
ceding a according to the rule (19 a) of external Sandhi 
(except that a itself remains unchanged) ; Vrddhi (increase), 
of being the Guna vowel strengthened by combination with 
another a. 2 

B. 1. Vowels liable to be changed into semivowels : i, I ; 
u, u ; r 3 and the diphthongs e, ai, o, au (the latter half of 
which is i or u) : consonantal vowels. 

2. Vowels not liable to be changed into semivowels (and 
only capable of coalescence) : a, a : unconsonantal vowels. 

Combination of Final and Initial Vowels. 

18. If the same simple vowel (short or long) occurs at 
the end of one word and the beginning of the next, 
contraction resulting in the long vowel 4 is the rule in the 
written text of the Samhitas. Thus ihasti = iha asti ; 
indra = indra a ; tvagne = tva agne ; vidam = vi idam ; 
suktam = su uktam. 

1 The Vrddhi form of 1 (which would be al) does not occur. 

2 In this vowel gradation, as Comparative Philology shows, the 
Guna vowel represents the normal stage, from which the simple 
vowel was reduced by loss of accent, while Vrddhi is a lengthened 
variety of Guna (5 a). The reduction of the syllables ya, va, ra (which 
are parallel with the Guna stage) to the corresponding vowels i, u, r 
(5 6) is termed Samprasarana (distraction). 

3 r never appears under conditions rendering it liable to be changed 
into r (cp. 4 a, p. 4). 

4 r does not occur because r r never meet in the Samhitas, and final 
r does not even occur in the RV. 


a. The contraction of a + a and of u. + u occasionally does 
not take place, even in the written text of the KV., both 
between the Padas of a hemistich and within a Pada ; thus 
manisa I agnih ; mamsa abhi ; vilu uta ; sti urdhvah ; 
and in a compound, su-utayah. 

1). On the other hand, the metre requires the contracted 
vowels of the written text to be restored in pronunciation. 
In such cases the restored initial is long by nature or 
position, while the preceding final, if long, must be shortened. 1 
Thus casat is pronounced as ca asat ; carcata as ca arcata ; 
map&h as ma ap6h. (for ma ap6h) ; mrlatidrs'e as mrlati 
idrse ; yantmdavah as yanti indavah ; bhavantuksanah. 
as bhavantu uksanah.. When the first word is a mono- 
syllable (especially vi or hi), the written contractions I and 
u are usually to be pronounced with hiatus ; thus hlndra as 
hi indra. 

19. a and a 

a. coalesce with the simple vowels i 2 and u to the Guna 
vowels e and o 3 respectively ; e. g. ih6ha = iha iha ; 
pit6va = pita iva ; 6m = a im ; 6bha a ubha. 4 They 
are never contracted to ar in the written text of the EV. or 
VS. ; 5 but the metre shows that the combination is sometimes 
to be pronounced as ar, for instance in the compound 
sapta-rsayah tlie seven seers = saptarsayah. 

1 Because of the prosodical rule that a long vowel is always 
shortened before another vowel. Of. note 5. 

2 Occasionally a + i remain uncontracted in the written text of 
the RV., as jya iyam, piba imam, ranaya ih&. 

3 This contraction is a survival because e and 6 are simple long 
vowels, but they were originally = ai, au. 

4 But in many instances where the contraction is written, the 
original simple vowels must be restored with hiatus ; thus subhagosah 
= subhaga usah. 

5 a is always shortened or nasalized before r in the written text ; 
e. g. tatha rtuh. (for tatha) ; vipanyam rtdsya (for vipanya). 


6. coalesce with Guna vowels to Vrddhi ; e. g. aibhih 
= a ebhih. 1 

c. are absorbed by Vrddhi vowels ; e. g. s6masyausijah 
= s6masya ausijah. 

20. The simple consonantal vowels i and u before dis- 
similar vowels or before diphthongs are regularly changed 
to the semivowels y and v respectively in the written text 
of the Samhitas ; e. g. praty ay am = prati ay am ; janitry 
ajijanat = janitri ajijanat ; a tv e*ta = a frii e"ta. But the 
evidence of the metre shows that this y or v nearly always 
has the syllabic value of 1 or ii. 2 Thus vy usah must be 
read as vi usah. ; vidathesv anjan as vidathesu anjan. 

a. Final r (which does not occur in the KV.) becomes r 
before a dissimilar vowel ; an example is vijnatr etat = 
vijnatf etat (SB.). 

21. The Guna vowels e and o 

a. remain unchanged before a, 3 which is generally 4 elided 
in the written text of the Samhitas, but according to the 
evidence of the metre, must almost invariably in the RV., 
and generally in the AV. and YV., be pronounced, 5 whether 
written or not. 6 In devaso aptiirah (i. 3 8 ) the a is both 

1 a instead of contracting with e is sometimes nasalized before it : 
aminantam eVaih (for a e) ; upastham e"k a (for a e). Again a is 
sometimes elided before e and o ; as up'esatu (for a e), y&th'ohise 
(for a o). 

2 Because i and u are prosodically shortened before a following 
vowel (p. 22, note 1). 

3 The exceptional treatment of e in stdtava ambyam for stotave 
ambyam is a survival showing that the Sandhi of e and o before a 
was originally the same as before other vowels. 

4 In the EV. it is elided in about 75 per cent., in the AV. in about 
66 per cent, of its occurrences. 

5 In the RV. it must be pronounced in 99 per cent., in the AV. and 
the metrical parts of the YV. in about 80 per cent, of its occurrences. 

6 The frequent elision of the a in the written text compared with 
its almost invariable retention in the original text of the RV., indicates 
a period of transition between the latter and the total elision of the 
post-Vedic period. 


written and pronounced ; in sunav6 'gne (i. I 9 ) it must be 
restored as sunave I agne. 

fc. before every other vowel (or diphthong) would naturally 1 
become ay and av (the form they assume within a word), 
but the former drops the semivowel throughout, while the 
latter does so only before u ; e. g. agna iha (for agnay) ; 
vaya ukthdbhih (for vayav) ; but vayav a yahi. 

22. The Vrddhi vowels ai and au are treated before 
every vowel (including a) or diphthong exactly in the same 
way as e and o before vowels other than a. Thus ai 
becomes a (through ay) throughout, but au only before u 2 
(through av) ; e. g. tasma aksi (for tasmay), tasma indraya ; 
sujihva upa (for sujihvav), but tav a, tav indragm. 

a. The (secondary) hiatus caused by the dropping of y 
and v in the above cases (21 1) and 22) as a rule remains. 
But further contraction is sometimes actually written in the 
Samhitas ; e. g. sartavajau for sartava ajau (through 
sartavay for sartavai) ; vasau for va asau (through vay 
for vai). Sometimes, again, the contraction, though not 
written, is required by the metre. Thus ta indra must be 
pronounced as tendra, and gostha upa (AV.) for gosthe' upa 
(through gosthay) as gosthopa. 

Irregular Vowel Sandhi. 

23. Vrddhi instead of Guna results from the contraction of 
a. the preposition a (in the AV. and VS.) with initial r 

in arti = a rti and in archatu = a rchatu. In the case of 
the latter verb, the TS. extends this contraction to prepositions 
ending in a : uparchati = upa rchati and avarchati = 
ava rchati. 

1 Because e and o were originally = ai and au. 

2 This is also the Sandhi of the AB. and KB. 


&. The preposition pra (in the KV.) with initial i in 
praisayiir = pra isayur. 

c. The augment a with the initial vowels i, u, r j 1 e. g. 
aichas 2. s. impf. of is ivisli ; aunat 3. s. impf. of ud wet ; 
arta 3. s. aor. of r go. 

Absence of Vowel Sandhi. 

24. The particle u is unchangeable' 2 in pronunciation 
before vowels, though as a rule written as v after a con- 
sonant ; 3 e. g. bha u amsave, but av6d v indra. When it 
combines with the final a of a particle to o, in 6 = a 
u, atho = atha u, ut6 = uta u, mo = ma u, it remains 
unchanged even in the written text ; e. g. atho indraya. 

25. a. The I and u of the dual (nom. ace.) never change 
to y and v. This dual I is never to be pronounced short, 
but the u sometimes is ; e. g. hari (w -) rtasya, but sadhu 
(- w) asmai. This I may remain before i, as in hari iva, 
but in several instances the contraction is written, as in 
rodasim6 = rodasi im6, while in several others, though 
not written, it must be pronounced. 

6. The rare locatives singular in I and u are also regularly 
written unchanged in the KV., 4 but they seem always to be 
treated as prosodically short. 

c. The I of the nom. plur. m. (of the pronoun asau) ami 
is always given as unchangeable in the Pada text (ami iti), 
but it never happens to occur before a vowel in the RV. 

1 This is perhaps a survival of a prehistoric contraction of a (the 
original form of the augment) with i, u, r to ai, au, ar. 

2 The term applied by the native phoneticians to unchangeable 
vowels is pragrhya separated. Such vowels are indicated in the Pada 
text by an appended iti. u is always there written in its lengthened 
and nasalized form as um iti. 

3 It is occasionally written unchanged in its lengthened form even 
after a consonant, as tarn u akrnvan. 

4 Except vedy asyam, to be pronounced vedl asyam. 


a. The I of the nom. s. in prthivi, prthu-jrdyi, samrajnl rarely, of 
the instr. sus"aml once, and of the instr. uti often, remains unchanged 
before vowels ; l e. g. samrajm &dhi, susami abhuvan. 

26. The diphthong e is unchangeable in various nominal 
and verbal forms. 

a. The e of the nom. ace. dual ( a-f-I), fern, and neut. 
of a stems, is not liable to Sandhi ; 2 e. g. rodasi ubh6 

&. The verbal dual e 3 of the 2. 3. pres. and perf. mid. 
never combines, though it is nearly always prosodically 
shortened ; e. g. parimanmathe asman. 

c. The e of the locative of the pronominal forms tv6 
in thee, asm6 4 in us, yusm6 in you are unchangeable ; 5 
e. g. tv6 it ; asm6 ayuh ; yusm6 ittha. 

Combination of Final and Initial Consonants. 

27. The external Sandhi of consonants is primarily and 
almost exclusively concerned with the assimilation of a final 
to a following initial sound. Since the Sandhi of final 
consonants generally speaking starts from the form they 
assume in pausa, 6 it is necessary to state the law of allowable 
finals at the outset. That law may be formulated as follows : 
only unaspirated hard mutes, nasals, and Visarjanlya are 
tolerated, and palatals are excluded, as finals. By this law 
the thirty-nine consonants classified in 3 are reduced to 

1 The unchangeableness of the vowel here being only occasional is 
not indicated with iti in the Pada text. 

2 Except dhisnyeme' for dhisnye line", as it is also probably to be 

3 Under the influence of the nominal dual e ; for there was origin- 
ally no difference between this dual e and any other e in middle 
forms, such as the dual vane, sing, te, and the plur. ante. 

4 Also used as dat. in the EV. 

5 They are always written with iti in the Pada text. 

6 Final n and r are, however, to a considerable extent treated not 
on the basis of their pausal form, but of etymology. 


the following eight as permissible in pausa : k, n ; t ; t, n ; 
p, m ; Visarjanlya. 

The aspirate and soft mutes (3 &) are eliminated, leaving 
only hard unaspirated mutes to represent them. The palatals 
(3 & /8), including s (3 d), and h (3 e), are replaced by k or t 
(n by n). 

s (3 d) is replaced by t, s (3 d) and r (3 c) by Visarjanlya. 
The nasal n (3 & y) and the three semivowels y, 1, v (3 c) 
do not occur. 

28. The rule is that only a single consonant may be 
final. Hence all but the first of a group of consonants 
must be dropped ; e. g. abhavan 3. pi. impf. were (for 
abhavant) ; tan ace. pi. those (for tans) ; tudan striking 
(for tudants) ; pran fonvard (through prank for pranc-s) ; 
achan 3. s. aor. lias pleased (for achantst). 

a. k, t, or t, when they follow an r and belong to the 
root, are allowed to remain ; l e. g. vark 3. s. aor. of vrj 
bend (for vark-t) ; urk nom. s. of urj strength ; a-mart 
3. s. impf. of mrj wipe ; a-vart 3. s. aor. of vrt turn ; su-hart 
nom. s. of suhard friend. 

a. There are seven instances in the Samhitas in which a suffixal s or 
t is retained instead of the preceding radical consonant. (1) s thus 
appears in the following four nominatives sing. : sadha-mas beside 
sadha-mat (for sadha-mad-s) companion of the feast', ava-yas (for ava- 
yaj-s) f. sacrificial share ; avayas (for avayaj-s) m. a kind of priest ; 
puro-das sacrificial cake (for puro-das-s). 2 (2) s or t similarly appears in 
the following four singular verbal preterite forms : a-ya-s (for -yaj-s) 
beside a-yat 2 s. aor. of yaj sacrifice ; a-sras (for a-sraj-s) 2. s. aor. of srj 
emit a-bhanas (for a-bhanak-s) 2. s. impf. of bhanj break ; and a-sra^ 
(for a-sras-t) 3 3. s. aor. of srasfall. 

1 The only instance of a suffix remaining after r is in dar-t 3. s. aor. 
of dr cleave beside a-dar 2. s. (for d-dar-s). 

- The s is probably due to the analogy of nominatives, like mas moon, 
dravino-da-s wealth-giver, &c. 

3 The appearance of s or t here is due to the beginnings of the 


Classification of Consonants. 

29. The assimilation, of which the application of the 
rules of consonant Sandhi consists, is of two kinds. It is 
concerned either with a shift of the phonetic position in 
which a consonant is articulated, or with a change of the 
quality of the consonant. Hence it is necessary to understand 
fully the classification of consonants from these two aspects. 
In 3 1) c d (cp. 15, 2b-h) an arrangement according to the 
place of articulation is given of all the consonants except 
four, the breathing h and the three voiceless spirants, which 
are phonetically described in 15, 2 i j. 

a. Contact of the tongue with the throat produces the 
gutturals, with the palate the palatals, with the roof of 
the mouth the cerebrals, with the teeth the dentals, while 
contact between the lips produces the labials. 

6. In forming the nasals of the five classes, the breath 
partially passes through the nose while the tongue or the 
lips are in the position for articulating the corresponding 
tenuis. The real Anusvara is formed in the nose only, 
while the tongue is in the position for forming the particular 
vowel which the Anusvara accompanies. 

c. The semivowels y, r, 1, v are palatal, cerebral, dental, 
and labial respectively, pronounced in the same position as 
the corresponding vowels i, r, 1, u, the tongue being in 
partial contact with the place of articulation in the first 
three, and the lips in partial contact in the fourth. 

d. The three sibilants are hard spirants produced by 
partial contact of the tongue with the palate, roof, and teeth 
respectively. There are no corresponding soft sibilants 
(English z, French j), but their prehistoric existence may be 
inferred from various phenomena of Sandhi (cp. 15, 2 ka). 

tendency to normalize the terminations so as to have s in the 2. s. and 
t in the 3. s. Some half-dozen examples of this have been found in 
the Brahmanas ; e. g. a-ves 2. s. irnpf. (= a-ved-s) from vid know. 


e. h and h are respectively soft and hard spirants produced 
without any contact, and articulated in the position of the 
vowel that precedes or follows, h occurs only before soft 
letters, h only after vowels and before certain hard letters. 

30. Quality of consonants. 
Consonants are 

1. either hard (surd, voiceless) : k kh, c ch, t th, t th, 
p ph ; fi s s ; h h h (3) ; 

or soft (sonant, voiced) : all the rest (3) (besides all the 
vowels and diphthongs). 

2. either aspirated : kh gh, ch jh, th dh Ih, th dh, 
ph bh, h h h h, s s s ; 

or unaspirated : all the rest. 

Hence the change of c to k is a change of the position of 
articulation (palatal to guttural), and that of c to j is a 
change of quality (hard to soft) ; while the change of c to g 
(hard palatal to soft guttural) or of t to j (hard dental to soft 
palatal) is one of both position and quality. 

31. It is essential to remember that consonant Sandhi 
cannot be applied till finals have been reduced to one of the 
eight allowable sounds (27). The latter are then modified 
without reference to their etymological value (except partially 
in the case of n and Visarjanlya). Only six of these 
allowable finals occur at all frequently, viz. k, t, n, p, m, 
and Visarjanlya, while the cerebral t and the guttural n 
are rare. 

I. Changes of Quality. 

32. A final consonant (that is, a mute or Visarjanlya) is 
assimilated in quality to the following initial, becoming soft 
before soft initials, and remaining hard before hard initials 

Hence final k, t, t, p before vowels and soft consonants 
become g, d, d, b respectively ; e. g. arvag radhah. (through 
arvak for arvac) ; havyavad juhvasyah (through -vat for 
-van) ; sal urvih (through sat for sas : cp. 3 & y) ; gamad 


vajebhih (for gamat) ; agnid rtayatah (through agnit for 
agnidh) ; tristiib gayatri (through tristiip for tristubh) ; 
abja (for ap-ja). 

33. Final k, t, t, p before n or m may, and in practice 
regularly do, become the nasal of their own class ; e. g. 
pranan martyasya (through pranag for pranak) ; viran 
mitravarunayoh (through virad for virat) ; san-navati (TS.) 
(through sat-) for sas-navati ; asm n6 (through asid for 
asit) ; tan mitrasya (for tad) ; trikakum nivartat (through 
trikakiib for trikakiip from trikakiibh). 

34. Final t becomes 1 through d ; e. g. angal 16nmah 
(for angat). 

35. Since the nasals have no corresponding hard sounds, 
they remain unchanged in quality before initial hard sounds. 
The guttural n, 1 which is rare, remains otherwise unmodified 
also (cp. 52) ; but it may before sibilants insert a transitional 
k, e. g. pratyank sa beside pratyan sa. Final m is liable to 
change of position before all consonants (42). Final dental 
n is liable to change before vowels (42, 52), palatals, dentals, 
the semivowel 1, and sometimes p (40). 

36. The dental nasal n remains unchanged before (1) the 
gutturals k, kh, g, gh; (2) the labials p, 2 ph, b, bh, m ; (3) the 
soft dentals d, dh, n ; generally also before t (40, 2) ; (4) the 
semivowels y, r, v, and the breathing h ; (5) the cerebral 
and the dental sibilants s and s. 

a. Before s and s a transitional t may be inserted, 
e.g. ahan-t s alias a ; tan-t sam. 

II. Changes of Position. 

37. The only four final consonants (27) liable to change of 
position are the dental t and n, the labial m, and Visar- 

1 The palatal and cerebral nasals, as has already been stated, do not 
occur as finals. 

2 Before p it sometimes becomes mh ; cp. 40, 5. 


a. The two dentals become palatal before palatals. 1 
ft. Visarjaniya and m adapt themselves to the phonetic 
position of the following consonant. 

1. Final t. 

38. Final t before palatals (c, j, ch, s) is changed to a 
palatal (c or j) ; e. g. tac caksuh for tat caksuh. ; yatayaj- 
jana for yatayat-jana ; rohic chyava for r syava.' 2 

2. Final n. 

39. Final n before vowels is changed, after a long vowel, 
to Anusvara : if the preceding vowel is a, to m, if it is i, u, 
f, to mr ; 3 e.g. sargam iva for sargan ; vidvam agne for 
vidvan ; paridhimr ati for paridhm ; abhisumr iva for 
abhisun ; nrmr 4 abhi for nrn. 

40. 1. Final n before all palatals that occur becomes 
palatal n; e.g. tirdhvan carathaya for urdhvan ; tafi 
jusetham for tan; vajrin snathihi for vajrin; but since 
before s a transitional t may be inserted, vajrnt snathihi 
may (through vajrinc 5 snathihi) become vajrn chnathihi. 6 

a. Before c the palatal sibilant is sometimes inserted 7 in 
the RV., the preceding n then becoming Anusvara. This 

1 Final dentals never come into contact with initial cerebrals in 
the Samhitas. No initial cerebral mutes occur in the KV., and even 
the cerebral sibilant s occurs only in s&s six and its compounds, and 
once in sat for sat from sah. 

2 On the change of s to ch after c see 53. 

3 Both m and mr here represent original ns through mh, the Sandhi 
of h being here the same as that of ah ih uh fh before vowels, an In 
un remain unchanged at the end of a Pada (as being in pausa) before 
a vowel ; e. g. devayanan'atandrah (i. 72 7 ). 

4 fmr occurs only once, otherwise remaining unchanged as fn, 
because two r sounds are avoided in the same syllable (cf. Vedic 
Grammar, 79). 

6 That is, t before s becomes c (38). 

6 That is, after c initial s may become ch (53). 

7 There are no examples of the inserted sibilant before ch in the 


insertion takes place, only when the sibilant is etymologically 
justified, 1 almost exclusively (though not without exception 
even here 2 ) before ca and cid ; e. g. anuyajams ca, 
amenams cit. In the later Samhitas the inserted sibilant 
becomes commoner, occurring even where not etymologi- 
cally justified. 3 

2. Final n usually remains unchanged before dental t, 4 
e.g. tvavan tmana; but the dental sibilant is sometimes 
inserted in the RV., the preceding n then becoming 
Anusvara. This insertion takes place, only when the 
sibilant is historically justified ; 1 e. g. avadams tvam (for 
avadan). In the later Samhitas the inserted sibilant 
becomes commoner, occurring even where not etymo- 
logically justified. 3 

3. Final n before initial 1 always becomes nazalized 1; 

e. g. jigival laksam. 

4. Though final n generally remains unchanged before 
y, r, v, h (36, 4), an, in, un sometimes become am, imr, umr 
as before vowels (39) ; e. g. devan havamahe ; but svavam 
yatu (for svavan) ; dadvam va (for dadvan) ; pivo-annam 
rayivrdhah (for annan) ; panimr hatam (for panin) ; das- 
yumr yonau. (for dasyun). 

5. Final n when etymologically representing ns sometimes 
becomes mh before p (36, 2) ; thus nfmh pahi (for nrn) ; 
nrmh patram ; svatavamh payiih (for svatavan). 

3. Final m. 

41. Final m remains unchanged before vowels ; e.g. 
agnim lie I praise Agni. 

1 That is, in the nom. s. and ace. pi. m., which originally ended 
in ns. 

2 E.g. paSufi ca sthatrfi car&tham (i. 72 6 ). 

3 As in the 3. pi. impf., e. g. dbhavan (originally abhavan-t) and the 
voc. and loc. of n stems, e. g. rajan (which never ended in s). 

4 No initial th occurs in the RV. 


a. In a very few instances the m is dropped and the vowels there- 
upon contract. This Sandhi is mostly indicated by the metre only : 
thus rastram ihd must be pronounced rastre"ha. It is very rarely 
written, as in durgahait&t for durgaham etat. The Pada text, however, 
neither here (durg&ha etat) nor elsewhere analyses a contraction in 
this way. 

42. Final m before consonants is changed 

1. before the semivowel r, the three sibilants s, s, s 
and the breathing h to Anusvara ; e. g. hotaram ratnadha- 
tamam (for hotaram) ; vardhamanam sv6 (for vardha- 
manam) ; mitram huve (for mitram). 1 

2. before y, 1, v it becomes nasalized y, 1, v ; but the 
printed texts regularly use Anusvara 2 instead ; e. g. sam 
yudhi ; yajnam vastu. 3 

3. before mutes it becomes the class nasal, 4 and n before 
n 5 ; e.g. bhadran karisyasi ; tyan eamasam ; navan 
tvastuh. ; bhadran nah. Most MSS. and the printed texts, 
however, represent this assimilated m by Anusvara 6 ; e. g. 
bhadram karisyasi; tyam camasam; navam tvastuh; 
bhadram nah. 

a. This Sandhi is identical with that of n before the palatals c,j, ch 
(40) and the soft dentals d, dh, n (36, 3), and of t before n (33). 

1 Anusvara seems to have been used originally before the sibilants 
andh only. Compounds like saru-raj show that m originally remained 
unchanged before r (49 &). 

2 The Taittiriya Prati^akhya allows the optional use of Anusvara 
before these semivowels. 

3 Forms with internal m like yam-ydmana and apa-nilukta show 
that m originally remained unchanged in external Sandhi before y 
and 1 ; and forms like jagan-van (from gam go) point to its having 
at one time become n before v in Sandhi. 

4 Before labials it of course remains. 

5 This assimilation before n being identical with that of d, led to 
ambiguity in some instances and consequent wrong analysis by the 

6 Max Miiller in his editions prints Anusvara throughout, even 
before labials; Aufrecht has Anusvara except before labials, where 
he retains m. 

1819 D 


4. Final Visarjaniya. 

43. Visarjamya is the spirant to which the hard s and 
the corresponding soft r are reduced in pausa. If followed 
by a hard sound, 

1. a palatal (c, ch) or a dental (t) mute, it becomes the 
corresponding sibilant ; e. g. devas cakrma (through devah 
for devas) ; pus ca (through pub. ca for pur ca.) ; l yds te 
(for yah) ; anvlbhis tana (for -bhih). 

a. Visarjanlya, if preceded by i and u, before dental t often becomes 
cerebral s, which cerebralizes the following initial t to t. In the RV. 
this occurs chiefly, and in the later Vedas only, before pronouns ; 
e. g. agnis te ; kr&tus tarn ; also nakis tanusu. In compounds this 
change takes place in all the Samhitas ; e. g. dus-tara hard to pass. 2 

2. a guttural (k, kh) or labial (p, ph) mute, it either 
remains or becomes Jihvamuliya (h) before the gutturals 
and Upadhmanlya (h) before the labials ; e. g. visnoh. 
karmani (for visnos) ; indrah. panca (for indras) ; punah- 
punah. (for punar) ; dyauh prthivi. 

a. After a it often, in the RV., becomes s, and s after I, u, f ; 3 e. g. divds 
pari ; patnivatas krdhi ; dydus pita. In compounds this change 
takes place regularly in all the Samhitas; e.g. paras-pa far-protecting ; 
havis-pa drinking the offering ; dus-kft evil-doing, dus-pad evil-footed. 

3. a simple sibilant, it either remains or is assimilated ; 
e. g. vah sivatamah or vas sivatamah ; deVih. sat or d^vis 
sat ; nah. sapatnah or nas sapatnah ; piinah sam or punas 
sam. 4 Assimilation is undoubtedly the original Sandhi ; 

1 This combination (in which Visarjanlya represents original r) is 
contrary to etymology, but is universal in sentence Sandhi and is 
subject to only two exceptions in compounds : svar-caksas and svar- 

2 The only exception in the EV. is catus- trims at thirty-four. 

3 This treatment before gutturals and labials corresponds to that 
before t (1 a), and was doubtless the original one in sentence Sandhi. 

4 This combination (in which Visarjanlya represents original r), 
though contrary to etymology, is universal in external Sandhi ; but 


but the MSS. usually employ Visarjanlya and European 
editions regularly do so. 

a. Before a sibilant immediately followed by a hard mute, a final 
Visarjanlya is dropped ; e. g. mandibhi stomebhih (through mandi- 
bhih for mandibhis) ; du-stutf f. ill-praise (for dus-stuti). The dropping 
is prescribed by the Prati&ikhyas of the KV., the VS., and the TS., 
and is applied by Aufrecht in his edition of the RV. 

6. Before a sibilant immediately followed by a nasal or semivowel, 
a final Visarjanlya is optionally dropped ; e. g. krta sravah (for krtah) ; 
ni-svaram (through mh- for ris-). 

44. Visarjanlya (except after a or a) before a soft sound 
(vowel or consonant) is changed to r; e.g. rsibhir idyah. 
(through rsibhih for fsibhis) ; agnir h6ta (through agnih 
for agnis) ; paribhur asi (through -bhuh for -bhus). 

45. 1. The final syllable ah (= as) drops its Visarjanlya 
before vowels or soft consonants; e.g. suta im6 (through 
sutah for sutas) ; visva vi (through visvah for visvas). 

2. The final syllable ah (= as) 

a. drops its Visarjanlya before vowels except a ; e. g. 
khya a (through khyah for khyas). 

&. before soft consonants and before a, is changed to o, 
after which a may be elided (21 a) ; e. g. indavo vam 
(through indavah for indavas) ; no ati (through nah for 
nas) or n6 'ti. 

46. The final syllables ah (= ar) and ah (= ar), in the 
comparatively few instances L in which the Visarjaniya 
represents an etymological r, do not form an exception (45) 
to the general rule (44) ; e. g. pratar agnih. ; piinar nah ; 
svar druhah ; var avayati. 

in compounds the original r frequently remains ; e. g. vanar-sdd, 
dhur-s&d, &c. This survival shows that r originally remained before 
sibilants in sentence Sandhi. 

1 r is original in dvar door, var protector, var water ; ahar day, us&r 
dawn, udhar udder, vadhar weapon, v&nar wood, svar light ; ant&r within, 
av^r down, punar again, pratdr early ; the voc. of r stems, e. g. bhratar ; 
the 2. 3. s. of past tentes from roots in r, e. g. avar, from vr cover. 



47. r followed by r is always dropped, a preceding short 
vowel being lengthened ; e. g. puna rupani for punar. 1 

48. The three pronouns (nom. m. s.) sah that, syah that, 
esah. this, drop the Visarjamya before all consonants ; 2 e. g. 
sa vanani, sya dutah, esa tarn. The Visarjaniya is here 
otherwise treated regularly ; 3 at the end of a Pada, e. g. 
padista sah. I cakra esah I , and before vowels, e. g. s6 apah, 
es6 asura, es6 'mandan (for amandan); sd dsadhih, esd 

a. sd, however, generally combines in the EV. with a following 
vowel ; e. g. sasmai for sd asmai ; sed for sd id ; sdusadhih for sa 

Sandhi in Compounds. 

49. The euphonic combination at the junction of the 
members of compounds is on the whole subject to the rules 
prevailing in external Sandhi. Thus the evidence of metre 
shows that contracted vowels are often to be pronounced 
with hiatus when the initial vowel of the second member is 
prosodically long (cp. 18 1) : e. g. yukta-asva (for yuktasva) 
having yoked horses, deva-iddha kindled ly tlie gods (for 
dev^dclha), acha-ukti (for achokti) invitation. 

Compounds have, however, preserved many archaisms of 
Sandhi which have disappeared from Sandhi in the sentence. 

a. In vis-pati lord of the house and vis-pdtni mistress of the house s 
remains instead of the t 4 required by external Sandhi. 

b. In sam-raj sovereign ruler m appears instead of the Anusvara 
required before r (42, 1), as in sam-rajantam. 

1 In a few instances o appears instead of a ( = ar) under the influence 
of ah as the pausal form of neuters in as ; e. g. udho romas&m (for 
udha = udhar) ; also in the compound aho-ratra for aha-. 

2 sh, however, twice retains it in the RV. ; s&h palikiiih (v. 2 4 ) 
and sds tava (viii. 33 16 ) for sah. 

3 sydh never occurs in the RV. before a vowel or at the end of 
a Pada. 

4 vis-p&li has in post-Vedic Sanskrit become vitpati. 


c. A group of compounds formed with clus ill as first member com- 
bine that adverb with a following d and n to du-d ( = duz-d) and du-n 
( = duz-n) instead of dur-d and dur-n r 1 du-d&bha (for dus-d&bha) hard 
to deceive, du-das not worshipping (for dus-das), du-dhi malevolent (for 
dus-dhi); du-nasa hard to attain (for dur-n&sa), du-nasa (for dus-nasa) 
hard to attain and hard to destroy. 

d. Final (etymological) r in the first member is preserved in the 
RV. before hard sounds where the rules of external Sandhi require 
Visarjamya or a sibilant (43): var-kary producing water ; svar-caksas 
brilliant as light ; pur-pati lord of the stronghold, svar-pati lord of heaven ; 
vanar-sad and vanar-s&d sitting in the wood, dhur-sad being on the yoke ; 
svar-sa winning light ; svar-sati acquisition of light. 2 The VS. also has 
ahar-pati lord of day, and dhur-sah. bearing the yoke. 3 

e. Radical stems in ir, ur mostly lengthen their vowel before con 
sonants (as they do within the simple word); 2 e.g. dhur-sad being on 
the yoke, pur-yana leading to the fort. 4 

50. Compounds further often contain archaisms which 
though still existing in external Sandhi are obsolescent and 
disappear entirely in later periods of the language. 

a. In six compounds scandra bright retains its old initial 
sibilant in the second member ; e. g. asva-scandra brilliant 
with horses, puru-scandra very brilliant. As an independent 
word it is, excepting three occurrences in the RV., invariably 
candra. 5 

b. A final s of the first member or an initial s of the 
second member is cerebralized ; e. g. dus-tara hard to cross, 
dub-Sana hard to resist. 6 

1 But dur- the form required by the later external Sandhi is 
already commoner in the RV. ; e. g. dur-dfslka, dur-naman. 

2 Nouns ending in radical r retain the r before the ending su of the 
loc. pi. ; glr-sii, dhur-sii, pur-su. 

3 External Sandhi gradually encroaches here in the later Samhitas ; 
e. g. svah-pati in the SV. 

4 But gir retains its short vowel in gir-vanas fond of praise and gfr- 
vahas praised in song. 

5 How nearly extinct 6candr& is as an independent word is indicated 
by the fact that in the analysis of its six compounds it always appears 
as candra in the Padapatha. 

6 In post-Vedic Sanskrit only dustara, duhsaha. 


c. A dental n in the second member is cerebralized after 
r, r, s in the first member : 

a. almost invariably, whether initial, medial, or final in a root, when 
a verbal derivative is compounded with a preposition that contains r ; 
e. g. nir-nlj f. bright garment, p&ri-hnuta denied, pran-d m. breath ; and 
even in suffixes, as pra-yana n. advance (from ya go\ 

&. predominantly in other compounds when the second member is 
a verbal noun ; e.g. grama-ni chief of a village, dur-gani dangers, pitr- 
yana trodden by the fathers, rakso-hdn demon-slaying ; but puro-yavan 
beside pratar-yavan going out early. Cerebralization never takes place 
in -ghn the weak form of -han killing ; nor in aksa-nah tied to the axle, 
kravya-vahana conveying corpses, carma-mna tanner, yusma-nlta led 

7. less regularly when the second member is an ordinary (non- 
verbal) noun ; e. g. uru-nasa broad-nosed, prd-napat great-grandson ; but 
candrd-nirnij having a brilliant garment, punar-nava again renewed. 

d. The final vowel of the first member is often lengthened, 
especially before v ; e. g. anna-vrdh prospering ~by food. 
This is often due to an old rhythmical tendency (also 
appearing in the sentence) to lengthen a vowel before 
a single consonant between two short syllables ; e. g. 
ratha-sah able to draw the car. 

e. Final a or I of the first member is often shortened 
before a group of consonants or a long syllable ; e. g. urna- 
mradas soft as ivool (urna) ; prthivi-stha standing on the 
earth (prthlvi) ; amiva-catana driving away disease (amiva). 

Doubling of Consonants. 

51. The palatal ch etymologically represents a double 
sound and metrically lengthens a preceding short vowel. 
For the latter reason the EV. Pratisakhya prescribes the 
doubling of ch (in the form of con) after a short vowel, and, 
as regards long vowels, after a only, when a vowel follows. 1 
This rule is followed by Max Muller in his editions of the 
EV. ; e. g. uta cchadih, a-cchad-vidhana, but me chantsat. 

1 The Vedic MSS. almost invariably write the simple ch, and this 
practice is followed by Aufrecht in his edition of the Rigveda and 
L. v. Schroeder in his edition of the MS. It is also followed in the 
present work. 


52. Before vowels final n and n, if preceded by a short 
vowel, are doubled ; e. g. kidrnn indrah ; ahann indrah. 
Though the nasal is always written double, the metre shows 
that this rule is only partially applied as regards pronun- 
ciation in the RV. 

a. The compound vrsan-asv& with stallions as steeds (n = n) is an 

Initial Aspiration. 

53. After a final c, initial s regularly becomes ch ; e. g. 
yac chaknavama for yad saknavama. 

a. The same change occasionally takes place after t ; thus 
vipat chutudri (for sutudri) ; turasat chusmi (for susmi). 

54. Initial h, after softening a preceding k, t, t, p, is 
changed to the soft aspirate of that mute ; e. g. sadhryag 
ghita for hita ; avad dhavyani for avat havyani ; stdad 
dh6ta for sidat hota. 

55. If gh, dh, bh, or h are at the end of a (radical) 
syllable beginning with g, d, or b, and lose their aspiration 
as final or otherwise, the initial consonants are aspirated by 
way of compensation ; * e. g. from dagh reach the 3. s. 
injunctive is dhak (for dagh-t) ; -budh leaking becomes 
-bhut ; duh milking becomes dhiik. 

B. Internal Sandhi. 

56. The rules of internal Sandhi apply to the finals of 
roots and nominal and verbal stems before all endings of de- 
clension (except those beginning with consonants of the 
middle stem : 73 a) and conjugation, before primary suffixes 
(182, 1) and before secondary suffixes (182, 2) beginning 
with a vowel or y. Many of these rules agree with those 
of external Sandhi. The most important of those which 
differ from external Sandhi are the following : 

1 This is not really compensation but the survival of the original 
initial aspiration of such roots, which was lost owing to the avoidance 
of an aspirate at the beginning and end of the same syllable. Hence 
when the final aspirate disappeared, the initial returned. 


Final Vowels. 

57. In many cases before a vowel I is changed to iy; 
u and u to uv ; e. g. dhl + e = dhiy-6 dat. s. for thought ; 
bhu + i = bhuv-i on earth ; yu-yuv-e has joined (Vyn). 

58. Final r before y becomes ri (154, 3) ; e. g. kr maJce : 
kri-yate 3. s. pres. pass, is done. Final r before consonant 
terminations is changed to ir, after labials to ur ; e. g. gf 
swallow : gir-yate is swallowed, gir-na swallowed ; pr Jill : 
pur-yate is filled, pur -na filled. 

59. e, ai, o, an are changed before suffixes beginning 
with vowels or y to ay, ay, av, av respectively ; e. g. 
se + u = say-u lying ; rai + e = ray-6 for wealth ; go + e 
gav-e for a cow ; nau + i = nav-i in a l)oat ; go + ya = 
gav-ya relating to coivs. 

Final Consonants. 

60. The most notable divergence from external Sandhi is 
the unchangeableness of the final consonants (cp. 32) of 
roots and verbal or nominal stems before suffixes and 
terminations beginning with vowels, semivowels and nasals 
(while before other letters they usually follow the rules of 
external Sandhi); e.g. vac-ya to be spoken, duras-yu 
worshipping, yasas-vat glorious ; vac-mi I speak (but vakti 
speaks) ; voc-am I will speak, paprc-yat would mix ; pranc- 
ah nom. pi. forward. 

a. Before the primary suffix na, d is assimilated ; e. g. dn-na n. food 
(for ad-na), cut off (for chid-na); and before the secondary 
suffixes mant and maya, t and d; e.g. vidyu,n-mant accompanied by 
lightning (vidyut) and mrn-niya consisting q/cto?/(mrd). In the nominal 
case-form san-nam (for sat-rtam) of six (s&s) the final t is assimilated. 

61. Nominal or verbal stems ending in consonants and 
followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant, 
drop the termination altogether, two consonants not being 
tolerated at the end of a word (28). The final consonant 
that remains is then treated according to the rules of external 


Sandhi. Thus pranc + s nom. s. forward becomes pran 
(the s being first dropped, the palatals being changed to 
gutturals by 27, and the k being then dropped by 28) ; 
similarly a-doh + 1 = a-dhok he milked (55). 

62. Aspirates followed by any sounds except vowels, 
semivowels or nasals (60) lose their aspiration ; e. g. randh + 
dhi rand-dhi * 2. s. aor. impv. subject ; labh + sya-te = 
lap-syate (B.) 3. s. fut. will take ; but yudh-i in battle ; 
a-rabh-ya seizing. 

a. A lost soft aspirate is, if possible, thrown back before 
dhv, bh, s (55) ; e. g. ind-dhvam 2. pi. impv. of indh 
Mndle ; bhud-bhis inst. pi., bhut-sii loc. pi. But before s 
this rule applies only partially ; thus from dabh harm : des. 
dip-sa-ti desires to injure, dip-sii intending to hurt ; bhas 
clieiv : baps-a-ti chctvs ; guh hide : des. ju-guk-sa-tas beside 
aghuksat ; dah burn : part, daksat beside dhaksant ; duh 
milk : aor. a-duksat beside a-dhuksat. 

b. But it is thrown forward on a following t and th, 2 
which are softened ; e. g. rabh + ta = rab-dha seised ; 
runadh -f ti = runad-dhi ; rundh + tarn = rund-dham 3. s. 
impv. let him obstruct. 

63. Palatals, a. While c regularly becomes guttural 
before consonants (cf. 61 ; 27 ; 7 &), j in some cases (the 
majority) becomes guttural (k, g), 3 in others cerebral (t, d, s) ; 

1 For the Vedic language tolerates two aspirates neither at the 
beginning and the end of the same syllable, nor at the end of one and 
the beginning of the next. On the other hand, there is no loss of 
aspiration in the root if an aspirate (after a vowel) which belongs to a 
suffix or a second member of a compound follows ; e. g. vibhu-bhis 
with the Vibhus ; garbha-dhi m. breeding-place. (The two imperatives bo- 
dhi be for bho-dhi, and ja-hl strike for jha-hi, follow the general rule.) 

2 Except in the case of the root dha place, the weak stem of which 
dadb. (following the analogy of 62 a) becomes dhat before t and th 
(cf. 134 B 6). 

3 j always becomes k before a conjugational s (cp. 144, 4) ; e. g. mrk- 
sva 2. s. impv. of mrj wipe. 


e. g. uk-ta spoken (Vvae) ; yuk-ta joined (\/yuj) ; rug-na 
broken (A/PUJ: cp. 65); but rat nom. s. king (for raj + s); 
mrd-dhi 2. s. impv. wipe (for mrj-dhi) ; ras-tra kingdom (for 
raj-tra: cp. 64). 

&. The palatal s before bh (73 a) normally becomes d ; l 
k before s ; 2 always s before t and th (cp. 64) ; e. g. pad- 
bhis with looks (pas), vid-bhis with tribes (vis) ; vek-syasi 
fut. of vis enter ; vik-sii loc. pi. (vis) ; dik nom. s. of dis 
direction ; nak nom. s. of nas night ; vis-ta entered (\/vis). 

c. G and j (not s) palatalize a following n ; e. g. yaj + na = 
yaj-na sacrifice, but pras-na question. 

d. The ch. of the root prach ask is treated like s: 
a-prak-sit 3. s. sis- aor., a-prat 3. s. s- aor. (= a-prach-s-t) ; 
prs-ta asked, pras-tum inf. to ask. 

64. Cerebrals change following dentals to cerebrals (39); 
e. g. is + ta = is-ta ; av-is + dhi = avid-dhi 2. s. impv. is- 
aor. of av; san + nam (for sat-nam) = san-nam (cp. 33, 60 a). 

a. While the cerebral sibilant s seems always 3 to be- 
come a cerebral mute (t or d) in declension and becomes 
d in conjugation, it regularly becomes k before s in conju- 
gation (cp. 63 1) and 67) ; e. g. dvis + s = dvit nom. s. hating, 
vi-priis + s = vi-priit drop, vi-prud-bhis inst. pi. ; av-is + 
dhi = avid-dhi 2. s.impv. is- aor. of SLY favour dvis -I- sa-t = 
dvik-sat 3. s. inj. sa- aor. of dvis hate. 

65. Change of dental n to cerebral n. 

A preceding cerebral r, f, r, s (even though vowels, gut- 
tural or labial mutes or nasals, y, v, or h intervene) changes 
a dental n (followed by a vowel or n, m, y, v) to cerebral n ; 
e. g. nr + nam = nrnam of men ; pitr + nam = pitrnam of 
fathers ; var + na = varna m. colours, us + na = usna hot ; 

1 g in cases of dis and drs : dig-bhyas, drg-bhis. 

2 But in the nom. vit (vtt), vi-pat (vi-pas) and spdt spy (spas) the 
cerebral has taken the place of the phonetic k owing to the influence 
of other forms in which the cerebral is phonetic. 

8 No example occurs of this sound before the su of the loc. plur. 


kramana n. step (vowels and labial nasal intervene), ark6na 
(guttural and vowel) ; grbhnati seizes (labial mute) ; brah- 
manya devotion (vowel, h, labial nasal, vowel ; n followed 
by y). 1 

This rule is followed throughout within a word even when 
a s which it contains is produced by Sandhi; e.g. usuvanah. 
(for u suvanah). 

a. The cerebral ization of n takes place almost as regularly in verbs 
compounded with the prepositions pra before, para away, pari round, 
nir (for nis) out, as well as in nominal derivatives of these combina- 
tions ; e. g. para- nude (mid. thrust), pra-netf guide (m lead}-, pari-hnuta 
denied ; praniti breathes ( \/aii) ; nir hanyat (ban strike'), but not in forms 
with ghn (e.g. abhi-pra-ghnanti) ; pra hinomi, but pari-hin6mi 
(hi impel} . 

b. In nominal compounds n is usually cerebralized when it is the 
initial of the second member in the RV. ; e.g. dur-naman ill-named, 
pra-napat great-grandson ; but tri-nakd n. third heaven. It is less fre- 
quent medially ; e. g. purvahn&/omzoon, vrsa-manas manly -spirited, but 
rsi-manas of far-seeing mind ; nr-pana giving drink to men, but pari-pana 
n. drink (cp. 50 c 0). 

c. Cerebralization is even extended to external Sandhi in a closely 
connected following word, most often initially in the enclitic nas us, 
rarely in other monosyllables such as nu now, n& like, occasionally in 
other words also ; 2 e. g. saho su nah. ; pari neta . . . visat. It some- 
times occurs medially, oftenest in the enclitic pronoun ena this ; e. g. 
indra enam. It occasionally appears in accented words also after 
final r ; e. g. gor ohena. 

Table showing when n changes to n. 


in spite of intervening vowels, 


if followed 


gutturals (including h.), 


by vowels, 


labials (including v), 


n, m, y, v. 


and y 


1 There are two exceptions to this rule in the RV., the gen. plur. 
ustranam and rastranam. 

2 After the final cerebral t of sdt (for sas six), assimilated to the 
following n (33), initial dental n is cerebralized in san-navati ninety-six 
(TS.) and in an niramimita (B.). 


66 A. The dental n 

1. remains unchanged before y and v ; e.g. han-yate is 
slain tan-v-ana stretching, indhan-van possessed of fuel 
(indhana), asan-vant having a mouth. 

2. as final of a root becomes Anusvara before s; e.g. ji- 
gham-sa-ti wishes to Mil (\/han) ; also when it is inserted 
before final s or s in the neuter plural (71 c; 83); e.g. 
6nams-i n. pi. of 6nas sin : havims-i n. pi. of havis 
oblation (83). 

B. The dental s 

1. becomes dental t as the final of roots or nominal 

a. before the s of verbal suffixes (future, aorist, desiderative) 
in the three verbs vas dwell, vas shine, and ghas eat ; thus 
a- vat-sis thou hast divelt ; vat-syati will shine ; ji-ghat-sati 
tvishes to cat (171, 5) and jighat-su hungry. 1 

&. before case-endings with initial bh in the reduplicated 
perf. participle and in four other words: thus jagrvad-bhis 
inst. pi. having awakened ; usad-bhis from usas f. dawn ; 
mad-bhis, mad-bhyas from mas m.month; svatavad-bhyas 
from sva-tavas self-strong. This change was extended 
without phonetic justification 2 to the nom. ace. s. n. in the 
RV., as tatan-vat extending far. 

2. disappears 

a. between mutes ; e. g. a-bhak-ta 3. s. s- aor., for 
a-bhak-s-ta beside a-bhak-s-i, of bhaj share-, cas-te for 
caks-te (= original cas-s-te) 3. s. pres. of caks speak ; 
a-gdha uneaten for a-ghs-ta from ghas eat. 

A similar loss occurs in verbal compounds formed with 

1 The change of s to t before the t of the 3. s. of a past tense, as in 
vy-avat has shone forth from vi-vas, is probably not a phonetic change, 
but is rather due to the influence of the 3. s. of other preterites with t ; 
*&-vas-t having thus become d-vat instead of *&vas. 

2 There having been no case-ending s here. No example occurs in 
the R V. and AV. of a loc. pi. in vat-su. 


the preposition ud and the roots stha stand and stambh 
support ; e. g. ut-thita and lit-tabhita raised up. 

I), before dh ; e. g. sa-dhi for sas-dhi 2. s. impv. of sas 
order- a-dhvam 2 pi. mid. impv. of as sit; also after 
becoming s and cerebralizing the following dental ; e. g. 
a-sto-dhvam (for a-sto-s-dhvam) 2. pi. ao-r. of stu praise. 

67. Change of dental s to cerebral s. 

A preceding vowel except a (even though Anusvara 1 
intervenes) as well as k, r, s change dental s (followed by 
a vowel, s, t, th, n, m, y, v) to cerebral s ; 2 e. g. from havis 
oblation: havis-a inst. s., havims-i nom. pi. ; caksus n. 
eye: caksus-a inst. s., caksums-i nom. pi.; havis-su loc. 
pi. ; sraj f. ^vreath : srak-sii loc. pi. ; gir f. song : glr-su 
loc. pi. ; ti-sthati stands from stha stand ; caksus-mant 
possessing eyes ; bhavi-syati will lie from bhii lie ; su-svapa 
has slept from svap sleep. But sarpih (final) ; manas-a 
(a precedes) ; us-ra 3 matutinal. 

a. The cerebralization of s regularly takes place in the RV. initially 
in verbal compounds after prepositions ending in i and u, as well as in 
nominal derivatives from such compound verbs ; also after the preposi- 
tion nis out', e. g. ni slda sit down, dnu stuvanti they praise ; nih-s&ha- 
manah conquering. 4 

b. In nominal compounds, s is more usually cerebralized than not, 
when the initial s of the second member is preceded by vowels other 
than a ; e. g. su-soma having abundant Soma. But s is often retained in 
the RV., not only when r or r follows, as in hrdi-spfji touching the heart, 
rsi-svara sung by seers, but also when there is no such cause to prevent 

1 The s, however, remains in forms of hims injure, nims kiss, and 
pums man, probably under the influence of the strong forms hinasti, 
pumamsam, &c. 

2 Words in which s otherwise follows r or any vowel but I must be 
of foreign origin, as bfsaya a demon, bfsa n. root fibre, bus& n. vapour. 

3 s remains when immediately followed by r or r, e. g. tisrds, tisf- 
bhis, tisfnam f. of tri three ; usrds gen., usrf and usram loc., beside 
usar voc. dawn. 

4 The s remains unchanged when followed by r (even when t in- 
tervenes) or r (even though a intervenes, with additional m or v in 
smai- remember and svar sound}. 



the change ; e. g. go-sakhi beside go-sakhi possessing cattle. After r the 
s becomes s in svar-sa light winning, svar-sati f. obtainment of light. 

c. Cerebralization is even extended to external Sandhi in initial 
s after a final i and u in the RV. when the two words are syntactically 
closely connected. This change chiefly takes place in monosyllabic 
pronouns and particles, such as sa, sya, sim, sma, svid, and particu- 
larly sii ; e. g. u su. It also occurs in numerous verbal forms and 
participles ; e. g. yuyam hi stha/or ye are, divf s&n being in heaven. In 
other words the change is rare ; e. g. tri sadh&stha. 1 In the later 
Samhitas this form of external Sandhi is very rare except in the 
combination u sii. 

Table showing when s changes to s. 

Vowels except a 


if followed 

(in spite of inter- 


by vowels, 

vening Anusvara), 


t, th, n, 

k, r, s 


m, y, v. 

68. The labial m remains unchanged before y, r, 1 (cp. 
60 and 42 B 1) ; e. g. yam-yamana being guided, vam-ra m. 
ant, apa-mlukta concealed. But before suffixes beginning 
with v it becomes n; e.g. jagan-van having gone (from 
gam go). 

69. a. The breathing h becomes k in all roots before s ; 
e. g. dhak-si 2. s. pres. from dan burn ; sak-si 2. s. pres. 
from sah prevail. . 

b. In roots beginning with d it is treated like gh befoi 
t, th, dh ; e. g. dah + ta = dag-dha burnt (62 &), duh + - 

= dug-dham 3. du. pres. Similarly treated is the oldest 
form of the perf. pass, participle of the root muh : mug-dhj 

c. h in all other roots is treated like an aspirate cerebral, 
which after changing a following t, th, dh to dh an< 

1 In the RV. occurs the Sandhi y&juh skanndm (for skann&m) with- 
out cerebralization of the nn (cp. 65). 

69-70] DECLENSION 47 

lengthening a preceding short vowel, is dropped ; e. g. 
sah + ta = sa-dha * overcome ; rih + ta = ri-dha licked ; 
muh + ta = nm-dha (AV.) bewildered ; vah-f-ta = u-dha ; 2 
vah + dhvam = vo-dhvam (VS.). 3 

d. An exception to c is the root nan bind, in which h is 
treated as dh : nad-dha bound. An exception to both b 
and c is the root drh : dr-dha firm (begins with d and has 
a short vowel). 4 


70. Declension, or the inflexion of nominal stems by 
means of endings that express the various syntactical rela- 
tions represented by the cases, is most conveniently treated, 
owing to characteristic difference of form, meaning, and use, 
under (1) nouns (including adjectives) ; (2) numerals; (3) pro- 

In Vedic there are 

a. three genders : masculine, feminine, and neuter ; 

b. three numbers : singular, dual, and plural ; 

c. eight cases : nominative, vocative, accusative, instru- 

mental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative. 5 

1 In all these past participles the dh is in the RV. written as Ih. 

2 With Samprasarana. 

3 Through vazh-dhvam : azh here becoming o just as original as 
(through az) becomes o (cp. 45 &). 

4 Before this dh the vowel r never appears lengthened, but it is 
prosodically long (cp. 8, note 2). 

B This is the order of the cases in the Hindu Sanskrit grammarians, 
excepting the vocative, which is not regarded by them as a case. It 
is convenient as the only arrangement by which such cases as are 
identical in form, either in the singular, the dual, or the plural, may 
be grouped together. 

48 DECLENSION [71-72 

71. The normal case-endings added to the stem are the 
following : 


M. F. N. M. F. N. M. F. N. 

N. s 1> 

V. a I au I as i c 

A. am ] 

I. a ) 

D. e bhyam 

G. I as am 

L. i J su 

a. The vocative is the same (apart from the accent) as 
the nominative in all numbers except the masc. and fcm. 
sing, of vowel stems generally and the masc. sing, of con- 
sonant stems in -an, -man, -van ; -mant, -vant ; -in ; -as ; 
-yams, -vams; -tar. 

&. The nom. ace. sing, has the bare stem excepting the 
words in -a, which add m. 

c. The nom. voc. ace. plur. neut. before the ending i 
insert n after a vowel stem and before a single final mute 
or sibilant of a consonant stem (modifying the n according 
to the character of the consonant : cp. 66 A 2). 

72. An important distinction in declension is that between 
the strong and the weak stem. It is fully developed only 
in derivative consonant stems formed with the suffixes -anc, 
-an, -man, -van ; -ant, -mant, -vant ; -tar ; -yams, -vams. 
In the first four and in the last the weak stem is further 
reduced before vowel endings. The stem here has three 
forms, which may be distinguished as strong, middle, and 

a. Shift of accent was the cause of the distinction. The 
stem, having been accented in the strong cases, here naturally 
preserved its full form ; but it was shortened in the weak 
cases by the accent falling on the endings. For a similar 
reason the last vowel of the strong stem, if long, is regularly 

72-74] DECLENSION 49 

shortened in the vocative, because the accent always shifts 
to the first syllable in that case. 

73. The strong stem appears in the following cases : 

Nom. voc. ace. sing. ] 

Nom. voc. ace. dual rof masc. nouns. 1 

Nom. voc. (not ace.) plur. J 

Nom voc. ace. plural only of neuters. 

a. When the stem has three forms, the middle stem 
appears before terminations beginning with a consonant 2 
(bhyam, bhis, bhyas, su) ; the weakest before terminations 
beginning with a vowel in the remaining weak cases ; 
e. g. pratyanc-au nom. du. ; pratyag-bhis inst. pi. ; 
pratic-6s gen. du. (93). 

I. In neuters with three stems, the nom. voc. ace. sing, 
are middle, the nom. voc. ace. du. weakest ; e. g. pratyak 
sing. ; pratic-t du. ; pratyanc-i pi. (93). The other cases 
are as in the masc. 


74. Nominal stems are, owing to divergences of inflexion, 
best classified under the main divisions of consonant and 
vowel declension. 

I. Stems ending in consonants 3 may be subdivided into 

A. unchangeable ; B. changeable. 

II. Stems ending in vowels into those in A. a and a ; B. i 

and u ; C. I and u. 

1 Excepting names of relationship in -tar (101), nearly all nouns 
with changeable stems form their feminine with the suffix -I (100). 

2 Changeable stems are named in this grammar in their strong and 
original form, though the middle form would be more practical, inas- 
much as that is the form in which changeable stems appear as prior 
member in compounds. 

3 Some Sanskrit grammars begin with the vowel declension in a 
(II. A) since this contains the majority of all the declined stems in 
the language. But it appears preferable to begin with the consonant 
declension which adds the normal endings (71) without modification. 

1819 E 

50 DECLENSION [75-77 

I. A. Unchangeable Stems. 

75. These stems are for the most part primary or radical, 
but also include some secondary or derivative words. They 
end in consonants of all classes except gutturals (these having 
always become palatals, which however revert to the original 
sound in certain cases). They are liable to such changes only 
as are required by the rules of Sandhi before the consonant 
terminations (cp. 16 a). Masculines and feminines ending 
in the same consonant are inflected exactly alike ; and the 
neuters differ only in the ace. s. and nom. voc. ace. du. and pi. 

76. The final consonants of the stem retain their original 
sound before vowel terminations (71) ; but when there is no 
ending (i.e. in the nom. sing., in which the s of the m. and 
f. is dropped), and before the ending su of the loc. pi., they 
must be reduced to one of the letters k, t, t, p or Visarjaniya 
(27) which respectively become g, d, d, b or r before the 
terminations beginning with bh. 

a. The voc. sing. m. f. is the same as the nom. except in 
stems in (derivative) as (83). 

6. Forms of the nom. voc. ace. pi. n. seem not to occur 
in the Samhitas ! except in the derivative as, is, us stems, 
where they are common ; e. g. apamsi, arcimsi, caksumsi. 

Stems in Dentals. 

77. Paradigm tri-vrt m. f. n. threefold. 


N. m. f. trxvft n. trivrt N.A.) f trivrt-a, N. m. f. trivrt-as 

A. m. f. trivrt-am n. trivrfc m.f. ) Itrivrt-au A. m. f. trivrt-as 
I. trivrt-a I. 



Ab. I 


iXL . |^" 


















1 But in the Brahmanas are found from -bhrt bearing, -vrt turning, 
-hu-t sacrificing the N. pi. n. forms -bhfnti, -vrnti, -hunti. 


1. Of the stems in t most are radical, nearly thirty of 
them being formed with a determinative t added to roots 
ending in the short vowels i, u, r; e.g. ji-t conquering, 
srii-t hearing, kr-t making. Nearly all of them, however, 
appear as the last member of compounds, except cit f. thought ; 
dyu-t f. brilliance ; nrt f. dancing ; vf -t f. host. From sarva- 
hu-t offering completely occurs in N. pi. n. the form sarva- 
hunti in the AB. There are also a few derivative stems 
formed with the suffixes -vat, -tat, -it, -ut, and secondary 
-t ; e. g. pra-vat f. height, deva-tat f. divine service ; sar-it 
f. stream ; mar-ut m. storm-god ; yakr-t n. liver, Sakr-t n. 

2. There are only three stems in th : kaprth, n. penis, 
path in. path, abhi-snath adj. piercing. 

3. a. About 100 stems end in radical d, all but a few 
being roots used as the final member of compounds ; e. g. 
nom. adri-bhid mountain-cleaving. Only eight occur as 
monosyllabic substantives : nid f. contempt, bhid f. destroyer, 
vid f. knowledge, ud f. wave, mud f. joy, mrd f. clay, hrd n. 
heart (used in weak cases only) ; and pad m. foot. The 
latter lengthens its vowel in the strong cases : 

Sing. N. pat. A. pad-am. I. pad-a. D. pad-e\ Ab.G. 

pad-as. L. pad-i. 

Du. N.A. pad-a. I. Ab. pad-bhyam. G.L. pad-6s. 
PL N. pad-as. A. pad-as. I. pad-bhis. D. pad-bhyas. 

G. pad-am. L. pat-sii. 

I). There are also six stems formed with derivative d 
(suffixal -ad -ud), seemingly all feminine : drs-ad and dhrs-ad 
nether millstone, bhas-ad hind quarters, van-ad longing, sar-ad 
autumn, kak-ud summit, kak-iid palate. 

4. There are about fifty radical stems in dh, simple or 
compound. They are almost restricted to m. and f., no 
distinctively n. forms (N. A. du. pi.) occurring and only four 
forms being used as n. in the G. L. s. Seven stems appear 


52 DECLENSION [77-78 

as monosyllabic nouns : vrdh strengthening as a masc. adj ., 
the rest as fern, substantives : nadh bond ; sridh foe ; ksudh 
hunger ; yudh fight ; mrdh conflict ; vrdh prosperity ; spf dh 

5. Kadical stems in n are formed from half a dozen roots. 
Four of these are monosyllabic substantives : tan f. succession ; 
ran m. joy ; van m. wood ; svan adj. sounding. 1 There are 
also the compound adjectives tuvi-svan roaring aloud and 
go-san winning cows. Han slaying occurs as the final 
member of at least thirty -five compounds, but as it follows 
for the most part the analogy of the an stems, it will be 
treated under these (92). 

Stems in Labials. 

78. These stems, which end in p, bh, and m only, are not 
numerous. No neuters occur in the first two and only one 
or two in the last. 

1. All the monosyllabic stems in p are fern, substantives. 
They are: ap water, ktfp beauty, ksap night, ksip finger, 
rip deceit, rup earth, vip rod. There are also about a dozen 
compounds, all adjectives except vi-stap f. summit. Three 
of the adjectives occur as f., the rest as m. ; e. g. pasu-tfp 
m. delighting in cattle. 

a. Q>p lengthens the stem in the N.V. pi. ap-as, a form 
sometimes used for the A. also. The forms occurring are : 
Sing. I. ap-a. Ab.G. ap-as. Du.N. ap-a. PL N.V. ap-as. A. 
ap-as. I. ad-bhis. D.Ab. ad-bhyas. G. ap-am. L. ap-sii. 

2. The six uncompounded stems in bh are all f. substan- 
tives : ksubh push, grbh sewing, nabh destroyer, subh 
splendour, atubh praise (also adj. praising), and kaktibh^eaft. 
There are also more than a dozen compounds : the substan- 
tives are all f., the rest being m. or f. adjectives ; there are 

1 The accent, of these stems is irregular in remaining on the radical 
syllable (App. III. 11, 1), except tana (beside t&na) and vanam. 


no neuters. The cases of tri-stubh f. triple praise (a metre) 
are : Sing. N. tristup. A. I. tristubh-a. D. 
tristubh-e. Ab. tristiibh-as. L. tristiibh-i ; PI. A. 

a. nabh lengthens its vowel in the N. pi. nabh-as. 
A. nabh-as. 

3. There are five or six monosyllabic stems in m, and 
one compound : sam n. happiness, dam n. (?) house, ksam, 
gam, jam f. earth, him m. (?) cold ; sam-nam f. favour. 

a. Gam and jam syncopate in the s. I.Ab.G. : gm-a, jrn-a ; 
gm-as, jm-as ; ksam syncopates in the Ab. G. s. and 
lengthens its vowel in N. du. pi. : ksm-as ; ksam-a ; ksam-as. 
Dam has the G. s. dan (for dam-s) in the expressions patir 
dan and pati dan = dam-patis and dam-pati lord of the 
house and lord and lady of the house. 

Stems in Palatals. 

79. The palatals (c, j, s) undergo a change of organ when 
final and before consonant terminations (cp. 63). c always 
becomes guttural (k or g), j and s nearly always become 
guttural, but sometimes cerebral (t or d). 

1. The unchangeable stems in c l when uncompounded 
are monosyllabic and almost exclusively f. substantives. 
Tvac shin, however, twice occurs as a m., and krunc curlew 
is m. Compounds, as adjectives, are often m., but only one 
form occurs as a n., in the adv. a-prk in a mixed manner. 
Vac speech would be declined as follows : 

Sing. N.V. vak. A. vac-am (Lat. voc-em). I. vac-a. 

D. vac-e\ Ab.G. vac-as. L. vac-i. 
Dual. N.A.V. vac-a, vac-au. I. vag-bhyam. 
Plur. N.V. vac-as. A. vac-as (rarely vac-as). I. vag-bhis. 

D.Ab. vag-bhyas. G. vac-am. 

1 Stems in derivative anc are changeable (93). 


Similarly declined are : tvac skin 1 ; sic hem-, rue lustre, 
siic flame, sruc ladle ; re stanza, mrc mjtm/ ; ni-mruc 
swwsef and other compounds. Kruno forms its N. s. krun, 
du. kriincau. 

2. There is only one stem in eh, formed from the root 
prch ask : N. du. m. bandhu-prch-a asking after kinsmen ; 
also the D. and A. infinitive forms prch-6 to ask, sam-prch-e 
to greet ; vi-prch-am and sam-prch-am to ask. 

3. a. Uncompounded radical stems in j are mostly f. 
substantives ; but aj driver, vij stake at play are m., and 
yiij, 2 raj, bhraj are m. as well as f. Neut. forms occur in 
compound adjectives, but never the distinctively n. endings 
of the N. A. V, du. and pi. 3 

When the j is derived from a guttural, it becomes a 
guttural in the N. s. and before consonant endings ; when 
derived from an old palatal, it becomes a cerebral in the 
N. s. 4 and before consonants, but k before the su of 
the L. pi. 

Thus in the N. urk (urj) vigour ; nir-nik (nir-nij) 'bright 
garment-, but bhrat m. shining (bhraj), rat m. king, f. 
mistress ; L. pi. srak-su garlands (sraj), pra-yak-su offerings 

a. The N. of ava-yaj f. share of the sacrificial oblation and of avayaj m. 
priest who offers the oblation is anomalous in dropping the j and adding 
the s of the nom. : ava-yas, avayas (cp. 28 a). 

I). There are seven m. and f. adj. or subst. formed with 
the suffixes -aj and -ij : a-svapn-aj sleepless, trsn-aj thirsty, 

1 From vyac extend occurs the strong form uru-vyancam/ar extend- 
ing, and from sac accompany only the strong forms A. -sac-am, and N. pi. 

2 This word meaning companion also has a nasalized form in 
N.A. s. du. : yiin (for yiink), yianj-am, yiinj-a. 

3 But in a Brahmana -bhaj sharing forms the N. pi. n. form -bhanji. 

4 Except in rtv-ik from rtu-ij m. sacrificing in due season, priest (from 
yaj sacrifice). 


dhrs-aj bold, san-aj old ; us"-ij desiring, bhur-ij f. arm, van-ij 
m. trader. There is also the n. asrj 1 blood. 
usij m.f. would be declined as follows : 

Sing. N. usik. A. usij-am. I. usij-a. D. usij-e. 

G. usij -as. 

Du.N. usij-a. G.L. usij-os. 
Pl.N. usij-as. A. usij-as. I. usig-bhis. D. usig-bhyas. 

G. usij-am. 

4. There are about sixty monosyllabic and compound 
stems in s formed from about a dozen roots. Nine mono- 
syllabic stems are f. : das worship, dis direction, drs look, 
nas night, pas sight, pis ornament, pras dispute, vis settlement, 
vris finger. Two are m. : is lord and spas spy. All the 
rest are compounds (about twenty of them formed from 
-drs). Some half-dozen cases of the latter are used as 
neuter, but no distinctively n. forms (N.A. du. pi.) occur. 

The s, as it represents an old palatal, normally becomes 
cerebral d before bh, but in dis and drs a guttural. Before 
the su of the L. pi. it phonetically and regularly becomes k. 
It usually also becomes k in the N. s. (which originally 
ended in s), as dik, nak ; but cerebral t in spas and vi-spas 
spy, vis and vi-pa a river. 

The normal forms, if made from vis settlement, would be : 
N.V. vit. A. vis-am. I. vis-a. D. vis-e". Ab.G. vis-as. 

L. vis-i. 

Du. N.A. vis-a, vis-au. 

PI. N.A. vis-as. I. vid-bhis. D. vid-bhyas. G. vis-am. 
L. vik-su. 

o. The N. of some compounds of drs is nasalized, as kl-drri (for 
ki-dfnk) ofiohat kind 1 ?, but ta-dfk such. 

The N. s irregularly represents the final palatal (28 a) in purodafs 
m. sacrificial cake : N. purodas, A. purodasam. 

1 This word is of obscure origin, but the j probably represents a 
reduced suffix. 

56 DECLENSION [80-81 

Stems in Cerebrals. 

80. The only cerebral stems that occur end in d and s. 
Of the former there are only two : id f. praise (only found 
in s. I. id-a) and id f. refreshment (only in s. I. id-a and 
G. id-as).' 

There are a number of stems from about a dozen roots 
ending in s preceded by i, u, r, or k. Seven of these are 
uncompounded : is f. refreshment, tvis f. excitement, dvis f. 
hatred, ris f. injury ', us f. daion ; prks f. satiation ; dadhrs 
bold. The rest are compounds of the above or of mis winJc, 
sris lean, uks sprinkle, mus steal, prus drip, dhrs dare, 
vrs rain ; aks eye. The s becomes t in the N., and d before 
bh, but is of course dropped when k precedes ; e. g. N. dvit, 
vi-priit f. drop, an-ak eyeless, Uind ; I. pi. vi-prud-bhis. 

a. The final becomes k in the adverbial neuter form dadhfk boldly. 

Stems in h. 

81. There are some eighty stems formed from about 
a dozen roots. All three genders are found in their inflexion, 
but the neuter is rare, occurring in two stems only, and 
never in the plural. Of monosyllabic steins nih destroyer, 
mih mist, gun hiding-place, ruh sprout are f.,. druh fiend is m. 
or f., sah conqueror is m., man great, m. and n. All the 
rest are compounds, more than fifty being formed from the 
three roots druh hate, vah carry, sah overcome ; over thirty 
of them from the last. 1 The two stems usnih f. a metre, 
and sarah bee are obscure in origin. 

a. As h represents both the old guttural gh and the old 
palatal jh it should phonetically become g or d before bh, 
but the cerebral represents both in the only two forms that 
occur with a bh ending. In the only L. pi. that occurs, 

1 upa-n&h f. shoe occurs only in the L. s. upa-nah-i. Judging by 
the inflexion of the word in classical Sanskrit the h would become a 
dental in the N. s. and before consonant endings. 

81-82] STEMS IN H AND E 57 

anadiit-su (from anad-vah), the h unphonetically became t, 
which has been dissimilated to t. In the N. the phonetic k 
appears in the six forms -dhak, -dhuk, -dhruk, -ruk, 
-sprk, usnik, and the imphonetic t in the three forms -vat, 
sat, sarat. 

1). Stems formed from vah l and sah lengthen the radical 
vowel in the strong cases, the former always, the latter 

The forms actually occurring if made from sah victorious 
would be : 

Sing. N.V. m. f. sat. 2 A. m. f. sah-am. I. sah-a. D. sah-6. 

Ab.G. sah-as. L. sah-i. 

Du. N.A.V. m. f. sah-a and sah-au. N.A. n. sah-i. 
PI. N.A.V. m. f. sah-as. A. m. sah-as and sah-as; 

f. sah-as. D. sad-bhyas. G. m. sah-am. L. m. 


Stems in r. 3 

82. There are over fifty stems in radical r. 4 The preceding 
vowel is nearly always i or u, only two stems containing 
a and three a. Twelve stems are monosyllabic (seven f., 5 
three m., 6 two n. 7 ), the rest being compounds. The r 
remains before the su of the L. pi., and the radical vowel 

1 anad-vah being a changeable stem with three forms is treated 
under the irregular changeable stems (96). 

2 When h becomes t the initial s is cerebralized. 

3 There are no stems in 1 ; while the five which may be regarded 
as ending in the semivowels y or v are treated below (102) as ai, o, 
or au stems. 

4 The stems in which the r is derivative (and preceded by a), in 
the suffixes -ar and -tar, are treated below (101) as r stems. 

5 gir praise, dvar door, dhur burden, pur stronghold, t&r star, psur 
victuals, str star. 

6 gir praising, var protector, mur destroyer. 
1 var ivater, svar light. 


is lengthened in the N. s. and before consonant endings. 
The forms occurring, if made from pur, would be : 

Sing. N. pur. A. pur-am. D. pur-e". Ab.G. pur-as. 

L. pur-i. 

Du. N.A. pur-a, pur-au. 
PI. N.V. pur-as. A. pur-as. I. pur-bhis. D. pur-bhyas. 

G. pur-am. L. pur-su. 

a. dvar has the weakened A. pi. form duras (also once duras and 
once dvaras), the only weak case occurring. 

b. tar occurs in one (strong) form only, N. pi. tar-as, and star in 
one (weak) form only, I. pi. stfbhis. 1 

c. svar n. light has the two contracted forms D. sur-6, G. sur-as. 2 
It drops the case-ending in the L. s. 3 suar. 

Stems in s. 

83. 1. The radical s stems number about forty. A dozen 
are monosyllabic, five being m. : jnas relative, mas month, 
vas 4 abode, pums male, 5 sas ruler two f. : kas cough, nas 
nose ; five n. : as face, bhas light, mas flesh, d6s arm, yos 
welfare. The rest are compounds, e.g. su-das giving well, 

a. Before bh the s becomes d in the two forms I. mad-bhis and D. 
mad-bhyas, and r in the only other one that occurs : dor-bhyam. 

b. The A. pi. has the accentuation of weak cases in mas-as and 

2. The derivative stems in s are formed with the suffixes 
-as, -is, -us, and are, with few exceptions, neuter substan- 
tives. All of them lengthen their final vowel in the N.V. A. 
pi. n., e. g. manamsi, jydtimsi, caksumsi. The m. and f. 
are mostly compounds with these stems as their final 

a. The as stems consist almost entirely of neuters, which 

1 With irregular accent. 2 With the accent of a disyllabic. 

3 Like the an stems (90, 2). 4 This word might be a feminine. 
5 This word will be treated later (96, 3) as an irregular changeable 

83] STEMS IN AS 59 

are accented on the root, as man-as mind, but these as final 
members of adjective compounds may be inflected in all 
three genders. There are also a few primary masculines, 
which are accented on the suffix, being either substantives, 
as raks-as m. demon, or adjectives (some of which occur also 
in the f. as well as n.), as ap-as active ; and one primary f., 
us-as dawn. 

The N. s. m. f . lengthens the vowel of the suffix : e. g. 
angiras m., usas 1 f., su-manas m. f. In about a dozen 
compounds the long vowel appears (owing to the influence 
of the m.) in the n. also ; e. g. urna-mradas soft as ivool. 

Before endings with initial bh the suffix as becomes o 
(45 &). The forms actually occurring, if made from ap-as, 
n. (Lat. opus) icork and ap-as m. f. active would be as follows : 

Sing. N. apas; apas. A. apas; apas-am. I. apas-a; 

apas-a. D. apas-e ; apas-e. Ab. apas-as ; apas-as. 

L. apas-i ; apas-i. V. apas. 
Du. N.A.V. apas-i ; apas-a, apas-an. 2 D. ap6-bhyam. 

G. apas-os. 
PI. apams-i ; apas-as. I. apo-bhis ; apo-bhis. D. apo 

bhyas ; ap6-bhyas. G. apas-am ; apas-am. L. 

apas-su; apas-su. 

Similarly N. n. yasas glory, m. f. yasas glorious ; f. 
apsaras nymph. 

a. A number of forms have the appearance of being contractions 
in the A. s. and N.A. pi. m. f . : am = asam and as = asas ; thus 
maham great, vedham ordainer, usam dawn, jaram old age, medham 
wisdom, vayam vigour, ^tn-agam sinless, apsaram. PI. N. m. angiras, 
an-agas, na-vedas cognisant, sa-josas united; f. medhas, a-josas insati- 
able, na-vedas, su-radhas bountiful. A. m. an-agas, su-medhas (?) 
intelligent', f. usas. 

1 The vowel of this word is optionally lengthened in the A. s., 
N. A. du., N. V. pi. : usas-am beside usas-am, &c. 

2 The ending au is here very rare and occurs chiefly in the later 


b. The is stems, numbering about a dozen, consist 
primarily of neuters only. When they form final members 
of compounds, they are secondarily inflected as m. ; only 
one single such form, N. s. sva-socis self-radiant, occurs 
as a f. 

The final s becomes s before vowel-endings and the 
L. pi. su, and r before bh. The inflexion of the n. differs 
from that of the m. in the A. s., N.A. du. and pi. The 
actual forms occurring, if made from socis glow in the n. 
and from -socis m. (when it differs from the n.), would 

Sing. N. socis ; A. socis ; m. -socis-am. I. socis-a. 

D. socis-e. Ab.G. socis-as. L. socis-i. V. s6cis. 
PL N.A. socims-i, m. -socis-as. I. socir-bhis. D. socir- 

bhyas. G. socis-am. L. socis-su (67). 

a. asis f. prayer, which is not really an is stem, being derived from 
a + sis (the reduced form of the root sas), is inflected thus : N. asis. 
A. aifs- am. I. asis-a. PI. N. A. as"is-as. 

c. The us stems, numbering at least sixteen exclusive 
of compounds, comprise several primary masculines as well 
as neuters ; three of the latter when compounded are also 
inflected as f. Eleven of the us stems are n. substantives, 
all but one (jamis birth) accented on the radical syllable ; 
four of these (arus, caksus, tapus, vapus) are also used as 
m. adjectives. Three of the exclusively m. us stems are 
adjectives accented on the suffix, while two (nahus, manus) 
are substantives accented on the root. 

The final s becomes s before vowel endings, and r 
before bh. The inflexion of the n. is the same as that of 
the m. except in the A. s. and N.A. du. pi. The only 
f. forms (about half a dozen) occur in the N. and A. : 
e. g. N. caksus seeing, A. du. tapus- a hot. 

The actual forms occurring, if made from caksus eye as n. 
and seeing as m. would be : 


Sing. N. caksus. A. caksus ; m. caksus-am. I. caksus-a. 

D. caksus-e. Ab.G. caksus-as. L. caksus-i. 
Du. N. A. caksus-i ; m. caksus-a. D. caksur-bhyam. 
PI. N.A. caksums-i ; m. caksus-as. I. caksur-bhis. 

D. caksur-bhyas. G. caksus-am. 

I. B. Changeable Stems. 

84. Eegular changeable stems are found only among 
derivative nouns formed with suffixes ending in the dentals 
t, n, s, or the palatal c. Those in t are formed with the 
suffixes -ant, -mant, -vant ; those in n with -an, 
-man, -van, and -in, -min, -vin ; those in s with -yams 
and -vams ; those in c with -anc (properly a root meaning 
to lend). The stems in -ant (85-86), -in (87), -yams (88) 
have two forms, strong and weak ; those in -an (90-92), 
-vams (89), and -anc (93) have three, strong, middle, and 
weakest (73). 

Nouns with Two Stems. 

85. Stems in -ant comprise present, 1 future, and aorist 
participles (156) active (m. and n.). 2 The strong stem is in 
-ant, the weak in -at 3 ; e. g. ad-ant and ad-at eating from 
ad eat. These participles are inflected in the m. and n. 
only, the f. having a special stem in I. 2 The n. inflexion 
differs from the m. in the N.V.A. s. du. pi. only. The 
accent, if resting on the suffix, shifts in weak cases to the 
endings that begin with vowels. 

1 Excepting those of the reduplicating verbs and a few others that 
follow their analogy (85 fr). 

2 On the formation of the f. stems see 95. 

3 In Latin and Greek the distinction was lost by normalization : 
G. edentis, 







N. adan l (Gk. e<W) adant-a -au 
V. adan adant-a -au 
A. adant-am (Lat. edentem) adant-a -an 

adant-as (Gk. cSovre 


I. adad-bhis 
D.Ab. adad-bhyas 
G. adat- am 
L. adat-su 


I. adat-a 
D. adat-e" 
b.G. adat-as 
L. adat-i 

ST. A. adat 

D. adad-bhyam 
G. adat-6s 


Other examples are : arc-ant singing, sid-ant (sad sit), 
ghn-ant (ban slay), y-ant (i go), s-ant (as be) ; pasy-ant 
seeing ; ich-ant wishing ; krnv-ant doing ; snnv-ant pressing ; 
bhanj-ant breaking ; jan-ant knowing ; janay-ant begetting ; 
yuynts-ant ivishing to fight ; fut. karisy-ant about to do ; aor. 
saks-ant (sah. overcome). 

a. The analogy of these participles is followed by a few 
adjectives that have lost their old participial meaning: 
rhant weak, prsant spotted, brhant great, rusant brilliant; 
also the substantive dant 2 tooth. The adj. mahant great, 
also originally a participle, 3 deviates from the participial 
declension in lengthening the vowel of the suffix in the 
strong forms : 

Sing. N. m. mahan ; n. mahat. A. mahant-am. I. mahat-a. 
Du. N.A. mahant-a, -au. D. mahad-bhyam. 
PI. N. mahant-as. A. mahat-as. I. mahad-bhis. 
L. mahat-su. 

1 For original adant-s, cp. Lat. edens. 

2 Probably an old participle of ad eat with prehistoric loss of the 
initial a like s-ant being from as be. 

3 From the root man (originally magh). Cp. Lat. mag-nu-s. 


&. The participles of verbs with a reduplicating present 
base, i. e. those of the third class (127, 2) and intensives 
(172), do not distinguish a strong stem, 1 in other words, 
have at throughout ; e. g. bibhyat fearing, ghanighn-at 
repeatedly killing (\/han). The analogy of these participles 
is followed by a few others formed from unreduplicated 
bases : das- at worshipping, sas-at instructing ; also daks-at 
and dhaks-at aor. part, of dah burn. A few others, again, 
originally participles, have come to be used as substantives 
with a shift of accent to the suffix. Three of these are f. 
and two m. : vahat, 2 sravat 3 f. stream ; vehat 4 f. barren cow ; 
vaghat m. sacriftcer-, sascat 5 m. pursuer. Besides the first 
three substantives just mentioned there are no feininines 
except the adjective a-sascat unequalled G when used as a f. 
Hardly any n. forms occur except from the old reduplicated 
participle jag-at going, living (from ga go), used chiefly as 
a substantive meaning the animate world. The inflexion of 
these reduplicated stems in at is like that of the compounded 
radical t stems (77), the accent never shifting to the endings. 

The forms occurring if made from dadat giving (Vda) 
would be : 
Sing. N. m. n. dadat. A. m. dadat-am. I. dadat-a. D. 

dadat- e. G. dadat- as. L. dadat-i. 
Plur. N.A. dadat-as. I. dadad-bhis. G. dadat-am. 

86. The adjective stems formed with the suffixes -mant 
and -vant, which both mean possessing, are inflected exactly 
alike and differ from the stems in -ant solely in lengthening 
the vowel of the suffix in the N. s. m. 7 The V. of these stems 

1 Which lias been weakened because here the accent is regularly 
on the reduplicative syllable. 

But v&h-ant carrying as a participle. 

But sr&v-ant flowing. 4 The derivation of this word is uncertain. 

But s&Sc-at as a participle (from sac accompany}. 

Lit. having no equal ; but d-sascant-I as the f. of the participle sfiscat. 

The f. is formed with I from the weak stem : mat-I, vat-i (95) . 

64 DECLENSION [86-87 

is regularly l formed with mas and vas 2 ; e. g. havis-mas 
from havis-mant ; bhaga-vas from bhaga-vant. 
From go-mant possessed of coivs would be formed : 

Sing. N. m. g6man ; n. gomat. A. m. gomant-am. L. g6- 

mat-i. V. m. g6mas. 
PL N. m. g6mant-as ; n. g6mant-i. 3 A. m. gomat-as. 

L. gomat-su. 

87. Adjective stems are formed with the suffixes -in, 
-min, -vin, which mean possessing. Those in -in are very 
common, those in -vin number nearly twenty, but there 
is only one in -min : rg-min praising. They are declined 
in the m. and n. only ; 4 but the n. forms are very rare, 
occurring in the s. N. I. G. only. These stems sometimes 
come to be used as m. substantives ; e. g. gath-in singer. 
As in all derivative stems ending in n, the vowel of the 
suffix is lengthened in the N. s. m., and the n disappears in 
that case (in the n. also) and before consonant endings. 

The forms actually occurring, if made from hast-in having 
hands, would be as follows : 

Sing. m. N. hasti. A. hastin-am. I. hastin-a. D. hastin-e. 

Ab.G. hastin-as. L. hastin-i. V. hastin. 
Du. m. N.A. hastin-a, -an. I.D. hasti-bhyam. G.L. 

PI. m. N. hastin-as. I. hasti-bhis. D. hasti-bhyas. G. 

hastin-am. L. hasti-su. 
Sing. n. N. hasti. I. hastin-a. G. hastin-as. 

1 There are sixteen in the KV. in vas and only three in the later 
van (of which there are eight more in the AV.). There are six 
vocatives in mas in the KV., but no example of the form in man. 

2 There are also vocatives in vas from stems in van and vams 
(cp. the V. in yas from stems in yams). 

3 The only two forms that occur are ghrt&vanti and pasumanti. 
The Padapatha reads vanti and manti in these forms, and the 
lengthening of the vowel seems metrical. 

4 The f . stem is formed with I : asvin possessing horses ; f. a6vin-i. 


88. 3. Comparative steins are formed with the suffix 
yams, which is nearly always added with the connecting 
vowel I to the accented root. Only two stems are formed 
with yams exclusively : jya-yams greater and san-yams 
older six others are formed with yams as well as i-yams ; 
e.g. bhu-yams and bhav-iyams more. The strong stem 
is reduced in the weak cases, by dropping the nasal and 
shortening the vowel, to yas. These stems are declined 
in the in. and n. only. 1 No forms of the du. occur, and in 
the pi. only the N. A. Gr. are found. The V. s. ends in 
yas. 2 The forms actually occurring, if made from kan- 
lyams younger, would be as follows : 


N. kaniyan kaniyamsas 

A. kaniyams-am kaniyas-as 

I. kamyas-a 
D. kamyas-e 

Ab. Gr. kaniyas-as G. kaniyas-am 

L. kamyas-i 
V. kaniyas 


N.A. kaniyas kaniyams-i 

The I.D.Ab.G. sing, n., identical with the m., also occur. 

Nouns with Three Stems. 

89. 1. The stern of the perf. part, active is formed with 
the suffix vams. This is reduced in the weak cases in two 
ways : before consonant terminations (by dropping the nasal 

1 The f. is formed by adding I to the weak stem, e.g. pr6yas-I 

2 Cp. the mant, vant (86), and the vams (89) stems, 




and shortening the vowel) to vas which becomes vat l 
and before vowel terminations (by loss of the nasal accom- 
panied by Samprasarana) to us which becomes us. There 
are thus three stems: vams, vat, and us. The accent 
always rests on the suffix in uncompounded forms. The 
inflexion is restricted to the m. and n. 2 The only specifically 
n. form occurring is the A. s. The V. s. is regularly formed 
with vas. 3 The forms actually occurring, if made from 
cakrvams having done, would be as follows : 







cakrvams- a 

cakrvams-as ] 

1 cakrus-as 





I. cakrvad-bhis 

Ab.Gr. cakriis-as 

G. cakriis-am 

V. cakr-vas 


N.A. cakr-vat 

a. In about a dozen of these participles the suffix vams 
is preceded by i (either as a reduced form of final radical a 
or as a connecting vowel) : 

jajnl-van (from jna know), tasthi-van (stha stand), papi- 
van (pa drink), yayi-van (ya go), rari-van (ra give) ; ly-i-van 
(i go), jagm-i-van (beside jagan- van 4 : gam go), papt-i-van 
/), pros-i-van (pra + vas dwell), vivis-i-van (vis enter) ; 

1 On the change of s to t cp. 66 B 1 &. 

2 The f. is formed with I from the weakest stem : e. g. cakriis-I. 

3 Cp. the mant, vant (86), and the yams stems (88). 

4 On the change of m to n see 68. 

89-90] STEMS IN AN, MAN, VAN 67 

ok-i-van l (uc be wont). This i is dropped before us ; e. g. 
tasth-us-a, ly-us-as, jagm-iis-e. 

90. 2. Nouns in an, man, van include a large number 
of words, those in van being by far the commonest, those 
in an the least frequent. These stems are almost restricted 
to m. and n. ; 2 but some forms of adjective stems serve as f., 
and there is one specifically f. stem yos-an woman. 

In the strong cases the a of the suffix is usually lengthened, 
e. g. adhvan-am ; but in half a dozen an and man stems it 
remains unchanged, e. g. arya-man-am. In the weak cases 
the a is often syncopated before vowel endings, though 
never when man and van -are preceded by a consonant, 
e. g. I. s. gravna from gravan pressing stone (but as-man-a 
stone), while before consonant endings the final n disappears, 3 
e.g. raja-bhis. In the RV. syncopation never takes place 
in the N.A. du. n., nor with one exception (sata-davni) 
in the L. s. 

As in all other n stems, the nasal is dropped in the N. s., 
e. g. m. adhva, n. karma. But there are two peculiarities 
of inflexion which, being common to these three groups, do 
not appear elsewhere in the consonant declension. The 
ending of the L. s. is in the EV. dropped more often than 
not ; e. g. murdhan beside murdhan-i on the head. In the 
N.A. pi. n. both the final n of the stem and the termination i 
are, in the RV., dropped in nineteen stems, e. g. karma ; 4 
while they are retained in eighteen, e. g. karmani. 

1. The an stems, which are both m. and n., 8 besides the 

1 With reversion to guttural, lack of reduplication, and strengthened 
radical vowel. 

2 The stems in an and man form their f. with I added to their 
weakest form ; those in van substitute varl. 

3 That is, the a represents an original sonant nasal. 

4 Seven of these appear with a in the Samhita text, but with a, like 
the rest, in the Pada text. The evidence of the Avesta indicates that 
the a form of the Samhita is the older. 

5 Six or seven adjectival forms are used as f. 





one f. ydsan, are not numerous. In the strong forms 
rbhu-ksan chief of the Rbhus, pus-an, a god, and y6s-an 
woman retain short a ; uks-an ox and vrs-an Mil fluctuate 
between a and a. In the inflexion of these stems (unlike 
those in man and van) the concurrence of three consonants 
is not avoided ; e. g. sirsn-a, I. of sirs-an. 

a. Six stems belong etymologically to this group though seeming to 
belong to one of the other two. They are : yti-v-an l m. youth, 6v-a"n l m. 
dog, rji-6van 2 m. a man, matari-svan 2 m. a demi-god, vi-bhv-an 3 /ar- 
reaching, p&ri-jm-an 4 going round, sirs-dn n. is an extended form of 
sfras head = Sir(a)s-a"n. 

The normal forms, if made from raj an king, would be : 




N. raja 
A. rajan-am 
V. rajan 5 

N.A. rajan-a, -au 

N. rajan-as | 

A. rajn-as 

I. rajn-a 
D. rajn-e 
Ab.G. rajn-as 
L. rajan-i 

I.D. raja-bhyam 
G. rajn-os 

I. raja-bhis 
D. raja-bhyas 
G. rajn-am 

L. raja-su 

The n. differs in the N.A. only. No example of the s. N.A. 
occurs (p. 70, n. 1). But the du. of ahan day is ahan-I, pi. 

2. The stems in man are about equally divided between 
m. and n., the former being mostly agent^ nouns, the latter 
verbal abstracts. About a dozen forms from these stems 
as final members of compounds are used as feminines. 6 In 

1 See below, 91. 3, 4. 2 Probably from Sugrow. 

3 From bhu, be. * From gam go. 

5 The V. of matari-6van is matari-svas as if from a stem in van. 

6 No certain examples of f. formed with I from man stems are 
found in the RV., though the AV. has five such at the end of 

90] STEMS IN MAN 69 

the strong forms arya-man m. a god, t-man m. self, je"-man 
victorious retain the short vowel in the suffix. In the weak 
forms, even when the suffix is preceded by a vowel, about 
a dozen forms do not syncopate the a, e. g. bhu-man-a, 
da-man-e. In the I. s. seven stems not only syncopate, but 
drop either the m or the n as well : prathi-n-a, pre-n-a, 
bhu-n-a, mahi-n-a, vari-n-a ; draghm-a, rasm-a. 

The normal forms, if made from as-man (Gk. CCK/JLCOI/) 
m. stone, would be : 

Sing. N. asma. A. asman-am. I. asman-a. 1 D. asman-e. 1 
Ab.G. asman-as. L. asman-i and asman. V. asman. 
Du. N.A.V. asman-a. L. asman-os. 

Plur. N.V. asman-as. A. asman-as. I. asma-bhis. D. 
asma-bhyas. G. asman-am. L. asma-su. 

The n. differs in the N.A. only. These cases from 
karman act are : 

Sing, karma. Du. karman-i. PI. karman-i, karma, 

3. The stems in van are chiefly verbal adjectives and 
are almost exclusively declined in the m. Hardly a dozen 
of them make n. forms, and only five or six forms are used 
as f. 2 In the strong cases there is only one example of 
the a remaining short: anarvan-am. In the weak cases, 
when the suffix is preceded by a vowel, the a is always 
syncopated in the Samhita text except in the forms da-van-e, 
vasu-van-e, and rta-van-i. The V. is usually formed in 
van, but there are four in vas : rta-vas, eva-ya-vas, 
pratar-it-vas, vi-bha-vas. 3 

1 When the suffix is preceded by a vofwel, the a is generally synco- 
pated, as mahi-mn-a, also mahi-n-a, &c. 

2 The f. of these stems is otherwise formed with I, which is, how- 
ever, never added to van, but regularly to a collateral suffix vara. 
Twenty-five such stems in vari are found in the RV. 

3 Cp. the mant, vant, yams, vams stems. 

70 DECLENSION [90-91 

The normal forms occurring, if made from gra-van m. 
pressing-stone, would be : 
Sing. N. grava. A. gravan-am. I. gravn-a. D. gravn-e. 

Ab.GL gravn-as. L. gravan-i and gravan. V. gravan. 
Du. N.A.V. gravan-a, -an. I. grava-bhyam. G. gravn-os. 
PI. N.V. gravan-as. A. gravn-as. I. grava-bhis. D. 

grava-bhyas. G. gravn-am. L. grava-su. 

The n. differs in the N.A. only. These cases (the du. 
does not occur) formed from dhanvan low are: Sing. 
dhanva. PI. dhanvani, dhanva, dhanva. 

Irregular Stems in an. 

91. 1. Panth-an m. $ath, forming the strong stem 
panthan, is best treated under the irregular stems in 
radical a (97 A. 2 a). 

2. ah-an n. day, otherwise regular, supplements the N. s. 
with ah-ar. 1 

3. sv-an m. dog, otherwise inflected like rajan, takes 
Samprasarana in its weakest stem sun, 2 which, as represent- 
ing an originally disyllabic stem, 3 retains the accent : 


N. sva (KVGW) 
A. svan-am 

svan-a, -au 
svan-a, -au : 

svan-as | 

sun -as 

I. siin-a I. sva-bhis 

G. sun-as (KVVOS) \ D. sva-bhyas 

G. sun-am 

1 The normal N. in a appears to have been avoided in an stems, 
collateral stems always being substituted in this case, as aksi for 
aksan eye, &c. 

2 So also in Greek : KVVOS sun-as. 
8 Cp. Greek KVOJV. 


4. yii-v-an, m. youth, otherwise regular, forms its weakest 
stem, yun, by Samprasarana and contraction * (yii-Tin) : 


N. yuva N.A. yuvan-a N.V. yuvan-as 

V. yuvan 

i V. yuvan 
A. yuvan-am 

A. yun-as 

D. yun-e 2 I. yiiva-bhis 

G. yun-as D. yuva-bhyas 

5. magha-van 3 bountiful, an epithet of Indra, also forms 
its weakest stem, maghdn, by Samprasarana and contraction 
(magha-un) : 




N. magha-va 
V. magha-van 
A. magha-van-am 



G. magh6n-as 



6. udhan n. udder supplements the N. s. with udhar 
and udhas ; before consonant endings, the latter stem also 
occurs : pi. L. udhas-su, 

92. The root han, which forms the final member of 
thirty-five compounds in the KV., follows, for the most part, 
the analogy of derivative stems in an. The strong stem is 

1 Cp. Lat. juven-is and jun-ior. 

2 The stem retains the accent because it represents a disyllable ; 
cp. sv&n. 

3 The supplementary stem magha-vant is also used in the following 
cases : N. magh&van. PI. I. magh&vad-bhis. D. maghaVad-bhyas. 
L. maghaVat-su. 




-ban (with a long vowel in the N. s. only), the middle is -ha, 
and the weakest -ghn. 1 The cases that occur would in the 
compound vrtra-han Vrtra-slaying be : 




N. vrtra-ha 
V. v#tra-han 
A. vrtra-hanam 

N.A. vrtra-han-a, -au N. vrtra-han-as 

I. vrtra-ghn-a 
D. vrtra-ghn-6 
G. vrtra-ghn-as 
L. vrtra-ghn-i 

A. vrtra-ghn-as 

I. vrtra-ha-bhis 

3. Adjectives in anc. 

93. These words, the suffix 2 of which generally expresses 
the meaning of -ward, form the strong stem in anc, the 
middle in Ic or uc 3 (according as ac is preceded by y or v). 
About fourteen stems have a weakest form in ic, and about 
six in uc, which, if they are the contractions of accented 
syllables, shift the accent to the endings. 4 They are inflected 
in the m. and n. only, the f. being formed with I from the 
weakest stem. The only cases occurring in the pi. are the 
N.A. and in the du. N.A.L. 

The forms actually found, if made from praty-anc turned 
towards, would be : 

1 Here the h reverts to the original guttural aspirate ; the n in this 
combination is never cerebralized. 

2 Properly the root anc bend, which has, however, practically 
acquired the character of a suffix. 

3 Here ya and va irregularly contract to I and u, instead of i and u. 

4 This is the general rule of the RV., but not of the AV. Thus 
A. pi. pratic-as RV., pratic-as AV. 







N. pratyan (61) 
A. pratyanc-am 

N.A. pratyanc-a, -au 

N. pratyanc-as [ 

i A. pratic-as 

I. pratic-a 
D. pratic-6 
Ab.G. pratioas 
L. pratic-i 

N.A. pratyak 

L. pratic-6s 


a. Other words similarly declined are : 

ny-anc downward 
sam-y-anc 2 united 
tir-y-anc s transverse 
ud-anc upivard 
anv-anc following 
visv-anc all-pervading 

I. About a dozen stems, in which the anc is preceded 
by a word ending in a, have no weakest form. Such are 
apanc baclctvard, arvanc Mtherward, avanc downward, devanc 
godivard, paranc turned aivay, pranc forward. The only 






me 1 






lid-ic 4 





1 The stem nic seems to have retained the accent ; for the f. is nic-i 
(not nlc-i), and the I. nica being used adverbially probably has an 
adverbial shift of accent, devadry&nc godward also retains the accent 
on the suffix : I. devadrica. 

2 The y is here inserted by analogy. 

3 Here tiri takes the place of tiro's across, from which the weakest 
stem tirase ( = tir&s + ac) is formed. 

4 I, though no y precedes the a of the suffix, by analogy. 

74 DECLENSION [93-95 

cases occurring in the du. and pi. aie the N.A. m. The 
inflexion of these words may be illustrated by apanc : 
Sing. m. N. a/pan (61). A. apanc-am. I. apac-a. 

L. apac-i. 

Du. N.A. apanc-a, apanc-au. 
PI. N. apane-as. A. apac-as. 

The only distinctively n. form is N.A. s. prak. 1 The f. is 
formed from the weak stem with i : prac-i. 

94. The points to be noted about changeable stems are : 

1. The vowel of the suffix is lengthened in the N. s. m. 
except in ant and anc stems : g6-man, agni-van ; kaniyan ; 
cakr-van; raja; asma, grava, yiiv-a; hasti, rg-mi, 
taras-vi ; but ad-an, pratyan. 

2. The N. sing, ends in a nasal in all changeable stems 
except those in n, which drop it. 

3. All changeable stems that lengthen the vowel in the 
N. s. m. shorten it in the V. Those that drop the n in 
the N., retain it in the V., while those that have n (after a) 
in the N. drop it in the V., and add s : 

thus rajan (N. raja), 2 asman (N. asma), gravan (N. 
grava), yuvan (N. yiiva); 3 hastin (N. hasti) ; havismas 
(N. havisman), marutvas 4 (N. mariitvan) ; kaniyas (N. 
kaniyan) ; cakrvas (N. cakrvan). 

a. The only changeable stems in which the V. does not differ in form 
(though it does in accent) from the N. are the ant and anc stems : 
ddan (N. adfin) ; pr&tyan (N. pratyan). 

95. The feminines of nouns with changeable stems are 

1 In B. some half-dozen N.A. plur. n. forms occur : pranci, praty- 
anci, arvafici, samydnoi, sadhryanci, anvanci. 

2 One an stem has a V. in as : matari-sv-as (p. 68, n. 5). 

3 Four van stems form their V. in vas : rta-vas, eva-ya-vas, pratar- 
it-vas, vi-bha-vas. 

4 The RV. has three vocatives in van : arvan, 6atavan, Savasavan. 
The AV. has five others, but none in vas. 


formed by adding I to the weak stem (when there are two 
stems) or the weakest (when there are three) ; e. g. adat-i 
(m. adant); dhenumat-i (m. dhenumant), amavat-i (m. 
amavant) ; arkin-i (m. arkin) ; navyas-i (m. naviyams) ; 
jagmus-i(m.jagm-i-vams); sam-rajn-i(m.rajan), magh6n-i 
(m. maghavan), -ghn-i (m. -han) ; pratic-i (m. pratyanc) ; 
avitr-i (m. avitar). 

a. The f. of the present participle active of the first conjugation 
(125) is made from the strong m. stem in ant (cp. 156); that of 
the second conjugation from the weak stem in at; e.g. bhavant-I 
being, uchant-I 1 shining, pusyant-i obtaining abundantly, codayant-I 
urging ; but ghnat-i (m. ghnant) slaying, plprat-I furthering (m. piprat), 
krnvat-i (m. krnv&nt), yunjat-i (m. yunjant) yoking, puriat-f (m. 
punant) purifying. 

b. The f. of the simple future participle is formed like the present 
participle of the first conjugation : su-syant-I about to bring forth, san- 
isy&nt-I going to obtain. 

c. Adjectives in van form their f. in var-I ; e. g. pi- van (irtW) fat, 
f. pi-var-I (irietpa = -niffpia}. The f. of the irregular yti-v-an young 
(91. 4) is yuva-tf. 

Irregular Nouns with Changeable Stems. 

96. 1. ap f. water lengthens its vowel in the strong cases 
du. and pi. and substitutes t for p before bh. The forms 
occurring are : 

Sing. I. ap-a. Ab.G. ap-as. Du. N. apa. 2 PL N.V. 
ap-as. A. ap-as. I. ad-bhis. D. ad-bhyas. G. ap-am. 
L. ap-sii. 

2. anad-vah m. ox (lit. cart-drawer, from anas + vah) has 
three stems: the last syllable is lengthened in the strong 
stem anad-vah; and shortened by Samprasarana in the 
weakest anad-uh and in the middle anad-ud (dissimilated 

1 The weak stem appears once in sinc-at-i sprinkling beside the 
regular sinc-axit-i. 

2 In a compound. 




for anad-iid). The N. is irregularly formed as if from 
a stem in vant. The forms occurring are : 




N. anad-van N. anad.-vah.-au N. anad-vah-as 

A. anad-vah-am A. anad-vah-au 

Gr. anad-iih-as 
L. anad-uh-i 

A. anad-iih-as 
D. anad-ud-bhis 
L. anad-iit-su 

3. pu-mams 1 m. man has three forms : its a is lengthened 
in the strong stem, and syncopated in the weakest to punas, 
in the middle to pum. 2 The forms occurring are : 


N. puman (89. 1) 
V. pumas 
A. pumams-am 

pumams-as 1 


G. piims-am 

Jb.GL pums-as 
L. pums-i 

L. pum-su 

II. Stems ending in Vowels. 

97. A. 1. The stems in derivative a (m. n.) 3 and a (f.) 4 
constitute the most important declensions because the former 
embraces more than one half of all nominal stems, and the 
latter includes more feminines than any other declension. 

1 Probably an old compound, with the second part of which the 
Lat. mas ' male ' may be allied. 

2 With necessary loss of the s between consonants : cp. 28 and 16 a. 

3 N. -as, -am = Gk. -os, -ov ; Lat. -MS, -um. 

4 -a - Gk. -a, -rj ; Lat. -a. 



These two declensions l are also the most irregular since the 
endings diverge from the normal ones here more than 
elsewhere. The a declension is the only one in which the 
N.A. n. has an ending in the singular, and in which the 
Ab. s. is distinguished from the Gr. The inflexion of the n. 
differs from that of the m. in the N. A.V. s. du., and pi. only. 
The forms actually occurring, if made from priya dear, 
would be : 


N. priya-s priya 

A. priya-m priya-m 
I. f priye"na 2 j priyaya 2 
1 priya 3 (priya 





N j priyas 

' I priyasas 
A. priyan 8 
I. f priyais 9 


priyasas 12 

j j. 1/ "~ _ 

( priya 3 \ priya 1 pr iy 6bhis 

D. priyaya priya-yai 5 D. Ab. priyabhyas priyabhyas 
Ib. priyat 4 ) .__ ___ 5 

L. priy6 
V. priya 

priya-yam 5 
priye 6 

Gr. priya-n-am 10 priya-n-am 
L. priy^su 11 priyasu 11 
V. ( priyas priyas 

I priyasas 

Dual. N.A. m. priya, 13 priyau ; f. priy6. 
I.D.Ab. m. f. n. priyabhyam. 
G.L. m.f.n. priya-y-os. 

1 Certain adjectives in -as -a -am follow the pronominal declension 

2 These terminations originally came from the pronominal declen- 
sion (110). The final of ena is often lengthened (ena). 

3 This form, made with the normal I. ending a, is rare. 

4 This ending is preserved in the Lat. o for od (e.g. Gnaivod in 
inscriptions) and in the Greek (Cretic) adverb rcD-Se hence. 

5 The terminations yai ( = ya-e), yas (= ya-as), yam are due to 
the influence of the feminines in i (originally ya), e.g. devy&i, 
devyas, devyam (cp. 100). 

(For notes G ~ 13 see next page.) 


a. The N. A. neuter forms are : Sing, priya-m. Du. priye\ 
PI. priya 14 and priya-n-i. 15 

a. In the Brahmanas and Sutras the D. s. f. ending ai is used instead 
of the Ab.G. ending as both in this declension and elsewhere (98. 3 a) ; 
e. g. jirnayai tvacah. of dead skin. 

2. Radical a stems, m. and f., 16 are common in the RV., 
being formed from about thirty roots. Most of them appear 
only as the final member of compounds, but four are used as 
monosyllables in the m. : ja child, tra protector, da giver, 
stha standing ; and seven in the f. : ksa abode, kha well, 
gna divine woman, ja child, jya bowstring, ma measure, 
vra troop. 17 The forms occurring in the oblique cases are so 

6 The form amba, occurring thrice in the RV., may have a V. 
meaning, mother ! The VS. and TS. have the V. &mbe as from a stem 
a"mba mother. 

7 This form seems to consist of a double ending : as-as. The form 
in as is about twice in the KV. and twenty-four times in the AV. as 
frequent as that in asas. 

8 That the ending was originally -ns is shown by the Sandhi (40. 2) ; 
cp. Gothic -ans, Gk. inscr. -ovs. 

9 This ending is preserved in such Greek datives as IWoty. It is 
slightly commoner in the KV. than priygbhis, but in the AV. it is 
five times as common. It is almost always used in the Brahmanas. 

10 The n seems to have been due to the influence of the n stems. 

11 The u of su is almost invariably to be read with hiatus, even 
before u. 

12 This form is rare in the RV., being probably due to the influence 
of the many masculines. 

13 The du. in a is more than seven times as common as that in au 
in the RV. 

14 The form in a is commoner in the RV. than that in ani in the 
proportion of three to two. In the AV. the proportion is reversed. 

15 This form is due to the influence of the an stems, which form 
their n. pi. in both a and ani, e. g. nama and namani. 

16 There are no distinctively n. forms, as the radical vowel in that 
gender is always shortened to a, and the stem is then inflected 
according to the derivative declension. 

17 These stems become less common in the later Samhitas, where 
they often shorten the final vowel to a, and are then inflected like 
derivative a stems. 

97-98] RADICAL A STEMS 79 

rare that some endings, such as those of the L. s., the 
G.L. du., and the G. pi. are not represented at all. The m. 
always takes s in the N. s., but the f. often drops it, 
doubtless owing to the influence of the derivative a stems. 
The radical vowel is dropped before the endings e * and as 
of the D. and G. s. The forms actually occurring, if made 
from j a child m. f., would be: 
Sing. N. ja-s, f. also ja. A. jam. I. ja. D. j-6. G. j-as. 

V. ja-s. 

Dual. N.A.V. ja and jau. I. ja-bhyam. 2 
Plur. N. jas. A. jas. I. ja-bhis. D. ja-bhyas. Ab. 

ja-bhyas. L. ja-su. 

a. Five anomalously formed m. derivative stems in a follow the 
analogy of the radical a stems. 

The strong stem of pathi m. path is in the RV. pantha only : Sing. N. 
pantha-s. A. pa"ntha-in. PI. N. panthas. The AV. has besides the 
stem panthan : Sing. N. p&ntha. A. panthanam. PI. N. panthan-as. 

From the adverb tatha Urns is formed the sing, N. a-tatha-s not say- 
ing l yes '. 

usana m., a seer, has a N. like a f. : usana. A. usana-m. D. u^an-e. 

md,ntha churning stick and maha great form the A. ma"nth.a-m and 

3. Radical a stems, m. n., numbering about twenty, 
consist almost entirely of stems in radical a that has been 
shortened to a. Excepting kha n. aperture they appear as 
final members of compounds only ; e. g. prathama-ja first- 
born, -ha slaying is a reduced form of han ; e. g. satru-ha 
slaying enemies. 

98. B. Stems in i and u (m.f.n.). 

Both declensions embrace a large number of nouns of all 
genders. But the i declension contains comparatively few 
n. stems, and, excepting the N.A. s. and pi., n. forms are 

1 Not, however, in most of the dative infinitives ; e. g. para-dai to 
give up, pra-khyai to see, prati-mai imitate (cp. 167). 

2 Contrary to the rule generally applicable to monosyllabic stems, 
the accent remains on the radical syllable throughout. 


rare in it, not occurring at all in several cases. In the 
u declension the masculines greatly preponderate, being 
about four times as numerous as the f. and n. stems taken 
together, while the neuters here greatly outnumber the 
feminines. The inflexion, which is closely parallel in both 
groups, is practically the same in all genders except that 
the N.A. s. and pi. n. differ from the m. and f., and the 
A. pi. m. and f. differ from each other. The final vowel of 
the stem shows Guna in three of the weak cases of the s. 
(D.Ab.G.), as well as in the V. s. and the N. pi. m. f., 
while it is abnormally strengthened in the L. s. The 
normal ending as of the Ab.G. s. is reduced to s, while 
that of the L. s. is always dropped in the i declension and 
usually in the u declension. The inflexion of the n stems 
has influenced the i declension in the I. s. only, but the 
u declension in the G.Ab. and L. also. Oxytone stems, 
when i and u are changed to y and v, throw the accent on 
a following vowel, not as Svarita, but as Udatta, and even 
on the nam of the G. pi., though the stem vowel in that 
case does not lose its syllabic value. 

The adjectives siic-i Wight and madh-u sweet may be used 
to illustrate the forms actually occurring : 

m. f. 



f. n. 

N. siici-s siici-s 



madhu-s madhu 

A. suci-m siici-m 



madhu-m madhu 

T (sucy-a 1 fsucy-a 2 

( madhv-a 3 


{ suci-n-a J siici 


{ madhu-n-a 



1 Five stems in the KV. form their I. like sucya, but twenty-five 
(under the influence of the n declension) like sucina. 

2 This is the normal formation, but the contracted form in I is more 
than twice as common in the KV. The latter is in the RV. further 
shortened to i in about a dozen words. 

3 The normally formed I. in a is made in the m. by only four stems, 
but that with na by thirty in the RV. ; in the n. the na form is used 
almost exclusively. 











). siicay-e 

siicay-e 4 


madhav-e 7 

madhav-e j madhav-e 10 


b. suce-s 1 





(madho-s 11 

( madhu-n-as 

*. suce-s 

suce-s 5 


( madho-s 8 


J madho-s 12 

1 madhv-as 

1 madhu-n-as 


siica G 


f madhav-i 9 

f madhav-i 13 

Msiicau 2 





\ madhau 


T . suce 









siici 3 siici siici 

madhu 3 


madhv-i 14 
madhu-n-os 13 


1 arf m.f. devout and aVi m. sheep have ary-ds and dvy-as. 

2 The form in au is more than twice as common as that in a in 
m. and f. 

3 The derivative i, u and I stems are the only ones that do not take 
a or au in the dual. 

4 utz with aid is often used as a D. The RV. has seven datives in ai, 
e. g. bhrty-Si/or sustenance, following the analogy of the I declension. 

5 The RV. has six forms according to the I declension, e. g. yuvaty-as. 

6 The form ve"di on the altar, occurring twice, is the only L. from an 
i stem with the normal ending i ( = vedi-i). 

7 This type occurs from over sixty stems, the normal formation 
(m&dhv-e) from only three stems in the RV. 

8 The normally formed type madhv-as is followed by six stems, the 
prevailing type madho-s by over seventy in the RV. 

9 Seven stems follow this type, while nineteen follow m&dhau in 
the RV. 

10 From one stem also mdhv-e. 

11 Once also mdclhv-as. 

12 Also madhv-as, v&sv-as. 

13 Only in the form sanav-i. 

14 The only example in RV. is urv-i the two earths. The VS. has 
janu-n-I two knees. 

15 The only example is janu-n-os (AV.). 

1819 G 



m. f. n. m. f. " 

N V sucay-as 1 sucay-as 3 ) siici 4 madhav-as 5 madhav-as fi | madhu 7 

Uuci madhu 

A. suci-n 2 suci-s j suci-n-i madhu-n 2 madhu-s 

~~toji-bhis madhu-bhis 

suci-bhyas madhu-bhyas 

siici-n-am madhu-n-am 

suci-su madhu-su 

a. Twenty-seven i stems in the RV. show forms according to the 
derivative I declension in the D.Ab.G.L. s.f. : e.g. bhrti f. sustenance : 
D. bhrty-ai; bhumi f. earth: Ab.G. bhumy-as, L. bhumy-am. Such 
forms in ai, as, am are much commoner in the AV. In B. ai is 
regularly used instead of as (cp. 97 a a). Besides the numerous I. s. 
forms in na the RV. has half a dozen i stems showing the influence 
of the n declension in the incipient use of the endings ni in the 
N.A.V. du. n. and ni in the N.A. pi. n. 

In the u declension the RV. has only three forms following the 
analogy of the derivative i declension : isu f. arrow : D. fsv-ai, G. fsv- 
as, su-vastv-as of the (river") Suvdstu (all in late passages). 8 There are 

1 The only stem not taking Guna is arf devout which has the N. pi. 
ary-ds m. f. 

2 The original ending ns is in both iSucm and m&dhun preserved 
in the Sandhi forms of ms or mr (39, 40). 

8 About ten stems in i in the RV. have N. pi. forms according to 
the derivative I declension ; e. g. avdnis streams beside av&nayas. 

* The normal type s"ucl ( = suci-i) is of about the same frequency 
as its shortened form sdci, both together occurring about fifty times 
in the RV. The secondary type siicmi occurs about fourteen times. 

5 There is only one example of the N. pi. m. without Guna : m&dhv-as 
itself occurring four times. 

6 There are two examples of the N. pi. f. without Guna : mdhv-as 
and satd-kratv-as having a hundred powers. 

7 The type without ending is made from twelve stems, the form 
with shortened vowel being nearly twice as common as that with u. 
The secondary type mddJiuni is more frequent than mddhu. 

8 In B. the D. s. f. ending ai is here regularly used instead of the 
Ab.G. as. 


also some forms following the analogy of the u declension : A. d-bhirv- 
am from a'-bhmi fearless and N. du. and pi. in yuv-a and yuv-as from 
several stems derived with the suffix yu. Besides the numerous I. 
singulars m. and n., there are many alternative n. forms, in the 
remaining cases of the s. and N. A. pi., following the n declension : 
D. madhu-ne, ka6ipu-ne ; Ab. m&dhu-nas, sanu-nas ; G. caru-nas, 
daru-nas, dru-nas, madhu-nas, vdsu-nas ; L. ayu-ni, sanu-ni ; daru- 
ni ; KA. pi. daru-ni, &c. 

b. There is no example of a V. s. n. from an i stem, and the only one 
from an u stem is guggulu (AV.). This seems to indicate that the 
V. s. in these stems was identical with the N. 

c. Adjectives in u often use this stem for the f. also ; e. g. caru dear ; 
otherwise they form the f. in u, as tanu m., tanu f. thin (Lat. tenu-is) ; 
or in i, as urii m., urv-i f. wide. 

d. There are about a dozen stems in which final i seems to be radical 
in a secondary sense as representing a reduced form of roots ending in 
a. They are mostly m. compounds formed with -dhi ; e.g. ni-dhi 
treasury. There are also about eight stems formed from roots in u, all 
of which except dyu day are final members of compounds ; e. g. raghu- 
drti. running swiftly ; besides some twelve stems in which u is radical in 
a secondary sense, as representing the shortened form of the vowel of 
three roots in u ; e.g. su-pu clarifying well (from pu purify), pari-bhil 
surrounding (from bhu 6e). 

The inflexion of these radical i and u stems is exactly the same as 
that of the derivative i and u stems given above. 


99. 1. pati (Gk. 7r6(n-y) m. husband is irregular in the 
D.G.L. s. : paty-e, paty-ur, 1 paty-au ; while the I. in this 
sense has the normal form paty-a. When it means lord, 
either as a simple word or as final member of a compound, 
it is regular : D. patay-e, brhas-patay-e, G. pate-s, praja- 
pate-s, L. go-patau ; while the I. in this sense is formed 
with na: pati-na, brhas-patina. The f. is patm (Gk. 
wife and lady. 

1 The anomalous ending appears to be due to the influence of the 
Ab.G. in the names of relationship (101) in r like pitur, G. of pitf 



a. The f. j&ni wife takes the anomalous ending ur in the G. : jany-ur. 1 
It has the further anomaly of forming its N. jam like the derivative 
I declension. 

2. sakh-i m. friend, besides having irregularities like pati 
in the weak cases of the s., has a strong stem formed with 
Vrddhi : N. sakha, A. sakhay-am, I. sakhy-a, D. sakhy-e, 
Ab.G. sakhy-ur, 1 V. sakhe. 2 Du. sakhay-a and sakhay-au ; 
Pl.N. sakhay-as, A. sakhi-n, I. sakhi-bhis, D. sakhi-bhyas, 
G. sakhi-n-am. 

a. In the RV. s&khi occurs as the final member of eight compounds 
in which it is inflected in the same way and is also used as a f. ; e. g. 
marut-sakha N. in. f. having the Maruts as friends. 

3. ari devout is irregular in forming several cases like the 
radical I stems (except in accentuation): sing. A. ary-am 
(beside ari-m) m., G. ary-as m. ; pi. N. ary-as m. f., 
A. ary-as m. f. 

a. The VS. has also the N. s. ari-s, beside the regular arf-s of the RV. 
aVi sheep (Lat. ovi-s) also takes the normal ending as in the-G. s. : 
&vy-as. vi m. Urcl has in the RV. the N. s. ve"-s beside vf-s. 

4. The neuters aksi eye, asthi lone, dadhi curds, sakthi 
tliigli, form their weakest cases from stems in an ; e. g. 
I. dadhn-a, sakthn-a ; G. aksn-as, asthn-as, dadhn-as. 
Du.N. aksi-m (AV.), I. sakthi-bhyam, G. aksn-6s, but 
sakthy-os (VS.). In the pi. the an stems are used in the 
N.A. also : aksan-i (beside aksi-ni, AV.), asthan-i (beside 
asthi-ni, AY.), sakthan-i ; I. aksa-bhis, astha-bhis ; D. 

5. dyii m. f. sky (originally diu, weak grade of dyo, 102, 3) 
retains this stem before consonant terminations (taking 
Vrddhi in the N.V. s.), but changes it to div before vowels : 

1 Influenced, like p&tyur, by the names of relationship in r (101) 

2 Formed regularly like suce from Sdci. 

99-100] STEMS IN I AND 85 

Sing. N. dyau-s (Zevs = Ajtvs). A. div-am. 1 I. div-a. 

D. div-e". Ab.G. div-as (Aifos). L. div-i (Aift). V. 

dyau-s 2 (Zev). 
P1.N. div-as. 1 A. m. dyun, 3 f. div-as. I. dyii-bhis. 3 

100. C. Stems in I and u are mostly f. when substan- 
tives, but a great many as final members of compounds are 
adjectives used in the m. as well as f. 

I. The I stems are very differently inflected according as 
they are radical (a) or derivative (&). The analogy of the 
primary radical group (1) is closely followed both in 
inflexion and accentuation by a secondary group (2) of about 
eighty polysyllabic stems which, though formed with 
derivative I, are for the sake of clearness best treated as 
a division of the radical group. 

a. The normal endings as they appear in the inflexion of 
consonant stems are taken throughout this declension. The 
G. pi., however, preserves the normal ending am in one 
single form only (dhiy-am), nam being otherwise always 
added. The N. s. always adds s. Accentuation on the 
final syllable of the stem is characteristic of this declension, 
and, except in monosyllabic stems, the acute remains on 
that syllable throughout. Before vowel endings the I is 
split to iy in monosyllabic nouns, even when they are final 
members of compounds, 4 as A. dhiy-am, pi. N. nana-dhiy-as 
having diverse intentions; but in roots as final members of 

1 The stem div, the Samprasarana form of dyav, has made its way 
into the strong cases, A. s. and N. pi., owing to the very frequent 
weak cases div-ds, &c., which taken together occur more than 350 times 
in the RV. 

2 i.e. diau-s to be pronounced as a disyllable. The s of the N. is 
retained in this form. 

3 These two forms, which occur only in the RV. or passages borrowed 
from it, always mean days. 

4 Except accented -dhi, as a-dhiam (but su-dhi follows the general 
rule, as su-clhiy-as). 


compounds only when two consonants precede, 1 as yajna- 
priy-am sacrifice-loving, but yajna-nyam (= yajna-niam) 
leading ttie sacrifice. Otherwise I is always written as y, 
but is invariably to be pronounced as i, as nady-am pro- 
nounced nadiam 2 stream. 

The monosyllabic stems belonging to the radical class are 
the feminines dhi thought, 'bid fear, sri glory, and the m. vi 
receiver (occurring only once in the N. s.). The compounds 
of the first three, being mostly Bahuvrihis (189), and the 
compounds formed from the roots kri luy, ni lead, pri love, 
mi diminish, vi move, si lie, sri mix, being mostly accusative 
Tatpurusas (187), are both m. and f. 

The secondary group consists of more than eighty poly- 
syllabic stems accented on the final syllable and probably 
for this reason following the analogy of the radical com- 
pounds. Excepting about half a dozen they are substantives, 
nearly all f. The masculines are ahi serpent, rathi charioteer, 
and about eight compounds. 

6. The declension in derivative I embraces a large number 
of stems formed by means of the suffix I (originally ya) 
largely to supply a f. to m. words, and not normally accenting 
the suffix. 3 It also includes a large number of miscellaneous 
f. stems of an independent character having no corresponding 
m., as sac-i might. It includes seven m. stems, five of 

1 In the secondary radical group (a 2, p. 87) the I is split only in 
samudri and partly in cakri. 

2 The resolved forms given below are spelt with i (not iy as they 
may have been pronounced) so as to avoid confusion with the written 
forms of the Samhita text that are spelt with iy. Again the resolved 
vowel is given as i (not I) because long vowels are regularly shortened 
in pronunciation before vowels (p. 22, notes 1 and 5). 

3 The exceptions are mostly stems in which the preceding syllable, 
having been reduced, throws the accent forward, e. g. uru, f. urv-i, 
wide ; or in which, as proper names, the accent has shifted to indicate 
a change of meaning, e. g. asikni a river, but asikni Uack. 


which are proper names: Tirasci, Nami, Prthi, Matali, 
Sobhari, besides rastri ruler, sir! iveaver. 

The inflexion of these stems 1 differs from that of the 
radical I stems in three respects : (1) no s is added in 
the N. s. m. or f. ; (2) the endings diverge considerably 
from the normal ones, the s. A. taking m, the D. ai, the 
Ab.G. as, the L. am, the pi. N.V.A. s ; (3) stems accented 
on the final vowel shift the acute to the ending in the weak 
cases of the s., in the G.L. du., and in the G. pi. 


1. dhi f. thought. 2. rathi m. f. 


devi f, goddess. 

N. dhi-s 
A. dhiy-am 
I. dhiy-a 
D. dhiy-6 
G. dhiy-as 









Ab.G. devy-as 
L. devy-am 


N.A. dhiy-a, -au 






I. dhi-bhyam 




G.L. dhiy-6s 



i In the later language the derivative group (b) absorbs the second- 
ary radical group (a 2), while borrowing from the latter the N.A.V. 
du. and the N.V. pi. forms. 



N. dhiy-as rathi-as devi-s 

A. dhiy-as rathi-as devi-s 

I. dhi-bhis rathi-bhis devi-bhis 

D. ratht-bhyas devi-bhyas 

G. dhi-n-am 1 G. rathi-n-am devi-n-am 

L. dhi-su L. rathi-su devi-su 

V. de>i-s 

a. Other words belonging to the secondary radical class (a 2) are : 
kumari girl (A. kumariam), tandri weariness (N. tandris), duti mes- 
senger (N. dutfs), nadi stream (A. nadfam), laksmi mark (N. laksmis, 
A. laksmiam), simhi lioness (N. simhis, A. simhlam). 

0. stri woman, originally a disyllable, is inflected as a radical 
monosyllabic stem in the sing. A. and pi. N.A.I. : strfy-am ; strfy-as, 
stri-bhis (accent); but retains traces of its derivative origin in the s. 
N. stri (no s), D. striy-al 2 (AV.), G. striy-as, L. striy-am (AV.). 

II. The u declension, which comprises both radical and 
derivative stems, is much more homogeneous than the 
I declension. The inflexion of these two classes corresponds 
exactly to that of the two divisions of the radical 1 declension. 
Practically all the stems in this declension are oxytones 
(including both the compound radical and the derivative 

a. In the radical class there are seven monosyllabic 
stems, five of which are f. : du gift, bhu earth, bru brow, 
syu thread, sru stream ; one m. and f. : su begetter and 
mother ; one m. : ju speeding, steed. There are further two 
reduplicated f. substantives and one adjective : juhu tongue, 
juhu sacrificial spoon ; jogu singing aloud. Finally, there 
are about sixty compounds, almost exclusively formed from 
about eleven roots, e. g. pari-bhu surrounding. 

1 dhi-n4m occurs seven times in the KV., dhiy-am only once, the 
latter being the only example of the normal ending. 

2 In B. this form is used for the G. ; e. g. striyai payah woman's 


&. The derivative class comprises two divisions : the one 
consists of about eighteen oxytone f. substantives, several 
of which correspond to m. or n. stems in u accented on the 
first syllable, e. g. a-gru (m. a-gru) maid the other and 
more numerous division consists of oxytone f. adjectives 
corresponding to m. oxytones, e. g. babhru (m. babhru) 

a. The normal endings as they appear in the inflexion of consonant 
stems are taken throughout this declension (radical and derivative). 1 
The G. pi., however, takes the normal am in uncompounded radical 
stems only, 2 but nam in all others. The N. s. always adds s. Before 
vowel endings the u is split into uv in monosyllabic nouns and 
generally in compounds with roots as final member (even when pre- 
ceded by a single consonant). In the minority of such compounds 
(some nine in the KV.) and in all derivative stems, 3 it is written as v, 
but pronounced as u. 4 Thus A. bhuv-am, a-bhuv-am present; but 
vi-bhti-am eminent, taml-am. 

The forms occurring if made from bhu earth and tanu 
body would be the following : 


N. bhu-s tanu-s 

A. bhuv-am tanu-am 

I. bhuv-a tami-a 

D. tanu-e 

Ab.G. bhuv-as Ab.G. tami-as 

L. bhuv-i (tanii-i 

L '{tanu 
V. tanu 

1 The derivative stems show an incipient tendency to be influenced 
by the inflexion of the derivative I declension. The RV. has only one 
such form : svasruam ; the AV. has at least ten such ; the VS. has 
A. pumscalu-m coitrtesan, D. tanv-ai, G. tanv-as. In B. the D. s. f. 
ending ai is used for as ; e. g. dhenv&i r6tah the seed of the cow. 

2 Judging by the only two forms that occur, bhuvam and joguvam. 

3 It is, however, split in the derivative stems a-gru, kadrd Soma 
vessel, in adjectives when u is preceded by y, and in bibhatsu loathing. 

4 Hence in such forms it is given below as u (short because a vowel 
is shortened before another in pronunciation ; cp. p. 22, note 1). 

90 DECLENSION [100-101 


N.A. bhuv-a N.A. tami-a 

I. bhu-bhyam D. tanu-bhyam 

L. bhuv-6s L. tami-os 


N. bhiiv-as N. tanii-as 

A. bhiiv-as A. tami-as 

I. tanu-bhis 
G. bhuv-am D. tanu-bhyas 

G. tanu-n-am 

101. D. Stems in r (m. and f.), which in origin are 
consonant stems in derivative ar or tar, closely resemble 
an stems (90) in their declension. Derivative stems in r 
consist of two groups, the one formed with the original 
suffix ar, the other with tar. The former is a small group 
of only eight stems, the latter a very large one of more 
than 150. Both groups agree in distinguishing strong 
and weak cases. The strong stem ends in ar or ar, 
which in the weak forms is reduced to r before vowels and 
r before consonants. Both groups further agree in dropping 
the final of the stem in the N. s. m. f., which case always 
ends in a. They resemble the vowel declension in adding 
the ending n in the A. pi. m. and s in the A. pi. f., 1 and in 
inserting n before the am of the G. pi. 2 They have the 
peculiar ending ur in the G. s. 3 

1. The stems in ar are: m. dev-r husband's brother, 
nf 4 man-, f. us-r dawn, nanandr husband's sister, svasr 5 
sister ; n. ah-ar day, udh-ar udder, vadh-ar weapon, which 

1 Except usr-&s. 

2 Except sv&sr-am and nar-am. 
* Except n&r-as and usr-&s. 

4 This word is probably derived with the suffix ar. 

5 In this word the r is probably radical : svd-sar. 

101] STEMS IN R AND TR 91 

occur in the N.A. s. only. 1 The forms that occur of the 
first five stems are : 

a. Sing. A. devar-am. PL N. devar-as. L. devr-su. 

b. Sing. A. nar-am (a-z/ep-a). D. nar-e. G. nar-as. 
L. nar-i (Ep. Gk. a-vtp-i). Du. N.A. nar-a. V. nar-a and 
nar-au. PL N.V. nar-as (Ep. Gk. d-vep-es). A. nr-n. 
I. nr-bhis. D.A. nr-bhyas. G. nar-am and nr-n-am. 2 
L. nr-su. 

c. Sing. G. usr-as. L. usr-i and usr-am. 3 V. lisar. 
PI. A. usr-as. 

d. Sing. G. nanandur. L. nanandari. 

e. Sing. N. svasa. A. svasar-am. I. svasr-a. D. svasr-e. 
Ab.G. svas-ur. Du. svasar-a, -an. L. svasr-os. PL N. 
svasar-as. A. svasr-s. I. svasr-bhis. G. svasr-am 4 and 

2. This group includes two subdivisions, the one forming 
its strong stem in tar, the other in tar (Gk. -rrjp, -rcop, 
Lat. -tor). The former consists of a small class of five 
names of relationship : three m., pi- tar father, bhra-tar 
brother, nap- tar grandson, and two f., duh-i-tar daughter 
and ma-tar mother, together with the m. and f. compounds 
formed from them. The second division consists of more 
than 150 stems (including compounds) which are either 
agent nouns accented chiefly on the suffix, or participles 
accented chiefly on the root. These stems are never f., and 
only four are n. 

In the tr declension three stems are to be distinguished : the strong, 
tar or tar ; the middle, tr ; and the weakest, tr. The names of rela- 
tionship take the Guna form, 5 agent nouns the Vrddhi form of the 

1 ah-ar and udh-ar form their other cases from the an stems ah-an 
and udh-an. Cp. 91. 6. 2 Often to be pronounced nfnam. 

8 Following the analogy of the derivative I declension. 

* sv&sr-am and nar-am are the only two forms of the r declension 
in which am is added direct to the stem. 

5 The strong stem nap-tar does not occur in the RV., napat taking 
its place. 




strong stem. The inflexion of the m. and f. differs in the A. pi. only. 
The sing. G. is formed in ur, the L. in ari, the V. in ar ; the pi. A. 
m. in tfn, f. tfs, G. in tfnam. 

The inflexion of the three stems da-tf m. giver (8(o-Trip, 
da-tor), pi-tf m. father (nd-rrip, pa-ter), ma-tr f. mother 
, ma-ter) is as follows : 


N. data 
A. datar-am 


i matar-am 

I. datr-a 
D. datr-6 
Ab.G. datur 
L. datar-i 
V. datar (Swrep) 


pitar-i (Trarep- 
pitar (Ju-piter 


L) matar-i 
matar (fj,fJTep) 

| N.A. datar-a, -au 

|| pitar-a, -au 

| matar-a, -au 

I.D. datr-bhyam 



G.L. datr-6s 



N. datar-as 



A. datrn 



I. datr-bhis 
D.Ab. datr-bhyas 

1 pitr-bhis 
1 pitr-bhyas 


G. datr-n-am 



| L. datf-su 



V. datar-as 




. ndp-tr in the EV. occurs in the weak stem only : Sing. I. n&ptr-a, 
D. naptr-e, G. n&pt-ur. PI. I. naptr-bhis. It is supplemented in the 
strong forms by napat (Lat. nepot-): Sing. N.V. n&pat. A. n&pat-am. 
Du. N.A. napat-a. PI. N.V. napat-as. In the TS. occurs naptar-am 
(like svdsar-am among the r stems). 

&. The only n. stems occurring are dhar-tf prop, dhma-tr smithy, 
stha-tf stationary, vi-dhar-tr meting out, and of these only about half a 
dozen forms occur. The only oblique cases met with are the G. sthattir 
and the L. dhmatari. The N.A. s. owing to its rarity seems never to 
have acquired fixity in the Veda, but sthatar represents the normal 
form. In B. the N.A. form in r begins to be used in an adjectival 
sense : bhartr supporting, janayitf creative. 

c. The f. of agent nouns in tr is formed with I from the weak stem 
of the m., e. g. jardtr-i mother (inflected like devi). 

102. E. Stems in ai, o, an. The only stems in 
diphthongs are: rai m. and (rarely) f. wealth, g6 m. bull, 
f. cow, dy6 m. f. sky, nau f. ship, glau m. f. lump. They 
form a transition from the consonant to the vowel declension ; 
for while they take the normal endings like the ordinary 
consonant declension, they add s in the N. s. m. f. and 
have a vowel before the endings with initial consonant. 
There are no neuter forms. 

1. rai appears as ray before vowels and ra before con- 
sonants. The forms occurring are : Sing. A. ra-m (Lat. 
re-m). I. ray-a. D. ray-6 (Lat. re-l). Ab.G. ray-as. 
PL N. ray-as. A. ray-as. 1 G. ray-am. 

2. go has as its strong form gau which appears as ga in 
the A. s. and pi. The Ab.G. are irregular in adding s only 
instead of as. 2 The forms occurring are: Sing. N. gau-s 
(/3o-?). A. ga-m (/3o>-*>). I. gav-a. D. gav-e. Ab.G. g6-s. 
L. gav-i. Du. gav-a, -an. PI. N. gav-as. A. ga-s. 
I. go-bhis. D. go-bhyas. G. gav-am and g6-n-am. :i 
L. go-su. V. gav-as. 

1 Barely ray-as ; once ra-s (S V.). 

2 As regards accentuation this word is not treated as a monosyllabic 
stem, never shifting the accent to the endings. 

8 This form, which follows the vowel declension and is much less 
common than gaV-am, occurs at the end of a Pada only. 

94 DECLENSION [102-103 

3. dyo m. f. sky (cp. 99. 5) is declined like g6. The 
forms occurring are : Sing. N. dyau-s 1 (Zevs). A. dyam 
(Lat. diem). Ab.G-. dy6-s. L. dyav-i. V. dyau-s and 
dyau-s 2 (Zcv). Du. N.A. dyav-a. PI. N.V. dyav-as. 

4. nau is inflected quite regularly as far as can be judged 
by the few forms occurring: Sing. N. nau-s (z/au-y). 
N. nav-am (vfjF a )- I- nav-a. G. nav-as (j/Tjf-oy). L. nav-i 
(vrjF-i).Pl. N. nav-as (vrjf-e^ nav-es). A. nav-as (vfjF-as). 
I. nau-bhis (vav-<t>i). 

5. glau occurs in two forms only: Sing. N. glau-s and 
PL I. glau-bhis. 3 

Degrees of Comparison. 

103. 1. The secondary suffixes of the comparative 
tara 4 (Gk. -repo) and the superlative tama (Lat. -timo) are 
regularly added to nominal stems (both simple and com- 
pound), substantives as well as adjectives, generally to the 
weak or middle stem ; e. g. priya-tara dearer, tavas-tara 
stronger, vapus-tara more wonderful, bhagavat-tara more 
bounteous ; vrtra-tara a worse Vrtra ; bhuri-davat-tara 
giving more abundantly sasvat-tama most constant ; ratna- 
dha-tama best bestoiver of treasure ; hiranya-vasi-mat-tama 
best wielder of the golden axe ; rathi-tama best charioteer. 

a. The final n of the stem is retained before these suffixes ; e. g. 
madin-tara more gladdening, vrsan-tama most manly. An n is some- 
times even inserted ; e. g. surabhi'-n-tara more fragrant ; rayin-tama 
very rich. 

1 The same as the N. of dyu (99. 5). 

2 That is, dfau-s with the proper V. accent, but with anomalous 
retention of the N. s. 

3 The N. pi. glav-as also occurs in the AB. 

4 These secondary comparatives and superlatives are commoner than 
the primary in the proportion of three to two. 


b. In a few instances the strong stem of a present participle is used ; 
e.g. vradhan-tama being most mighty, sahan-tama most victorious; and 
the weakest stem of a perfect participle : vidls-tara wiser mlllrus- 
tama most gracious. 

c. These secondary suffixes are occasionally found added to the 
primary comparatives and superlatives, e.g. sre"stha-tama most 

d. They also form a comparative and superlative from the preposi- 
tion tid up : tit-tara higher, ut-tama 1 highest. 

e. These suffixes 2 form their f. in a ; e. g. matf-tama most motherly. 

2. The primary suffix of the comparative lyams (Grk. -Lav, 
Lat. -ior) and that of the superlative istha (Gk. -JOTO) are 
added directly to the root, which is regularly accented 3 and 
gunates i and u, but leaves a unchanged apart from 
nasalization in a few instances. Final radical a combines 
with the initial of the suffix to e, which is, however, usually 
to be read as two syllables. Examples are : te"j-Iyams 
sharper, tej'-istha very sharp (tij be sharp) ; jav-iyams quicker, 
jav-istha quickest (ju be stvift) ; yaj-iyams sacrificing better, 
yaj -istha sacrificing best; mamh-istha most liberal (man 
bestoiv abundantly) ; jyestha greatest and jyestha eldest (jya 

a. In many instances these superlatives attach themselves in mean- 
ing to derivative adjectives, being formed from the root which the 
latter contain ; e. g. an-iyams smaller, an-istha smallest beside an-u 
minute ; dav-iyams/ar^er beside dur&/ar ; dragh-iyams longer, dragh- 
istha longest beside dirgh-& long ; lagh-iyams lighter beside lagh-ti light ; 
var-iyams wider, vdr-istha widest beside ur-u wide ; 6&-iyams more fre- 
quent beside sas-vant constant ; 6s-istha very quick beside 6s-am quickly ; 
b&rh-istha very lofty beside brh-dnt great ; yaV -istha youngest beside 
yuv-an youth ; v^r-istha most excellent beside var-a choice ; sadh-istha 
straightest beside sadh-ii straight. 

1 With the accent of the ordinal suffix tam&. 

2 When used as an ordinal suffix tama forms its f. in accented i 
(cp. 107). 

8 Except jyestha meaning eldest and kanistha meaning youngest. 


. In a few examples the suffix is added to the derivative form of 
the root which appears in the adjective ; thus as-istha (WK-IO-TO-S) beside 
as-u (wrc-v-s) swift (from as reach} ; tiksn-iyams sharper beside tiksna 
sharp (from tij be sharp) ; nav-iyams newer, nav-istha newest beside n&va 
new ; svad-iyams ffiicov, sudv-ior) sweeter, svad-istha (tf5-iffTo-s) beside 
svad-ti (r)8-v-s, suav-i-s) sweet (from svad be sweet). 1 

a. Beside the usual forms in lyams there occur about 
half a dozen alternative comparatives made with the shorter 
form of the suffix, yams : tav-yams (tav-iyams) stronger ; 
nav-yams (nav-iyam-s) newer ; pan-yams (pan-iyams) 
more wonderful, bhu-yams 2 (bhav-iyams) becoming more, 
greater-, rabh-yams (rabh-iyams) more violent; sah-yams 
(sah-iyams) stronger. Some half-dozen more have no 
alternative form beside them: jya-yams greater, older; 
pr^-yams dearer, pr^-stha dearest (priya dear) ; vas-yams 
better, vas-istha best (vasu good) ; sr^-yams (/c/oeiW) better, 
sr^-stha best (sri be bright), san-yams (Lat. sen-ior) older 
(sana old), sth^-yams most steadfast (sthi-ra firm). 

b. Some comparatives and superlatives belong to their 
positives in sense only ; e. g. kan-iyams 3 lesser, younger, 
kan-istha smallest 4 and kan-istha youngest (alpa small) ; 
ne"d-iyams (Av. nasd-yah) nearer, ne~d-istha (Av. nazd- 
ista) nearest (antika near), vars-iyams higher, vars-istha 5 
highest (vrddha grown up). 

1 From the adj. pap^, bad, the radical element of which is uncertain, 
is formed direct the comparative pap-iyams in the TS. 

2 Here the vowel remains unchanged. This is also the case in the 
corresponding superlative bhu-y-istha, which moreover adds the suffix 
with an intervening y. 

3 Cp. kan-ya girl (= kania), Gk. ftaivo-s (= KOVIO-S). 

4 Appears in this sense in the TS. 

5 Cp. vdrs-man n., vars-m&n m. height. 





104. Cardinals. 

1. 6-ka. 

19. nava-dasa. 

2. dva (Svo, Lat. duo). 

20. vimsati 8 (Lat, 

3. tri (rpi, Lat. tfn). 


4. catur (Lat. quatuor). 

30. trim-sat. 

5. panca (Trej/re). 

40. catvarim-sat. 9 

6. sas (e, Lat. sea;). 

50. panca-sat (7rei>- 

7. sapta (cTrra). 


8. asta 1 (o/CT6t>, Lat. oco, 

60. sas-ti. 10 

Gothic ahtau). 

70. sapta-ti. 

9. nava (Lat. wovem). 

80. asi-ti. 11 

10. dasa 2 (<$e/ca). 

90. nava-ti. 

11. 6ka-dasa. 3 

100. satam (i-Karov, 

12. dva-dasa 4 (5c6-5e/ca). 

Lat. centum). 

13. trayo-dasa. 5 

1,000. sahasra n. 

14. catur-dasa. 6 

10,000. a-yiita n. 

15. panca-dasa. 

100,000. ni-yiitan. 

16. so-dasa. 7 

1,000,000. pra-yiitan. 

17. sapta-dasa. 

10,000,000. arbuda n. 

18. asta-dasa. 1 

100,000,000. nyarbuda n. 

1 asta is an old dual form. 

2 The cardinals between 10 and 20 are Dvandra compounds formed 
by prefixing the accented unit to das"a ten. 

3 Here 6ka stands for 6ka under the influence of dva-daSa. 

4 Here the N. du. is retained instead of the stem form dva. 

5 trayo, for trayas (45. 2), is the N. pi. (105). 

6 catur as first member of a compound is regularly accented c&tur-. 

7 For sas-da6a through saz-dasa (cp. 69 c, note 3). 

8 This and the remaining cardinals are substantives. Those from 
twenty to ninety are either old compounds (adj. and substantive : two 
decades, &c.) or derivatives formed with -ti. 

9 oatvarim for catvari, n. pi. (105), like vimSati and trim6&t. 

10 Sixty to ninety are abstract f. nouns derived from the simple 
cardinals (except asi-ti) meaning hexad of tens, &c. 

11 as"i- is radically cognate to as-ta. 



98 DECLENSION [104-105 

a. The numbers intermediate between the decades 20-100 
are Dvandva compounds formed by prefixing the accented 
unit to the decade ; e. g. asta-vimsati 28 ; <ka-trimsat 31 ; 
trayas-trimsat 33 ; nava-catvarimsat 49 ; nava-sasti 69 ; 
navasiti 89 ; panca-navati 95, san-navati 96, asta-navati 
98 ; <ka-satam 101, catuh-satarn 104, trimsac-chatam 130. 

a. Intermediate numbers may also be expressed by adding together 
unit and decade with or without ca ; e.g. nava ca navatim ca ninety and 
nine, navatim nava ninety-nine. 

. In the TS. the number preceding a decade is also expressed by 
e"kan no" by one not = minus one ; thus 6kan no" vimSati twenty less one 
= 19 ; 6kan n& catvarhnjiat 39 ; <kan n& sasti 59 ; e"kan naSIti 79 ; 
6kan na" Satam 99. 

&. There are two ways of forming multiples. The larger 
number in the du. or pi. may be multiplied by the smaller 
used as an adjective ; e. g. dv6 sate" 200 ; sastim sahasra 
60,000 ; trini sata tri sahasrani trimsac ca nava ca 3,339. 
Otherwise the multiplier prefixed to the larger number 
forms with it a possessive (adjective) compound accented on 
the last syllable ; e. g. trayastrimsat tri-satah sat-sahasrah 

a. Multiples of numbers below 100 are sometimes formed in these two 
ways ; e.g. navatir nava nine nineties = 810 ; tri-sapta" 21, tri-nava" 27. 

Declension of Cardinals. 

105. Only the first four cardinals, like other adjectives, 
distinguish the genders. 6ka one, while inflected chiefly in 
the s., forms a pi. 1 also in the sense of some ; dva two is of 
course inflected in the dual only. 

1. 6ka is declined like the pronominal adjectives visva 

1 A N. f. dn. form of 6ka in the sense of a certain appears in 6ke 
yuvati (AV.) a certain pair of maidens. 

105] CARDINALS 99 

and sarva ' (120 6). The forms occurring in the Samhitas 


m. s. N. 6kas. A. 6kam. I. 6kena. G. 6kasya. L. 

e*kasmin. PL N. 6ke. D. 6kebhyas. 
f. s. N. (ka. A. 6kam. I. (kaya. G. 6kasyas. PL N. 

n. s. N. <kam. PL N. (ka. 

2. dva to is declined quite regularly as a dual, like 
priya (97 A. 1). The forms occurring are : 

m. K dva, 2 dvau. I. dvabhyam. G. dvayos. L. dvayos. 
f. N. dve\ I. dvabhyam. 
n. N. dve\ L. dvayos. 

3. tri three is declined in the m. n. pi. quite regularly, like 
siici (98 B). The f. stem is tisr, 3 the inflexion of which 
differs in the N.A. from other r stems 4 by adding the 
normal ending as to the unmodified stem. The forms 
occurring are : 

m. PL trayas. A. trm. I. tribhis. D. tribhyas. G. 

trmam. L. trisu. 
f. N. tisras. A. tisras. I. tisrbhis. D. tisrbhyas. G. 

tisfnam. 8 
n. N.A. tri, trini. 

4. catiir four in the m. n. has the strong stem catvar 
(cp. Lat. quatuor). In the G. pi., though the stem ends in 

1 The only form of the Ab. s. occurring, e"kat, follows the nominal 
declension ; it is used in forming compound numerals, ekan n& trim- 
sat 29, &c. (TS.) ; 6kasmat, used in the same way, occurs in a B. pas- 
sage of the TS. 

2 The dual form is retained in the numeral compound dva-da6a 12. 
Otherwise dvi is used as the stem in compounds, as dvi-p&d biped, and 
in derivation, as dvi-dha in two ways, &c. 

3 Probably for tri-sf, formed like sva-sr (101. 1, note 5). 

4 Except nar-as (101. 1 c). 

6 Once written tisrnam, though the r is actually long metrically. 

H2 ' 

100 DECLENSION [105-106 

a consonant, n is inserted before the case-ending. 1 The 
f. stem is cdtasr, which is inflected exactly like tisr and 
shifts its accent like panca. The forms occurring are : 
m. N. catvar-as. A. catiir-as. I. catiir-bhis. D. catiir- 

bhyas. G. catur-nam. 2 
f. N. A. catasr-as. I. catasrf-bhis. D. catasf-bhyas. G. 

n. N.A. catvar-i. 

106. The cardinals from five to nineteen, though used 
adjectivally, do not distinguish gender and take no ending 
in the N.A. 3 They also have in common the peculiarity 
of accenting a before the consonant terminations 4 and the 
final syllable in the G. 

a. The forms of sas six occurring in the Samhitas are : 
N.A. sat (27). I. sad-bhis. D. sad-bhyas. L. sat-sii. 

&. The forms of asta eight indicate that it was an old 
dual. 5 The forms that occur are : 
N.A. asta, 6 astau. I. asta-bhis. D. asta-bhyas. L. asta-sii. 

c. panca five as well as sapta seven and the cardinals 
from nine to nineteen are declined like neuters in an (90. 2) 
except in the G., which follows priya (97). The forms 
occurring are : 

N.A. panca. I. panca-bhis. D. panca-bhyas. G. pan- 
canam. L. panca-su. 

1 Like san-nam, the G. of sis, which, however, does not seem to 
occur in any of the Samhitas. 

2 With accent on the final syllable like the G. of panca, &c. 

3 Except asta and ast&u which are N. A. dual forms. 

4 Except asta, which accents the terminations. 

6 Meaning probably the tivo tetrads (perhaps with reference to the 
fingers of the two hands). 

6 asta is the stem used as the first member of compounds in the 
RV., but asta begins to be used in the AV. 


N.A. sapta. I. sapta-bhis. D.Ab. sapta-bhyas. G. 


N.A. nava. I. nava-bhis. D. nava-bhyas. G. navanam. 
N.A. dasa. I. dasa-bhis. D. dasa-bhyas. G. dasanam. 

L. dasa-su. 
N.A. Skadasa. D. ekadasa-bhyas. N. dvadasa. D. dva- 

dasa-bhyas. N. trayodasa. I. trayodasa-bhis. D. 

trayodasa-bhyas. N. pancadasa. D. pancadasa- 

bhyas. N. sodasa. D. sodasa-bhyas. N. saptadasa. 

D. saptadasa-bhyas. N. astadasa. D. astadasa-bhyas. 

N. navadasa. I. navadasa-bhis. D. 6kan na vim- 

satyai (TS.). 

d. The cardinals for the decades from twenty to ninety 
with their compounds are f. substantives, nearly always 
inflected in the sing, and according to the declension of the 
stem final ; e. g. N. vimsati-s. A. vimsati-m. I. vim- 
saty-a. N. trimsat. A. trimsat-am. I. trimsat-a. L. 
trimsat-i. If the sense requires it these numerals may be 
used in the pi. ; e. g. nava navatis nine nineties ; navanam 
navatmam of nine nineties. 

sata hundred and sahasra thousand are neuters, which 
may be declined in all numbers ; e. g. dve" sate" two hundred ; 
sapta satani seven hundred ; tri sahasrani three thousand. 

a. In the group five to nineteen the bare stem may be used in the 
oblique cases agreeing with substantives; e.g. sapta hotrbhih with 
seven priests (cp. 194 B a). 


107. The ordinals, being all adjectives ending in a, are 
declined in the m. and n. like priya. The f. is formed 
with I (declined like devi) except in the first four, which 
take a. 

The ordinals from first to tenth are formed with various 
suffixes, viz. (t)iya, tha, thama, ma. The formation 

102 DECLENSION [107 

of the first four is somewhat irregular. The stems of the 
ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth differ from those of 
the corresponding cardinals only in being accented on the 
final syllable ; their inflexion differs from that of the latter 
in following priya. Thus ekadasa eleventh forms the 
cases : m. s. A. ekadasa-m. PI. N. ekadasasas. A. eka- 
dasan. I. ekadasais. 

The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth (including their 
compounds), which also end in accented a, seem to be 
abbreviated forms of the corresponding cardinals ; e. g. 
catvarimsa/or^e^. 1 

The ordinals for hundredth and thousandth are formed 
with the superlative suffix tama accented on the final 
syllable : sata-tama, sahasra-tama. 2 

1st pra-thama, 3 f. a. 4 

2nd dvi-t-iya, 5 f. a. 

3rd trt-iya, 6 f. a (Lat. tert- 


tur-iya, 7 f. a (for catur- 
lya through k-tur- 
4th -! iya). 

jcatur-tha, f. i (rerap- 
ro-y, Lat. quartu-s). 

5th panca-ma, f. i. 
6th sas-thd, (Lat. scx-tu-s). 
sapta-md (Lat. septi- 

8th asta-ma. 
9th nava-ma. 
10th dasa-ma (Lat. deci- 

1 Only about three examples of this formation have been noted in 
the Samhitas, and four in the Brahmanas. 

2 Sahasra-tama has been noted in B. only. 

3 Probably for pra-tama" /omwos, the th being due to the influence of 
catur-thd, &c. 

4 Both prathama and trtiya have one case-form each according to 
the pronominal declension in the AV. : G. prathamdsyas and L. trti- 

5 From an older dvi-ta" second. 

6 From an older tr-ta" third. 

7 When used in the fractional sense of one-fourth accented on the 
first syllable : tiiriya (AV.) ; similarly in B. ca"turtha one-fourth, 
trtiya one-third. 


llth eka-dasa. 

21st eka-vimsa. 

34th catus-trimsa (B.). 

40th catvarimsa. 

48th asta-catvarimsa. 

52nd dva-pancasa (B.). 

61st eka-sas-ta (B.). 

100th sata-tama. 

1000th sahasra-tama (B.). 

Numeral Derivatives. 

108. A number of derivatives, chiefly adverbs, are formed 
from the cardinals. 

a. Multiplicative adverbs : sa-kf t once (lit. one making) ; 
dvi-s twice (Gk. 6Y-y, Lat. bi-s) ; tri-s thrice (Gk. rpi'-y, Lat. 
tri-s) -, catus four times (for catiir-s). Others are expressed 
by the cardinal and the form kf tv-as times (probably makings 
A. pi. of kftu) which is used as a separate word except in 
asta-krtvas (AV.) eight times ; e. g. dasa krtvas (AV.) ten 
times, bhuri krtvas many times. 

I. Adverbs of manner formed with the suffix dha : 
dvi-dha in two ways or parts, tri-dha and tre-dha, catur- 
dha, panca-dha, so-dha, sapta-dha, asta-dha, nava-dha, 

c. A few multiplicative adjectives derived with the 
suffixes a, taya, vaya meaning -fold : tray-a threefold, 
dvay-a twofold ; dasa-taya tenfold ; catur-vaya fourfold. 


109. Pronouns differ from nouns both in origin and 
declension. They are derived from a small class of roots 
with a demonstrative sense, and they have several distinct 
peculiarities of inflexion. These peculiarities have in 
varying degrees been extended to several groups of adjec- 

104 DECLENSION [109 

A. Personal Pronouns. 

This class displays the greatest number of peculiarities : 
they are for each person derived from several roots or 
combinations of roots ; they are specially irregular in 
inflexion : they do not distinguish gender, nor to some 
extent even number. Some resemble neuters in form ; 
a few have no apparent case-ending ; in two of them the 
A. pi. m. does duty as f. also. 


N. ah-am I tv-am thou vay-am we yu-y-am 7 ye 

A. mam me ^ tv-omthee^* asman 3 w6 )yusman 3 /ow 
I. ma-y-a ly me j tva asma-bhis l)y } 

ttva-y-a y us 

D. ma-hyam 1 ) . tu-bhyam 1 to jasma-bhyam yusma-bhyam 

ma-hya ) tkee I for us for you 

Ab. mad from me tvad/r om thee asmad from yusmad from 

us you 

G. ma-ma of me tava of thee asmaka-m 4 yusmaka-m 4 

of us of you 

L. ma-y-i in me (tv6 2 . fasma-su 5 in yusm.6 in you 

\^ , .in thee} 
(tva-y-i 4 us 

(asme 6 

1 Cp. Lat. mihi and tibi. 

a Only this, the normal form (=tv&-i), is found in the RV. The 
irregular tvdyi appears in the later Samhitas. 

3 asman and yusman are new formations according to the nominal 
declension. The stems are compounds of the pronominal elements 
a + sma and yu + sma. The VS. twice has the distinctly f. new forma- 
tion yusmas. 

4 asmakam and yusmakam are properly the A. n. s. of the posses- 
sives asmaka our, yusmaka your. 

5 asmasu is a new formation following the analogy of asmabhis. 

6 asme is also used as D. 

7 Changed from original yus-am by the influence of vay-dm. 



uW-<$^- / n 

Dual. N. vam J and avam (SB.) we, two. A. avam 2 (&B.) ws 

few. Ab. ava-bhyam (K.) and avad (TS.)from us two. 

G. avay-os (SB.) of us two. 
N. yuvam ye tivo. A. yuvam you ttvo. I. yuva-bhyam 

and yuva-bhyam by you two. Ab. yuvad from you 

two. G. yuv-6s 3 and yuvay-os of you ttvo. 

a. The following unaccented forms, inadmissible at the beginning 
of a sentence, are also used : Sing. A. ma, tva. D.G. me 4 (Gk. /xot), te * 
(Gk. rot). Du. A.D.G. nau (Gk. v&i), vam. PI. A.D.G. nas (Lat. nos), 
vas (Lat. vos'). 

b. The usual stems of these pronouns used in derivation or as first 
member of compounds are : ma, asma ; tva, yuva, yusma ; thus 
asma-druh hating us ; tva-yata presented by thee ; yuva-yu desiring you 
two ; yusma-y&nt desiring you. But the forms mad, asmad, tvad occur 
a few times as first member of compounds ; thus mdt-krta done by me ; 
asm&t-sakhi having us as companions ; tva"d-yoni derived from thee. 

B. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

110. The inflexion of these pronouns, as compared with 
the nominal a declension, has the following peculiarities : 

1. in the sing, d is added instead of m in the N.A. n. ; 
the element sma appears between the root and the ending 
in the D.Ab.L. m. n., and sya in the D.Ab.G.L. f. ; in 
(instead of i) is the ending in the L. m. n. 2. in the pi. 
the N. m. ends in e instead of as ; the G. has s instead of n 
before the ending am. 

The stem ta tliat (also lie, slw, it) may be taken as the type 
for the inflexion of adjectival pronouns : 

1 vam (probably abbreviated for avam), occurring once in the KV., 
seems to be the only N. du. form found in the Samhitas. 

2 The N. avam (SB.) and A. avam (K. SB.) seem to have been the 
normal forms judging by yuv&m and yuvam. 

3 yuv-6s occurs in the RV., yuv&y-os in the TS. 

4 me and te, originally L., have come to be used as D. and G. 





N. sa-s 1 









t< (rot') 



($a)) ta-s 
and I 
tanij ta-s 



ta-smai 4 

ta-syai 4 


ta-smad 5 



ta-sya 6 





1 sa-smin 7 


t<-bhis, tais 

te"-bhyas ta-bhyas 

ta-s-am 9 



N.A. m. !ta, tau, f. t6, n. t6. I.Ab. m. f. ta-bhyam. G.L. 
m. n. tdy-os. 

a. The stem t4 is frequently used in derivation, especially that of 
adverbs, as t&-tha thus ; the n. form td often appears as first member 
of a compound ; e. g. t&d-apas accustomed to that work. 

a. There are three other demonstratives derived from ta: 
1. e-ta 10 this here is inflected exactly like ta. The forms 
that occur are : 

1 On the Sandhi of s&s cp. 48 ; s&, sa, ts-d = Gk. 6, rj t r6 ; Gothic sa, 
so, that-a (Eng. that, Lat. is-tud). 

2 tfi,-m, ta-m, t^-d = Gk. r6-v, TTJ-V, TO. 

3 Sometimes tna. 

4 These forms have the normal ending e : = t&sma-e, t&sya-e. In 
B. tasyai is substituted for the G. tasyas. 

5 The Chandogya Upanisad once has sasmad. 

6 Homeric Gk. TOIO (for fo'sto). 

7 s&smin occurs nine times in the RV., tasmin twenty-two times. 

8 Cp. Lat. is-torum. 

9 Gk. racav (for raa<uv\ cp. Lat. is-tdrum. 

10 The stem used in derivation and composition is eta ; e.g. eta-vant 
so great, eta-dfs such. In B. etad is sometimes thus used : etad-da 
giving this, etan-maya consisting of this. 


m. Sing. N. esa-s (67, 48). A. etam. I. et<na. D. eta- 
smai. Ab. etasmad. G. etasya. Du. N. eta, etau. 
PI. N. et6. A. etan. I. etSbhis, etais. D. etcSbhyas. 

f. Sing. N. esa. A. etam. I. etaya. L. etasyam. Du. N. 
ete\ PI. etas. A. etas. I. etabhis. L. etasu. 

n. Sing. N. etad. PI. N. eta, etani. 

2. tya is derived from ta with the suffix ya and means 
that. It is common in the RV., but rare in the later 
Samhitas. 1 Unlike ta it is used adjectivally only, hardly 
ever occurring without its substantive. It never begins 
a sentence except when followed by the particles u, cid, 
mi, or su. 

The forms occurring are : 

m. Sing. N. sya. 2 A. tyam. G. tyasya. Du. N. tya. 

PI. N. ty<. A. tyan. I. tyebhis. 
f. Sing. N. sya. A. tyam. I. tya. G. tyasyas. Du. N. 

ty<. PI. N. tyas. A. tyas. 
n. Sing. tyad. PI. tya, tyani. 

3. A very rare derivative is ta-ka this little, which occurs 
only twice in the RV. in the two A. sing, forms m. taka-m, 
n. taka-d. 

a. sima seems to have the sense of an emphatic demonstrative. 3 The 
forms occurring are: Sing. N. simas. V. sima. D. simasmai (n.) 
Ab. sim&smad. PI. sime". 

111. In the inflexion of the demonstrative which in the 
N. s. m. appears as ay am this liere the two pronominal 

1 It is also found a few times in B. 

2 See 48, note 3. 

3 It is generally given the meaning of every, all, but the above is the 
more probable sense. 




roots i (which nearly always has a double ending) and a 1 
are employed, the former in the N. (except the m. s.) and A., 
the latter in all the other cases. The A. s. m. f. starts from 
i-m (the A. of i), which appears in the du. and pi. also, so 
that all these cases have the appearance of being formed 
from a stem ima. 2 


N. a-y-am i-d-am i-y-am 
A. im-am 3 i-d-am i-m-am 


e-na 4 

a-y-a 7 



a-smad 5 


r fi 


a-sya 6 








i-m-an ii-m-ani 




i-m- as 



N.A. m. im-a, -au. 
m. G.L. a-y-6s. 

f. im-e". n. im-e'. 

m. D.Ab. a-bhyam 

1 These two roots are frequently used in derivation ; e. g. a-tra here, 
d-tha then ; i-da now, i-h& here, 1-tara other, 

2 From this stem is formed the adverb ima'-tha thus. 

3 Here i-m is the A. of i, from which is also formed the A. f. I-m 
and the n. i-d, both used as particles. 

4 Also twice ena. ena and the remaining oblique cases, when used 
as nouns and uneniphatic, may lose their accent. 

5 The Ab., according to the nominal declension, ad is used as a 

6 Both asya and asmai may be accented &sya and dsmai when 
emphatic at the beginning of a Pada. The form imdsya occurs once 
in the EV. instead of asy& ; and imasmai in the AA. for asmai. 

7 Instead of aya the form an&ya occurs twice in the RV. : it is the 
only form from ana found in the Samhitas. 


112. The demonstrative corresponding to ayam employed 
to express remoteness in the sense of that there, you, and 
having in the N. s. the curious forms m. f. a-s-au, n. a-d-as, 
uses throughout its inflexion the root a, but always in an 
extended form. The fundamental stem used in every case 
(except the N. s.) is a-m A. m. of a. This is extended by 
the addition of the particle u to amu, 1 which appears 
throughout the sing, (with u in A. f.) except the N. In the 
pi. amu is the f. and ami the in. stem (except the A.). 

The forms occurring are : 

m. Sing. N. a-sau. 2 A. a-m-u-m. I. amu-n-a. D. amu- 
smai. Ab. amu-smad. G. amu-sya. :i L. amu-smin. 
PI. ami. A. amun. D. ami-bhyas. G. ami-sam. 

f. Sing. N. a-sau. 2 A. a-m-u-m. I. amu-y-a. 4 D. amu- 
syai. G. amu-syas. Du. N. amu. PI. N. amu-s. 
A. amu-s. 

n. Sing. N. a-d-as. 5 PI. N. amu. 

a. The unaccented defective pronoun of the third person 
e-na 6 (he, she, it) is declined in the A. of all numbers, 
besides the I. s. and the G. du. 
A. sing. m. ena-m, f. ena-m, n. ena-d. Du. m. enau, 

f. ene. PI. m. enan, f. ena-s. 
I. sing, enena. G. du. en-os (EV.), enay-os (AV.). 

a. Another unaccented demonstrative pronoun restricted to the RV. 
(excepting one form in the AV. and the TS.) is tva meaning one, many 

1 This stem is used in derivation ; e.g. amu-tas thence, amu-tra there, 
amu-tha tfms (B.). 

2 Here the pronominal root a seems to be compounded with sa 
extended by the particle u : a-sa"-u and a-sa-u. 

3 This is the only example of sya being added to any but an a stem. 

4 Used adverbially, with shifted accent. 

5 Here the neuter a-d of the pronominal root a is extended with 
the suffix as. 

Here we have the same e (L. of a) as in 6-ka one, e-v& thus. 

110 DECLENSION [iia-m 

a one, generally repeated in the sense of one another. The n. tvad 
meaning partly is also found in B. The forms occurring are : 

Sing. N. m. tvas, f. tva, n. tvad. A. m. tvam. I. m. tvena. 
D. m. tvasmai, f. tvasyai. PI. m. tve. 

p. The pronoun ava" this occurs only in the G. du. form av6s in 
combination with vam meaning of you two being such (used like sa in 
sa" tv&m thou as such). 

Y. The pronoun Snaa 1 this occurs only once in the AV. (also in 
the AB.) in the formula dmo 'ha"m asmi this am I. 

C. Interrogative Pronoun. 

113. The interrogative ka ^vho ? which ? what ? used as 
both substantive and adjective, is inflected exactly like ta, 
excepting the alternative neuter form ki-m, 2 which instead 
of the pronominal d has the nominal m (never elsewhere 
attached to a stem in i). The forms occurring are : 
m. Sing. ka-s. A. ka-m. I. ke"na. D. ka-smai. Ab. 

ka-smad. G. ka-sya. L. ka-smin. Du. N. kau. 

PL ke\ I. k(-bhis. L. k<-su. 
f. Sing. N. ka. A. ka-m. I. ka-y-a. G. ka-syas. PL N. 

ka-s. A. ka-s. L. ka-su. 
n. Sing. N.A. ka-d and ki-m. 3 PL N. ka and kani. 

a. In derivation the stems ki and ku as well as ka are used ; e. g. 
kf-y-ant how great ? ku-ha where ? ka"-ti how many ? 

As first member of a compound kad occurs twice : kat-paya" greatly 
swelling, k&d-artha having what purpose ? kim is similarly used a few 
times in the later Samhitas and the Brahmanas; e.g. kim-kar& 

&. k-ya, an extended form of k&, occurring in the G. only, is found 
in combination with cid : k&yasya cid of whomsoever'. 

1 From this pronoun are derived the I. and Ab. adverbs (with 
shifted accent) ama at home and amad/row near. 

a The N. s.m. is preserved as a petrified form in n-ki-s and ma-ki-s 
no one, nothing. 

3 The relative frequency of k&-d and ki-m is in the RV. as two to 


D. Relative Pronoun. 

114. The relative pronoun ya ivho, ivhicJi, tvhat is declined 
exactly like ta. The forms occurring are : 

m. Sing. N. ya-s. A. ya-m. I. y6na * and y6na. D. ya- 

smai. Ab. ya-smad. 2 G. ya-sya. L. ya-smin. 
Du. N. ya, yau. D. ya-bhyam. G. ya-y-os. L. ya-y-os 

and y-6s. 3 
PI. N. y6. A. yan. I. y6-bhis and yais. D. ye"-bhyas. 

G. y6-s-am. L. y6-su. 
f. Sing. N. ya. A. ya-m. I. ya-y-a. G. ya-syas. 

L. ya-syam. 

Du. N. ye\ G.L. ya-y-os. 
PI. N. ya-s. A. ya-s. I. ya-bhis. D. ya-bhyas. G. ya- 

s-am. L. ya-su. 
n. N.A. Sing. ya-d. Du. y6. PI. ya, yam. 

a. The stem of y& is used to form derivatives ; e. g. yd-tha as. It 
also appears as first member of a compound in ya-dfs which like. The 
neuter y&d is also once used thus in the KV. : y&t-kama desiring what ; 
and a few times later, as yad-devatya having what deity (K.), yat-karin 
doing what (SB.). 

&. A form of the relative extended with the diminutive suffix ka, 
ya-kd who, occurs only in the sing. N. m. ya-ki-s, f. ya-ka, and the pi. 
N. m. ya-k& 

B. Reflexive Pronouns. 

115. a. The reflexive indeclinable substantive sva-y-am 4 
self is properly used as a N. referring to all three persons. 
Sometimes, however, its N. nature being forgotten, it is 

1 ye"na is twice as common in the KV. as yena, but the Pada text 
always reads ye"na. 

2 The Ab., formed according to the nominal declension, yad is used 
as a conjunction. 

3 y-6s for yd-y-os like yuv-6s for yuv&-y-os (p. 105, note 3). 

4 Derived from sva with suffix am and interposed y (like a-y-am 
from a). 

112 DECLENSION [115-116 

used as an A. ; e. g. ayuji svayam dhuri I have yoked myself 
to the pole ; or as agreeing in sense with another case. It 
occasionally means spontaneously. 

I. tanu body is used in the EV. to express self in other 
cases than the N. and in all numbers. The reflexive 
pronoun sva and a possessive G. may be added ; e. g. 
yajasva tanvam worship thyself and yajasva tanvam tava 
svam worship thine own self. The reflexive sense of tanu 
has disappeared in B. 

a. There are one or two instances in the RV. of the incipient use of 
atm&n soul in a reflexive sense ; e. g. balam dadhana atmani putting 
force mto himself. The A. atmanam is frequently thus used in the later 
Samhitas (though never in the RV.) and in B. 

c. sva own is a reflexive adjective referring to all three 
persons and numbers. It is inflected like an ordinary 
adjective (priya) in the KV. (except the two isolated 
pronominal forms svasmin and svasyas). The forms 
occurring are : 
m. Sing. N. svas (Lat. suus). A. svam. I. sv6na and 

sv6na. D. svaya. Ab. svad. G. svasya. L. sv6 

and svasmin (KV.). 
PI. N. svas. A. svan. I. sv^bhis and svais. D. sv6- 

bhyas. G. svanam. L. sv^su. 
f. Sing. N. sva (Lat. suo). A. svam. I. svaya. D. 

svayai. Ab. svayas. G. svasyas (RV.). L. svayam. 
PI. N. svas. A. svas. I. svabhis. L. svasu. 
n. Sing. N.A. svam (Lat. suum). PL A. sva (Lat. sud). 

a. As first member of compounds sv& several times appears in the 
substantive (as well as the adj.) sense ; e. g. svd-yukta self-yoked. 
svaydm is similarly used in the Samhitas ; e. g. svayam-ja self-lorn. 

F. Possessive Pronouns. 

116. Possessive pronouns are rare because the G. of the 
personal pronoun is generally used to express the sense 
which they convey. 


a. The possessives of the first person are mama-ka and 
mama-ka * my and asma-ka our. The forms occurring are : 
Sing. D. mamakaya. G. mamakasya. 
Sing. N. m. mamaka-s. n. mamaka-m. PI. G. mamaka- 

Sing. N.A. n. asmaka-m. 2 I. asmakena. PL N. m. 

asmakasas. I. asmake-bhis. 

The n. s. asmakam, by far the commonest of these forms, is used as 
the G. pi. of the personal pronoun = of us (109). 

I. The possessives of the second person are tava-ka 3 thy 
(only D. pi. tavak<$bhyas), tva thy (only I. pi. f. tva-bhis), 
and yusma-ka your. Of the latter, three forms occur: 
I. s. m. yusmakena, pi. f. yusmaka-bhis, and the N.A. n. 
yusmakam used as the G. pi. of the second personal 
pronoun = of you. 

c. Besides being used reflexively sva is fairly often 
employed as a simple possessive, generally of the third 
person (like Lat. suus), Ms, her, their, but also of the second, 
thy, your, and of the first, my, our. The inflexion (115 c) is 
the same in both senses. 

G. Pronominal Compounds and Derivatives. 

117. With -drs 4 in the KV. and other Samhitas, and 
with -drksa in the VS. are formed the following pronominal 
compounds : i-dfs, ta-drs, eta-drs such, ki-drs 5 what like ? 
ya-drs 6 what like ; i-drksa, eta-drksa such. 

1 Both formed from the G. of the personal pronoun mama. There 
also occurs once in the RV. the derivative ma-k-ma my. 

2 The VS. has once the N. s. asmak&-s our formed like mamaka beside 

3 Formed from the G. tava. 

4 In the Brahmanas (SB.) -drsa begins to appear : I-ifsa, ta-dfsa, 

5 N. s. m. kl-dfii. 

With the very anomalous L. s. yadfsmin. 

114 DECLENSION [117-119 

a. With the suffix -ka, conveying a diminutive or contemptuous 
meaning, very rarely used derivatives are formed from the pronouns 
ta, ya, sd, and asau: ta-k that little (110. 3), yd-ka who, which (1U6), 
sa-kfi, (only N. s. f. sa-ka), asakau N. s. f. that little (VS.). 

b. With the comparative suffix -tara derivatives are formed from i, 
k, y&, and with the superlative suffix -tama from the latter two 
(cp. 120) : i-tara other, ka-tard tohich of two? ya-tar& who or which of two ; 
ka-tamd who or which of many ? ya-tamd who or which of many. 

118. a. With ti derivatives with a numerical sense are 
formed from ka, ta, and ya : ka-ti hoiv many ? (Lat. quot) ; 
ta-ti so many (Lat. toti-dem) ; ya-ti as many. No inflected 
forms of these words occur. They appear in the sense of 
the N.A. pi. only. 

b. With yant expressing the quantitative meaning of 
much derivatives are formed from i and ki : i-yant so much : 
n. s. N. iyat, pi. iyanti ; f. s. D. iyatyai ; ki-yant Jwtv 
much ? : sing. N. n. kiyat ; f. kiyati. D. m. kiyate. 
L. kiyati (for kiyati). 

c. With vant are formed derivatives from personal pro- 
nouns with the sense of like, attached to ; and from others in 
the quantitative sense of great ; thus tva-vant like thce, 
ma- vant like me, yuva-vant devoted to you two (only D. 
yuvavate) ; yusma-vant belonging to you (only L. pi. 
yusmavatsu) ; eta- vant and ta-vant so great ; ya-vant as 
great] i-vant so great (s. N. n. ivat. D. m. n. ivate. 
G. ivatas: pi. A. m. ivatas) ; ki-vant how far? (G. s. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

119. a. The only simple pronoun which has an un- 
doubtedly indefinite sense is sama (unaccented) any, every. 
The six forms that occur are : m. s. A. samam. D. samas- 
mai. Ab. samasmad. G. samasya. L. samasmin. 
PI. N. same. 


&. Compound indefinite pronouns are formed by combining 
the particles ca, cana, or cid with the interrogative ka ; 
thus kas ca any, any one ; kas cana any one soever, every ; 
kas cid any, some ; any one, some one. 

Pronominal Adjectives. 

120. Several adjectives derived from or allied in mean- 
ing to pronouns, follow the pronominal declension (110) 
altogether or in part. 

a. The adjectives that strictly adhere to the pronominal 
type of inflexion are anya other and the derivatives formed 
with tara and tama from ka and ya. The specifically 
pronominal cases of the latter that have been met with are : 
Sing. N. n. katara-d, yatara-d; katama-d, yatama-d. 
D. katama-smai. G. f. katama-syas. L. f. yatama-syam. 
PI. N. m. katame', yatame", yatar6 (K.). From itara occur in 
the Kathaka Samhita m. D. s. itarasmai and N. pi. itare. 
The forms of anya that occur are : 
m. Sing. N. anya-s. A. anya-m. I. anye"na. D. anya- 

smai. G. anya-sya. L. anya-smin. PI. N. anye". 

A. anyan. I. any6-bhis and anyais. D. any^-bhyas. 

G. any6-sam. L. any6-su. 
f. Sing. N. anya. A. anyam. I. anya-y-a. D. anya-syai. 

G. anya-syas. L. anya-syam. Du. N. any6. PI. N. 

anya-s. A. anya-s. I. anya-bhis. G. anya-sam. 

L. anya-su. 
n. Sing. N. anya-d. Du. I. anya-bhyam. PI. N. anya. 

6. visva all, sarva wliole, 6ka one are partially pronom- 
inal, differing only in taking m instead of d in the N.A. s. n. 
Sing. D. visvasmai. 1 Ab. visvasmad. 1 L. visvasmin. 1 

1 The RV. has the nominal forms D. vfsvaya, Ab. visvat, L. viSve, 
once each. 


116 DECLENSION [120 

PL N. visVe. G. m. visvesam. f. visvasam ; but 

sing. N. n. visvam. 
Sing. D. m. sarvasmai. f. sarvasyai. Ab. m. sarvasmad. 

PI. m. N. sarve. G. sarvesam. f. sarvasam ; but 

sing. N. n. sarvam. 
Sing. G. f. e"kasyas. L. m. Skasmin. 1 PI. N. m. 6ke ; 

but sing. N. n. 6kam. 

c. More than a dozen other adjectives, having pronominal 
affinities in form or meaning, occasionally have pronominal 
case-forms (but always m instead of d in the N.A. s. n.) : 

1. Eight adjectives formed with the comparative suffixes 
-tara and -ra, and the superlative suffix -ma : lit-tara higher, 
later : 

Sing. Ab. L. littarasmad and uttarasmin beside uttarad 
and uttare. L. f. littarasyam. PL N. uttare. G. littare- 
sam (K.). 

apa-ra, ava-ra, upa-ra lower: sing. L. aparasmin (K.). 
PL N. m. apare, avare, upare beside aparasas, avarasas, 
uparasas and liparas. 

ava-ma loivest : L. s. f. avamasyam. 

upa-ma highest : L. s. f. upamasyam. 

para-ma farthest: sing. f. G. paramasyas. L. para- 
masyam. PL m. N. param^ (K.). 

madhya-ma middlemost : sing. f. L. madhyamasyam. 

2. Five other adjectives with a comparative or pronominal 
sense : 

para ulterior : sing. D. m. parasmai. Ab. m. parasmad. 
L. m. parasmin beside pare. G. f. parasyas. PL m. N. 
pare beside parasas. G. paresam. 

purva prior: sing. D. purvasmai. Ab. purvasmad. 
L. purvasmin (K.), f. purvasyam. PL N. m. purve (very 
common) beside purvasas (very rare). G. m. purvesam, 
f. purvasam. 

1 The AV. once has 6ke as L. sing. 

120-121] CONJUGATION 117 

nema l other : sing. L. in. ne"masmin. Pl.N. m. neme, but G. nema- 
nam (unaccented). 

sv own (116c), otherwise following the nominal declension, has 
once sing. Gr. f. svasyas and once L. n. svasmin. 

samana similar, common has once sing. Ab. n. samanasmad beside 

3. Four adjectives, numerical in form or meaning, have 
occasional pronominal endings: prathama first has the 
sing. G. f. prathamasyas ; 2 trtiya third has sing. L. f. 
trtiyasyam ; 2 libhaya of both kinds has pi. m. G. ubhayesam 
and N. libhaye beside libhayasas and libhayas ; 3 ke>ala 
exclusive has once pi. N. m. keVale. 


121. Vedic verbs are inflected in two voices, active and 
middle. The middle forms may be employed in a passive 
sense, except in the present system, which has a special 
passive stem inflected with the middle endings. Some 
verbs are conjugated in both active and middle, e. g. krno-ti 
and krnu-t6 makes others in one voice only, e. g. as-ti is ; 
others partly in one, partly in the other; e.g. varta-te 
turns, but perfect va-vart-a has turned. 

a. The Vedic verb has in each tense and mood three 
numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural, all in regular use, 

1 Perhaps from nd+ima not this. 

2 Cp. 107, note 4. 

3 ubha both is declined in the Du. only : N.A. m. ubha, f. ubh6. 
I. ubhabhyam. >. ubhayos. 

118 CONJUGATION [121-122 

with three persons in each (except the imperative in which 
the first persons are wanting). 

122. There are five tenses in ordinary use, the present, 
the imperfect, the perfect, the aorist, and the future. The 
terms imperfect, perfect, aorist are here used in a purely 
formal sense, that is, as corresponding in formation to the 
Greek tenses bearing those names. No Vedic tense has an 
imperfect meaning, while the perfect sense is generally 
expressed by the aorist. 

a. Besides the indicative there are four moods, the 
subjunctive, the injunctive, the optative, and the imperative, 
all of which are formed from the stems of the present, the 
perfect, and the aorist. The imperfect has no moods ; and 
the only modal form occurring in the future is the unique 
subjunctive karisyas from kr make. 

a. The subjunctive, very common in the RV. and the AV., is three 
or four times as frequent as the optative ; the latter, comparatively 
rare in the Samhitas, occurs far oftener than the former in the 
Brahmanas. Both form stems with a special modal affix. 

The subj. adds a to the indicative stem : when the latter distin- 
guishes a strong and a weak stem, the a is attached to the former, 
while it coalesces to a with the final of a stems. Thus the pr. subj. 
stem of dun milk is doh-a, of yuj join yunaj-a, but of bhu le bhava. 

The opt. adds ya or i, which when strong and weak stems are dis- 
tinguished are attached to the latter. Stems in a take I throughout ; 
others take I in the mid., ya in the act. ; thus the pr. opt. stem of bhu 
is bhave ( = bhava-i) ; of dub. and yuj, act. duh-ya, yunj-ya, mid. 
duh-I, yunj-I. 

The inj. is identical in form Jfith an unaugmented past tense 
(impf., aor., plup.). It is very common in the KV., but has almost 
disappeared from the Brahmanas, except when used with the prohibi- 
tive particle ma. 

The impv. has no modal affix, adding its endings direct to the tense 
stem ; e. g. 2. s. pr. vid-dhi know, pf. mumug-dhi release, aor. 6ru-dhf hear. 
In the 2. 3. du. and 2. pi. act. and mid. (ending in tarn, tarn; atham, 
atam ; ta : dhvam) it is identical with the inj. 

b. Participles, active and middle, are formed from the 
tense stem of the present, future, aorist, and perfect. There 

122-124] THE PRESENT SYSTEM 119 

are also passive participles, present, perfect, and future ; 
the first being formed from the passive stem in ya, the 
other two from the root. 

c. There are also gerunds, which are stereotyped cases 
(chiefly instrumentals) of verbal nouns and having the value 
of indeclinable active participles with a prevailingly past 
sense ; e. g. gatvi and gatvaya having gone. 

d. There are about a dozen differently formed types of 
infinitives, which are cases of verbal nouns made directly 
or with a suffix from the root, and hardly ever connected 
with a tense stem ; e. g. idh-am to kindle ; gan-tavai to go. 

The Present System. 

123. While the perfect, aorist, and future tenses add the 
endings directly (or after inserting a sibilant) to the root, 
the present group (that is, the present with its moods and 
participles, and the imperfect) forms a special stem, which 
is made in eight different ways by primary verbs. 

The Eight Classes. 

124. These eight classes are divided into two conjuga- 
tions. In the first, which comprises the first, fourth, and 
sixth classes, the present stem ends in a and remains 
unchanged throughout (like the a declension). The secondary 
conjugations in a (desideratives, intensives, causatives, 
denominatives) as well as the future follow this conjugation 
in their inflexion. The second or graded conjugation is 
characterized by shift of accent between stem and ending, 
accompanied by vowel gradation. It comprises the remain- 
ing five classes, in which the terminations are added directly 
to the final of the root or to the (graded) suffixes no or na, 
and the stem is changeable, being either strong or weak. 

120 CONJUGATION [1-25-127 

A. First Conjugation. 

125. 1. The first or Bhu class adds a to the last letter of 
the root, which being accented takes Guna of a final vowel 
(short or long) and of a short medial vowel followed by one 
consonant ; e. g. ji conquer : jay-a ; bhu be : bhav-a ; budh 
awake: b<5dh-a. 

2. The sixth or Tud class adds an accented a to the root, 
which being unaccented has no Guna. Before this a final f 
is changed to ir. 

8. The fourth or Div class adds ya to the last letter of 
the root, which is accented ; l e.g. nah bind : nah-ya ; div 
play : div-ya (cp. 15, 1 c). 

B. Second Conjugation. 

126. The strong forms are : 

1 . The singular present and imperfect active ; 

2. The whole subjunctive ; 

3. The third person singular imperative active. 

In these forms the vowel of the root or of the affix, being 
accented, is strengthened ; while in the weak forms it is 
reduced because the terminations are accented. 

a. In the ninth class the accented form of the affix is na, the unac- 
cented ni or n ; in the seventh they are respectively n& and n. 

127. 1. The second or root class adds the terminations 
directly to the root (in the subjunctive and optative with 
the intervening modal suffix). The radical vowel in the 
strong forms is accented 2 and takes Guna if possible (125, 1) ; 

1 The weak form in some instances assumed by the root points to 
the ya having originally been accented (cp. 183 B 1). 

2 Except in the augmented (128 c) imperfect singular because the 
augment is invariably accented. 


e. g. from i go : sing. 1. 6-mi, 6-si, 6-ti ; dvis hate : dve"s-mi, 
dv6k-si, dve"s-ti. 

2. The third or reduplicating class adds the terminations 
directly to the reduplicated root, which in the strong forms 
takes Guna if possible. Contrary to analogy, the accent is 
not, in the majority of verbs belonging to this class, on the 
root in the strong forms, but on the reduplicative syllable 
(which is also accented in the 3. pi. act. and mid.). 1 Thus 
hu sacrifice: Sing. 1. ju-ho-mi, pi. l.ju-hu-mas; bhr&ear: 
Sing. 1. bi-bhar-mi, pi. 1. bibhr-mas, 3. bi-bhr-ati. 2 

3. The seventh or infixing nasal class adds the termina- 
tions directly to the final consonant, before which na is 
inserted in the strong and n in the weak forms ; e. g. yuj 
join : yu-na-j-mi. yunj-mas. 

4. The fifth or nu class adds in the strong forms the 
accented syllable n6, which in the weak forms is reduced 
to nu ; e. g. kr make : kr-no-mi, krn-mas. 3 

a. Four roots ending in n have the appearance of being formed with 
a suffix u, but this is probably due to the an of the root being reduced 
to the sonant nasal ; thus from tan stretch ta-nu (for tn-nu). In the 
tenth Mandala of the RV. the anomalous weak stem kur-u appears 
three times (beside the normal kr-nu) and the strong stem karo in 
the AV. These stems gave rise to the eighth or u class of Sanskrit 

5. The ninth or na class adds to the root in the strong 
forms the accented syllable na, which in the weak forms is 
reduced to ni before consonants and n before vowels. The 
root shows a tendency to be weakened. Thus grabh seize : 
grbh-na-mi, pi. 1. grbh-ni-masi and grbh-ni-mas, 3. grbh- 

1 It is doubtless as a result of this accentuation that these verbs 
lose the n of the endings in these two forms : bibnr-ati, bibhr-ate. 

2 The intensives conjugated in the active (172) follow this 

3 The u is dropped before the m of the 1. pi. ind. act. and mid. 

122 CONJUGATION [128-129 

The Augment. 

128. The imperfect, pluperfect, aorist, and conditional 
generally prefix to the stem the accented syllable a which 
gives to those forms the sense of past time. 

a. This augment sometimes appears lengthened before 
the n, y, r, v of seven or eight roots : aor. a-nat (nas attain) ; 
impf. a-yunak, aor. a-yukta, a-yuksatam (yuj join) ; impf. 
a-rinak and aor. a-raik (ric leave) ; aor. a-var (vr cover) ; 
impf. a-vrni (vr choose); impf. a-vrnak (vrj turn), impf. 
a-vidhyat (vyadh wound). 

1). The augment contracts with the initial vowels i, u, r 
to the Vrddhi vowels ai, an, ar ; e. g. aichat impf. of is 
wish ; aunat impf. of ud wet ; ar-ta (Gk. a>p-ro) 3. s. aor. 
mid. of r go. 

c. The augment is very often dropped : this is doubtless 
a survival from the time when it was an independent particle 
that could be dispensed with if the past sense was clear from 
the context. In the KV. the unaugmented forms of past 
tenses are much more than half as numerous as the augmented 
ones. In sense the forms that drop the augment are either 
indicative or injunctive, these being about equal in number 
in the BV. About one-third of the injunctives in the KV. 
are used with the prohibitive particle ma (Gk. \Lr\]. In the 
AV. nearly all the unaugmented forms are injunctives, of 
which four-fifths are used with ma. 


129. Five verbal formations take reduplication : the 
present stem of the third conjugational class, the perfect 
(with the pluperfect), one kind of aorist, the desiderative, 
and the intensive. Each of these has certain peculiarities, 
which must be treated separately under the special rules of 
reduplication (130, 135, 149, 170, 173). Common to all are 
the following : 

129-130] REDUPLICATION 123 

General Rules of Reduplication. 

1. The first syllable of a root (i. e. that portion of it which 
ends with a vowel) l is reduplicated ; e. g. budh perceive : 

2. Aspirated letters are represented by the corresponding 
unaspirated ; 2 e. g. bhi fear : bi-bhi ; dha put : da-dha. 

3. Gutturals are represented by the corresponding palatals, 2 
h by j ; e. g. gam go : ja-gam ; khan dig : ca-khan ; nan 
smite: ja-ghan. 

4. If the root begins with more than one consonant, the 
first only is reduplicated ; e. g. kram stride : ca-kram. 

5. If a root begins with a sibilant followed by a hard 
consonant, the latter is reduplicated ; e. g. stha stand : 
ta-stha ; skand leap : ca-skand. But svaj embrace : sa-svaj 
(v is soft) ; smi smile : si-smi (m is soft). 

6. If the radical vowel, whether final or medial, is long, 
it is shortened in the reduplicative syllable ; 3 e. g. da give: 
da-da ; radh succeed : ra-radh. 

Special Rule of Reduplication for the Third Class. 

130. r and f are represented in reduplication by i ; 
e. g. bhr bear : bi-bhar-ti ; pr fill : pi-par-ti. The root 
vrt turn is the only exception : va-vart(t)-i. 

a. Thirteen roots also reduplicate a with i,* while nine do so with a. 

1 This is not always the case in the reduplication of intensives 
(173 6). 

2 There are some exceptions to this rule in the reduplication of 
intensives (173, 3). 

3 This rule does not apply to intensives (173), nor for the most 
part to the reduplicated aorist (149, 2), and in the reduplicated perfect 
it is subject to numerous exceptions (139, 9). 

4 Three of these, pa drink, stha stand, han slay, have permanently 
gone over to the a conjugation, while ghr&smeU is beginning to do $o. 



131. The following table gives the terminations, which 
are on the whole the same for all verbs, of the present 
system. The chief difference is in the optative which is 
characterized by e x in the first, and ya and 1 2 in the second 
conjugation. The present indicative has the primary (mi, 
si, ti, &c.), and the imperfect, the optative, and (with 
some modifications) the imperative have the secondary 
terminations (m, s, t, &c.), while the subjunctive fluctuates 
between the two. Of the other tenses the future takes the 
primary, and the pluperfect and the aorist, with the 
benedictive and the conditional, take the secondary termina- 
tions ; while the perfect has in the active (with many 
variations) the secondary, and in the middle the primary 

The following distinctions between the two conjugations 
should be noted. In the first or a conjugation (as in the 
a declension) the accent is never on the terminations, but 
always on the same syllable of the stem (the root in the 
first and fourth, the affix in the sixth class), which therefore 
remains unchanged. On the other hand, in the second 
conjugation (as in the declension of changeable stems) the 
accent falls on the strong stem, which is reduced in the weak 
forms by the shifting of the accent to the endings. In the 
second conjugation therefore the endings are accented 
except in the strong forms (126). The same applies to the 
unaugmented imperfect (128). 

1 That is, I coalescing with the final a of the stem ; e. g. bbaV-e 

2 That is, the modal affix shows vowel gradation (5 6). 







1st conj. 2nd conj. 




mi 1 

(a)-m 5 

lyam 8 


ani, a 






a-si, a-s 

, t tat 9 


~~ ~ 

dhi, hi 







a-ti, a-t 



vas 1 

va 1 














it am 


a- tas 



masi, 2 mas l 

ma 1 





tha, thana 3 

ta, tana 




ta, tana 



(a)-nti 4 

(a)-n, ur 7 




(a)-ntu 4 

1 The final a of the stem in the first conjugation is lengthened before 
m or v : bhava-mi, bhava-vas. 

2 In the KV. masi is more than five times as common as mas, but in 
the AV. mas is rather commoner than masi. 

3 The only example of the ending thana in the a conjugation is 
vda- thana. 

4 Reduplicated verbs and others treated as such drop the n in the 
3. pi. ind. pr. and impv. act. In the whole second conj. the n is 
dropped in the 3. pi. pres. impf. impv. mid. 

5 m in the first (a-bhava-m), am in the second (&-dves-am). 

6 There are no examples of this ending in the a conjugation. 

7 The ending ur is taken by nearly all the verbs of the redupli- 
cating class and by several of the root class. 

8 These endings coalesce with the final a of the stem to eyam, es, 
et, &c. 

9 Verbs of the a conjugation have normally no ending in the 
2. s. impv. ; but they not infrequently add tat, which occurs in B. 
also. In the graded conjugation dhi, hi, tat are added to the weak 
stem, and ana in some verbs of the ninth class : e. g. ad-dhi, s"rnu- 
dhi ; srnu-hi, puni-hi ; as- ana ; vit-tat, krnu-tat. 

10 Only two examples occur in the a conjugation : bhaja-tana and 






1. 6 

2. se 

3. te 


i 2 






iya 4 



a-se, a-sai 5 



a-te, a-tai 6 


am ) 

1. vahe 1 

vahi 1 



2. ethe 3 (l), 
athe (2) 

etham 3 (l), 
atham (2) 



3. ete 3 (l), 
ate (2) 

etam 3 (l), 
atam (2) 



1. mahe 1 

mahi 1 


a-mahe ) 

2. dhve 




3. nte (1), 
ate (2) 

ata (2) 


a-ntai 7 | 
a-nta 8 ) 

etham 3 (; 

etam 3 (l) 
atam (2) 


ntam (1) 
atam (2) 

1 The final a of the first conjugation is lengthened before m and v. 

2 This i combines with the final a of the first conjugation to e : 

3 In these forms e takes the place of the final a of the a conjugation. 

4 This modal I combines with the final a of the first conjugation to 
e : bhaveya, &c. 

5 The RV. has a-se only, the AV. and the Brahmanas a-sai only. 

6 The form a-te is almost exclusively used in the RV., while a-tai 
is the prevailing one in the AV., and the only one later. 

7 The ending a-ntai occurs in B. only. 

8 The form in a-nta in the a conjugation, where it is very common, 
e. g. bhava-nta, is an injunctive ; but in the graded conjugation a 
subj., e.g. krnav -a-nta (inj. krnvata). 



132. Since the three classes of the first conjugation, as 
well as all the secondary verbs the stems of which end in a, 
are inflected exactly alike, 1 one paradigm will suffice for all 
of them. The injunctive is not given here because its forms 
are identical with the unaugmented imperfect. Forms of 
which no examples are found in the Samhitas are added in 
square brackets. 

1 All other conjugational stems ending in a, the passive (154), the 
a future (151), the a (141 a), the sa (147), and the reduplicated (149) 
aor. are similarly inflected. 





First Class : bhu be 






1. bhava-mi 

2. bhava-si 
3. bhava-ti 



1 bhava-mas 


1. a-bhava-m 
2. a-bhava-s 
3. a-bhava-t 




2. bhava ) 
3. bhava-tu 




1. bhava-ni) ^ 
bhava j \ 9 ^-'\ 
2. bhava-si) 
bhava-s ) 
3. ( bhava-ti 






1. bhav-eyam 

2. bhav-es 

3. bhav-et. 


| bhav-etam] 


bhav-ant, f. -I 






Present stem bhav-a. 















[a-bhava-vahi | 









^ ^ 

f bhava-se 
(bhava-sai (AV.) 
( bhava-te 
1 bhava-tai 








[bhav-edhvam ] 

bhava-mana, f. a 





Second Class : i go : Present stem 6, i. 




i i-masi 

6-mi [i-vas] 



6-si i-thas 



<S-ti i-tas 



1. ay- am [di-va] 
2. ai-s ai-tam 

8. ai-t ai-tam 

1 ai-tana 
ay- an 






Ji-hi, i-tdm 


6-tu i-tam 

ud s^^^-V Subjunctive. 

1 ay-ani dy-a-va 
f ay-a-si ay-a-thas 
1 dy-a-s 
( ay-a-ti dy-a-tas 



1. i-yam i-ya-va 
2. i-ya-s i-ya-tam 
3. i-ya-t i-ya-tam 



y-ant, f. y-at-i 




bru speak : Present stem brav, bru. 







I bruv-6 








[ a-bru-vahi] [a-bru-mahi] 

[a-bruv-atham] a-bru-dhvam 











[bruv-i-yatham | 



bruv-ana, i'. a 




Third Class : bhr bear : 








( bibhr-masi 
1 bibhr-mas 

f a-bibhr-an 
I a-bibhar-ur 

( bibhr-ta 
1 bibhr-tana 


1. bibhar-mi 

2. bibhar-si 
3. bibhar-ti 

1. a-bibhar-am 
2. a-bibhar(28) 

3. a-bibhar (28) 



2. (bibhr-hi 



3. bibhar-tu 

1. bibhar-ani 
2. bibhar-a-s 
3. bibhar-a-t 



1. bibhr-yam 
2. bibhr-ya-s 
3. bibhr-ya-t 




bibhr-at, f. bibhr-at-I 


Present stem bibhar, bibhr. 






bibhr- se 






bibhr- dhve 


a-bibhr-vahi] [a-bibhr-mahi] 

[a-bibhr-atham] [a-bibhr-dhvam] 

[a-bibhr-atam] a-bibhr-ata 

bibhr- sva 


[bibhr- atam] 




bibhar- a-mahai 


bibhr-iya [bibhr-i-vahi] bibhr-i-mahi 

[bibhr-i-thas] [bibhr-i-yatham] [bibhr-i-dhvam] 
bibhr-i-ta [bibhr-i-yatam] bibhr-i-ran 


bibhr-ana, f. a 




Fifth Class : kr make : 













1 krn-masi 




a-krnav-am ! fa-krn-va] 
a-krno-s a-krnu-tam 
a-krno-t a-krnu-tam 


( krnu-hi 
2. kmu . 
( krnu-tat 
3. [krn6-tu] 


[ krnu-ta 
\ krn6-ta 
( krnd-tana 





( krnav-a krnav-a-va 
krnav-a-s [krnav-a-thas] 
krnav-a-t [krnav-a- tas] 




1. krnu-yam [krnu-ya-va] 
2. [krnu-ya-s] [krmi-ya-tam] 
3. krnu-ya-t [krnu-ya-tam] 



krnv-ant, f. krnv-at-i 


Present stem kr-no, kr-nu. 











[ krnu-dhv6 1 





[a-k rnv-atham] 





















krnv-ana, f. a 








Seventh Class: yujjom 





yu-na-k-si (63, 67) 
yu-na-k-ti (63) 

j yunk-thas] 



a-yunak (63, 61) 
a-yunak (63, 61) 

2. yun-dhi (10 a) 

3. yunak-tu 







yun-tam(10) (yun-ta 


yun-tam yunj-antu 



yunaj-a-va yunaj-a-ma 
[yunaj-a-thas] [yunaj-a-tha] 
yunaj-a-tas yunaj-a-n 


1. [yufij-yam] [yunj-ya-va] [yunj-ya-ma] 

2. [yunj-ya-s] [yunj-ya-tam] [yuSj-ya-ta] 

3. yunj-ya-t [yunj-ya-tam] [yunj-yur] 


yufij-ant, f. yunj-at-i 




Present stem : yu-na-j, yu-n-j. 



















yunk-sva (63, 67) yunj-atham 













yunj-ana, f. a 




2. (grbh-ni-M 
1 grbh-ni-(t}at 
| grbh-ana 



1. grbh-n-ani 

2. grbh-na-s 

3. (grbh-na-t 

1. grbh-ni-yam 

2. grbh-ni-ya-s 

3. grbh-ni-ya-t 


Ninth Class : grabh seise : 












| grbh-ni-tha 
( grbh-ni-thana 

[a-grbh-ni-ma ] 

\ grbh-ni-tana 




[grbh-ni-ya-va] [grbh-ni-ya-ma] 
[ grbh-m-y a- tarn] [grbh-ni-y a-ta] 
[grbh-m-ya-tam] [grbh-m-y lir] 


grbh-n-ant, f. grbh-n-at-i. 


Present stem grbh-na, grbh-m, grbh-n. 



grbh-n-6 [grbh-ni-vahe] 

grbh-ni-s6 [grbh-n-athe] 

grbh-ni-t6 [grbh-n-ate] 







[a-grbh-ni-thas] La-grbh-n-atham] [a-grbh-m-dhvam 
a-grbh-m-ta [a-grbh-n-atam] a-grbh-n-ata 



[grbh-n- atham] 


grbh-ni-tam [grbh-n- atam] grbh-n-atam 







grbh-na-mahai \ 
[ grbh-na- dhve] 


[grbh-n-i-vahi] [grbh-n-i-mahi] 
[grbh-n-i-y atham] [grbh-n-i-dhvam] 
grbh-n-i-yatam] [grbh-n-i-ran] 


grbh-n- ana, f. a 


Irregularities of the Present Stem. 
First Conjugation. 

133. A. First or Bhu Class. 1. The radical vowel is 
lengthened in gun hide and in kram stride (in the act. only) : 
guha, 1 krama-ti (but mid. krama-te) ; uh consider takes 
Guna : 6h-a ; 2 krp lament does not take Guna : krp-a. s 

2. gam go, yam restrain, yu separate form their present 
stems with cha (Gk. ovc) : ga-cha (Gk. ftd-o-KO)), ya-cha, 

3. a. The four roots pa drink, stha stand, sac accompany, 
sad sit form present stems that originally belonged to the 
reduplicating class : piba (Lat. libo) ; tistha (tcrTrj-fju, Lat. 
sisto)-, sasca 4 (for sa-s(a)c-a); sida (for si-s(a)d-a ; Lat. sldo). 

b. Four stems are transfers from the fifth or nu class, 
being either used beside or having entirely superseded the 
simpler original stems : i-nv-a-ti (from i send) beside i-n6-ti ; 
ji-nv-a-ti (from ji quicken) beside ji-n6-si ; hi-nv-a-ti (from 
hi impel) beside hi-no-ti ; pi-nv-a fatten, doubtless originally 
pi-nu (Vpi). 

4. dams bite and sanj hang lose their nasal : das-a, saj-a. 

5. The ending tat (besides being regularly used in the 

2. s. impv. by twelve verbs) is exceptionally used for the 

3. s. in gacha-tat and smara-tat. Only one example occurs, 
in this class, of the 2. pi. impv. act. ending tana: bhaja- 
tana ; and one of dhva (for dhvam) in the 2. pi. mid. : 

1 Instead of taking Guna. 

2 But uh remove remains unchanged (125, 1). 

3 Against 125, 1. 

4 A reminiscence of the reduplicative origin of this stem is the loss 
of the nasal in the 3. pi. pres. sasc-ati and 3. pi. in.j. mid. sasc-ata. 


B. Fourth or Ya Class. 1. The radical syllable is 
reduced in seven verbs : spas see loses its initial : pas-ya ; 
vyadh pierce takes Samprasarana : vidh-ya ; a is shortened 
in dha such : dha-ya ; ma exchange : ma-ya ; va weave : 
va-ya ; vya envelope : vya-ya ; hva call : hva-ya. 

2. Final r sometimes becomes both ir and ur : jf waste 
aivay : jur-ya and jir-ya (AY.) ; tr cross : tur-ya and tir-ya ; 
pr fill becomes pur-ya only (because of its initial labial). 

3. sram be weary lengthens its vowel : sram-ya ; in B. 
tarn faint and mad be exhilarated do the same : tam-ya, 

C. Sixth Class. 1. The radical vowel is nasalized in 
eight verbs : krt cut : krnt-a ; trp be pleased : trmp-a ; 
pis adorn : pims-a ; muc release : munc-a ; lip smear : 
limp-a ; lup break : lump-a ; vidfind: vind-a ; sic sprinkle : 
sinc-a. Three other roots, tud thrust, drh make firm, subh 
shine have occasional nasalized forms. 

2. Four roots form their present stem with the suffix cha 
(cp. A 2) : is wish : i-cha ; r go : r-cha ; pras ask : pr-cha ; l 
vas shine : u-cha. The root vrasc cut, which seems to be 
formed with c, 2 takes Samprasarana : vr&c-a. 

3. Three roots in r, kr scatter, gr stvallow, tr cross, form 
the present stems kir-a, gir-a, tir-a (beside tar-a). 

a. Beside the normal use of the imperative suffix tat for the 2. s. in 
mrdd-tat, vis&-tat, vrhd-tat, suvd-tat, it also appears for the 3. s. in 

134. A. Second or Boot Class. 

1. The root is irregularly strengthened in the following 
verbs : 

a. ksnu whet, yu unite, nu and stu praise take Yrddhi 
instead of Guna in the strong forms before terminations 

1 With Samprasarana and loss of s. Cp. Lat. prec-or and po(rc)-sco, 
and Old German /ragr-m ' ask ' and for -scon (forschen). 

2 Cp. -vras-ka cutting, past participle vrk-n& cut, and vfk-a wolf. 


beginning with consonants ; l e. g. stau-mi, a-stau-t, but 

b. mrj wipe takes Vrddhi in the strong forms : marj-mi, 
mars-ti, but mrj-mas, mrj-anti. 

c. si lie mid. takes Guna and accents the radical syllable 
throughout its weak forms : e. g. s. 1. 3. say-e, 2. se^se 
(KeT-arat). It has the additional irregularity of inserting r 
before the endings in the 3. pi. pr., impv., impf. : se~-r-ate, 
se*-r-atam, a-se-r-an. 

a. i go, bra speak, stu praise, han slay before the ending of the 2. pi. 
impv. act. have the alternative forms e"-ta and -tana, bravi-tana, sto-ta, 
nan-tana. Bru has the same irregularity in the 2. pi. impf. abravi-ta 
and &bravl-tana. 

2. The root is irregularly weakened in the following 
verbs : 

a. vaii desire takes Samprasarana in the weak forms : 
1. pi. us-masi, part, us-ana, but 1. s. vas-mi. 

b. as be drops its initial a in the optative and all the weak 
forms of the pr. and impv. ; e. g. opt. s-yat would be ; 
pr. s-mas we are, s-anti (Lat. sunt) they are ; impv. du. 2. 
s-tam, pi. 2. s-ta, 3. s-antu. The 2. s. impv. preserves the 
vowel (in an altered form) in e-dhi (for az-dhi, Av. edl). 
In the impf. it inserts I before the endings of the 2. 3. s. : 
as-i-s, as-i-t (beside as as-t). 

c. han slay in weak forms loses its n before terminations 
beginning with consonants (except m, y, v), as ha-tha, but 
han-ti. In the 3. pi. pr., impv., impf., and part., the a is 
syncopated and h reverts to the original guttural gh : 
ghn-anti, ghn-antu, a-ghn-an; ghn-ant. The 2. s. impv. 
is ja-hi (for jha-hf), with palatalized initial instead of 

1 In B. ru cry, su impel, sku tear, snu distil have the same peculiarity : 
rau-ti, sau-ti, skan-ti, snau-ti. 


3. A vowel or semivowel is irregularly inserted in the 
following verbs : 

a. The roots an breathe, rud iveep, vam vomit, svas blow, 
svap sleep insert i before all terminations beginning with 
a consonant, except in the 2. 3. s. impf., where they insert I ; 
e. g. an-i-ti, an-I-t ; a-vam-i-t ; svas-i-ti. 

b. The roots Id praise and is rule add i in some forms of 
the 2. s. and pi. mid.: id-i-sva; is-i-se (beside ik-se), 
isi-dhve. Occasional forms (2. s. impv.) with connecting i 
from other roots also occur: jan-i-sva be born, vas-i-sva 
clothe, snath-i-hi pierce, stan-i-hi thunder. 

c. The root bru speak inserts I in the strong forms 
before terminations beginning with consonants : brav-i-mi, 
a-brav-i-t ; am injure inserts I before consonants ; thus 
am-i-ti, am-i-sva, am-i-t (TS.). 

4. With regard to the endings : 

a. The root sas order loses the n in the 3. pi. act. and 
mid., and in the part. : sas-ate, sas-afru, sas-at. 

b. The root dun milk is very anomalous in its endings. 
The irregular forms are the following: act. impf. 3. s. 
a-duh-a-t beside a-dhok, 3. pi. a-duh-ran beside a-duh-an 
and duh-ur; opt. 3. s. duh-iyat (for duh-yat), 3. pi. 
du.h-1-yan (for duh-yiir). Mid. pr. ind. 3. pi. duh-r6 and 
duh-rate beside the regular dun-ate" ; * impv. 3. s. duh-am, 2 
3. pi. dun-ram and duh-ratam ; part, dugh-ana. 

c. Roots ending in a take ur instead of an in the 3. pi. impf. 
act. ; e.g. pa protect : a-p-ur. A few roots ending in consonants 
show the same irregularity ; e. g. tvis be stirred : a-tvis-ur. 

a. The verbs Is rule, duh milk, vid find, si lie frequently, and cit 
observe, bru speak rarely, take e instead of te 3 in the 3. s. pr. mid. : is-e, 
duh-6, vid-6, s"y-e ; cit-, bruv-6. 

P. In the AV. and B. subj. forms with a instead of a are not un- 
common ; e. g. iy-a-s, &s-a-t, 4 br6,v-a-thas, hto-a-tha, dd-a-n. 

1 But with irregular accent, as also rih-ate" they lick. 

2 In the AV. the 3. s. impv. mid. is similarly formed in s"&y-am. 

3 This ii regularity occurs in B. also. 

4 In B. subj. forms with primary endings are very rare. 


B. Third or Reduplicating Class. 

1. Boots ending in a drop the radical vowel before 
terminations beginning with vowels ; e. g. ma measure : 

1. s. mim-e, 3. pi. mim-ate. 

a. The a of ma measure, ma "bellow, ra give, sa sharpen, 
ha go away is in weak forms usually changed to I before con- 
sonants (cp. 5 c) : mimi-te ; rari-thas ; x sisi-masi ; jihi-te. 

&. da give, dha place, the two commonesjb verbs in this 
class, use dad and dadh as their stems in all weak forms : 
dad-mane, dadh-masi. When the aspiration of dadh is 
lost before t, th, s it is thrown back on the initial : dhat-t6, 
dhat-tha, dhat-sva. The 2. s. impv. act. is de-hi (for 
daz-dhi) beside dad-dhi and dat-tat ; and dhe-hi (for 
dhaz-dhi) beside dhat-tat, 

2. The root vyac takes Samprasarana, e. g. 3. du. pr. 
vivik-tas ; hvar be crooked makes some forms with 
Samprasarana and then reduplicates with u : e.g. ju-hur-thas, 

2. s. inj. mid. 

3. bhas chew, sac accompany, has laugh syncopate the 
radical vowel in weak forms ; thus ba-ps-ati 3 pi. ind. pr. 
(but ba-bhas-a-t 3. s. subj.) ; sa-sc-ati 3. pi. ind. pr., 
sa-sc-ata 3. pi. inj. ; ja-ks-at (for ja-gh(a)s-at) pr. part. 

a. The roots r go, da give, dha put, pr cross, yu separate, sa sharpen, hu 
sacrifice have several forms with a strong vowel in the 2. impv. act. s. 
yu-yo-dhi, s"i-s"a-dhi (beside sl-si-hf); du. yu-y6-tam (beside yu-yu- 
tam); pi. i-y-ar-ta, da-da-ta and da-da-tana, da-dha-ta and da-dha- 
tana, pi-par-tana, yu-yo-ta and yu-y6-tana, ju-h.6-ta and ju-ho-tana. 
da, dha, ha leave, have similar strong forms in the 2. pi. impf. : &-da- 
da-ta, a-dadha-ta, a-jaha-tana. 

P. There are numerous transfers from this to other classes. The 
roots pa drink, stha stand, nan stride form such stems according to the 
a conjugation exclusively, piba, tistha, jighna (cp. 133 A. 3 a) ; while 
ghra smell, bhas chew, ma bellow, ra give, sac accompany occasionally use 
the a stems jighra, bapsa, mima, rara, sa^ca. The roots da give and 
dha put also make some forms from their weak stems according to the 

1 But 2. s. impv. act. rara-sva (AV.). 


a conjugation, as 3. s. pr. mid. dad-a-te, 3. pi. act. dddh-a-nti, 3. pi. 
impv. da"dh-a-ntu. The former, dad, has even an incipient tendency 
to become a root ; thus it forms the past part. pass. dat-t& given. 

C. Fifth or Nu Class. 1. The u of the suffix is dropped 
before the m of the 1. pi. ind. act. and mid., as krn-mas, 

2. When nu is preceded by a consonant its u becomes iiv 
before vowel ^endings ; e. g. 3. pi. pr. as-nuv-anti (but 

3. sru hear forms (by dissimilation) the stem sr-mi, and 
vr cover (with interchange of vowel and semivowel) ur-nu 
beside the regular vr-nu. 

4. Beside the regular and very frequent present stem 
kr-nu l (from kr make) there begins to appear in the tenth 
Mandala of the RV. the very anomalous kuru. 2 The strong 
form of this stem, kar6, which has the further anomaly of 
Guna in the root, first appears in the AV. 3 

a. The four roots ending in n, tan stretch, man think, van win, san 
gain, have the appearance of forming their stem with the suffix u, as 
tan-u. These (with three later roots) form a separate (eighth) class 
according to the Hindu grammarians. But the a of these present 
stems in reality probably represents the sonant nasal, = tn-nu. This 
group was joined by kur-u, the late and anomalous present stem of 
kr make (cp. C 4). 

0. Five stems of this class, i-nu, r-nu, ji-nu, pi-nu, hi-nu, have 
come to be used frequently as secondary roots forming present stems 
according to the a conjugation : inv-a, fnv-a, jinv-a, pinv-a, hfnv-a. 

7. In the 3. pi. pr. mid. six verbs of this class take the ending re 4 
with connecting vowel i : iny-i-re", rnv-i-re', pinv-i-re", Srnv-i-re', 
suiiv-i-r, hinv-i-re'. 

1 After the preposition pari around this stem prefixes an unoriginal 
s : pari-s-krnv-dnti they adorn. 

2 Twice in the 2. s. impv. kuru and once in the 1. pi. pr. ind. 

3 But the forms made from krnu are still six times as common in 
the AV. as those from karo, kuru, which are the only stems used in B. 

4 Like duh-re in the root class. 

ISltl L 

146 CONJUGATION [134-135 

8. In the impv. the 2. s. act. has the ending hi, as srnu-hi, three 
times as often in the RV. as the form without ending, as Srnu ; in the 
AV. it occurs only about one-sixth as often as the latter ; in B. it has 
almost disappeared. In the RV. the ending dhi also occurs in grnu- 
dhf. The ending tat occurs in krnu-tat, hinu-tat, kuru-tat. In the 
2. du. are found the strong forms krno-tam, hinotam ; and in the 2. pi. 
krno-ta and krn6-tana, 6rn6-ta and 6rn6-tana, sun6-ta and suno-tana, 
hin6-ta and hino-tana ; tan6-ti and kar6-ta. 

D. Infixing Nasal Class. 1. anj anoint, bhanj break, 
hims injure drop their nasal before inserting na : as 
a-na-k-ti, bha-na-k-ti, hi-na-s-ti. 

2. trh crush infixes n6 in the strong forms ; e. g. 
tr-ne-dhi (69 c). 

B. Ninth or Na Class. 1. The three roots ji overpower, 
ju hasten, pu purify shorten their vowel before the affix : 
ji-na-mi, ju-na-si, pu-na-ti. 

2. grabh seize and its later form grab take Samprasarana : 
grbh-na-mi, grh-na-mi (AV.). 

3. jna "know and the four roots which in forms outside 
the present system appear with a nasal, bandh bind, manth 
shake, skambh make firm, stambh prop, drop their nasal : 
ja-na-ti, badh-na-ti, math-na-ti, skabh-na-ti, stabh-na-ti. 

4. Four roots ending in consonants, a eat, grab seize, 
bandh "bind, stambh prop, have the peculiar ending ana in 
the 2. s. impv. act. : as-ana, grh-ana, badh-ana, stabh-ana. 

a. pr fill and mr crush make, beside the regular stems prna and 
mrna, the transfer stems, according to the a conjugation, prn& 
and mrn&, from which several forms occur. 

The Perfect Tense. 

135. This tense is formed by reduplication. Like the 
present, it has, besides an indicative, the subjunctive, 
injunctive, optative, and imperative moods, as well as 
participles, and an augmented form, the pluperfect. It is 
very common, being formed by nearly 300 verbs in the 

135-136] THE PERFECT 147 

Special Rules of Reduplication. 

1. r and f (= ar) and 1 (= al) always reduplicate with a 
(cp. 139, 9) ; e. g. kr do : ca-kr ; tr cross : ta-tr ; kip be 
adapted: ca-klp ; r go: ar (= a-ar). 

2. Initial a or a becomes a ; e. g. an breathe : an ; 
ap obtain : ap. The long vowels I and u remain unchanged 
(= i-i and u-u) ; e.g. is move : 1. s. is-6 ; uh consider: 
3. s. uh-e". 

3. Roots beginning with i and u contract i-fi to I and 
u + u to u except in the sing, act., where the reduplicative 
syllable is separated from the strong radical syllable by its 
own semivowel : e. g. i go : 2. s. i-y-6-tha ; uc be pleased : 
2. s. mid. uc-i-se", but 3. s. act. u-v-6c-a. 

4. Roots containing ya or va and liable to Samprasarana 
in other forms (such as the past part, pass.) reduplicate 
with i and u respectively. There are four such with ya : 
tyaj forsake, yaj sacrifice, vyac extend, syand move on: 
ti-tyaj, i-yaj, vi-vyac, si-syand ; and five with va : vac J 
speak, vad speak, vap streiv, van carry, svap sleep: u-vac, 
u-vad, u-vap, u-vah, su-svap. On the other hand the 
three roots yam stretch, van win, vas wear have the full 
reduplication ya or va throughout : ya-yam, va-van, 

136. The singular perfect active is strong (like the sing, 
pr. and impf. act.), the root being accented ; the remaining 
forms are weak, the terminations being accented. The 
endings are the following : 











1 vac has two forms with the full reduplication : 3. s. act. va-vac-a 
and 2. a. raid,". 



a. Terminations beginning with initial consonants are as 
a rule added directly to the stem ; mahe is invariably so 
added. The endings tha, ma, se, re are nearly always 
added direct to stems ending in vowels ; thus from da give : 
dada-tha ; ji conquer : ji-ge~-tha ; ni lead : nine"-tha ; su 
press : susu-ma ; hu call : juhu-re' ; kr make : cakar-tha, 
cakr-ma, cakr-se~, but cakr-i-re". 1 The same endings tha, 
ma, se, re are added directly to roots ending in consonants, 
if the final syllable of the stem is prosodically short, but 
with connecting i 2 if it is long ; 3 e. g. tatan-tha ; jagan-ma, 
jagrbh-ma, yuyuj-ma ; vivit-se" ; ca-klp-re", tatas-re, 
yuyuj-re", vivid-r6 ; but uv6c-i-tha, uc-i-ma, papt-i-ma ; 

6. Before terminations beginning with vowels (cp. 137, 1 a) 

1. i preceded by one consonant become y, if preceded by 

more than one, iy ; e. g. bhi fear : bibhy-atur ; sri resort : 

2. u ordinarily become uv ; e. g. yu join : yuyuv-6 ; sru 
hear : 6u6ruv-6 ; 6u swell : s*usuv-eV 

3. r becomes r, f becomes ir ; e. g. kr make. : cakr-^, 
cakr-d ; tf cross : titir-iir ; stf strew : tistir-6. 

The Strong Stem. 

1. Short vowels followed by a single consonant take Guna 
throughout the singular active ; e. g. dis point : di-de^-a ; 
uc be wont: uv-6c-a; krt cut: ca-kart-a ; but jinv quicken: 

1 Roots in r always add re with connecting i. 

2 The final radical vowel a in weak forms is reduced to i, e. g. from 
dha put, dadhi-dhve. This reduced vowel in the very common verbs 
da and dha was probably the starting-point for the use of i as a con- 
necting vowel in other verbs. 

3 This is due to the rhythmic rule that the stem may not have two 
prosodically short vowels in successive syllables. Cp. p. 155, note 2. 

4 ButhucaZZ: juhv-e" ; bhu&e: babhuv-a; sii bring forth: sa-suv-a. 

136-137] THE STKONG STEM H9 

2. Final vowels take Vrddhi in the 3. s. ; * e. g. ni lead : 
ni-nay-a ; sru hear : su-srav-a ; kr make : ca-kar-a. 

3. Medial a followed by a single consonant takes Vrddhi 
in the 3. s. ; * e. g. ban strike : ja-ghan-a, but taks fashion 

4. Koots ending in a take the anomalous ending au in 
the 1. and 3. s. act. ; e. g. dha put : da-dhau. The only 
exception is the root pra fill, which once forms the 3. s. 
pa-pra beside the regular pa-prau. 

The Weak Stein. 

137. 1. In roots containing the vowels i, u, r the radical 
syllable remains unchanged except by Sandhi ; e. g. yuj 
join : yu-yuj-ma ; vid find : vi-vid-e" ; kr make : ca-kr-ma. 

a. Before terminations beginning with vowels, i and r, if 
preceded by one consonant become y and r, if by more than 
one, iy and ar ; while u and r regularly become uv and ir ; 
e. g. ji conquer : ji-gy-iir ; bhi fear : bi-bhy-iir ; kr make : 
eakr-ur ; sri resort : si-sriy-e" ; yu join : yu-yuv-e ; sru 
hear : su-sruv-e" ; su swell : su-suv-6 ; tr cross : ti-tir-iir ; 
str strew : ti-stir-6. 

2. In roots containing a medial a or final a the radical 
syllable is weakened. 

a. About a dozen roots in which a is preceded and 
followed by a single consonant (e. g. pat) and which 
reduplicate the initial consonant unchanged (this excludes 
roots beginning with aspirates, gutturals, and for the most 
part v) contract the two syllables to one containing the 
diphthong e (cp. Lat. fac-io, fec-i)? They are the following : 

1 The 1. sing, never takes Vrddhi in the RV. and AV. In an 
Upanisad and a Sutra cakara occurs as 1. sing, and in a Sutra jigaya 

2 This vowel spread from contracted forms like sa-zd (Av. hazd) weak 
perfect stem of sad sit (az becoming e ; cp. 134, 2 & and 133 A 1). 


tap heat, dabh harm, nam bend, pac cook, pat Jit/, yat 1 
stretch, yam 1 extend, rabh #rasp, labh ta/<;e, sak 6e aWe, 
sap curse, sap sen?*. Examples are : pat : pet-atur ; &ak : 

The two roots tan stretch and mo follow join this class in 
the AV. 

b. Four roots with medial a but initial guttural, syncopate 
their vowel: khan dig: ca-khn ; gam go : ja-gm ; ghas 
eat: ja-ks; ban smite : ja-ghn. 

Six other roots, though conforming to the conditions 
described above (2 a), syncopate the a instead of contracting : 
jan beget : ja-jn ; tan stretch : ta-tn ; pan admire : pa-pn ; 
man. think: ma-mn; van wm: va-vn ; sac follow : sa-sc. 

a. p&tjly both contracts and syncopates in the KV. : pet and pa-pt. 

c. Eight roots containing the syllables ya, va, ra take 
Samprasarana : yaj 2 sacrifice, vac and vad speak, vap strew, 
vas dwell, van carry, svap sleep, grabh and gran seize-, 
e. g. su-sup, ja-grbh and ja-grh. In the first six, as they 
reduplicate with i or u, the result is a contraction to I and u. 
Thus yaj : ij (= i-ij) ; vac : uc (= u-uc). 

d. A few roots with medial a and penultimate nasal, drop 
the latter : krand cry out : ca-krad j tarns shake : ta-tas ; 
skambh>rop: ca-skabh (AV.) ; stambh prop : ta-stabh. 

e. Roots ending in a reduce it to i before consonants 
and drop it before vowels ; e. g. dha place : dadhi-ma ; 

1 In the wk. perfect of yat and yam the contraction is based on the 
combination of the full reduplicative syllable and the radical syllable 
with Samprasarana : yet = ya-it, yem = ya-im. 

3 From yaj occurs one form according to the contracting class (2 a) : 




Paradigms of the Reduplicated Perfect. 
138. 1. tud strike : strong stem tu-t6d ; weak tu-tud. 


1. tu-t6d-a 
2. tu-t6d-i-tha 
3. tu-t6d-a 




1. tu-tud-6 1 [tu-tud-yahe] tu-tud-mahe 
2. tu-tut-se tu-tud-athe [tu-tud-dhve"] 2 
3. tu-tud-6 tu-tud-ate tu-tud-r6 

2. kr do: strong stem ca-kar, ca-kar ; weak cakr, cakr. 

1. ca-kar-a 
2. ca-kar-tha 
3. ca-kar-a 



[ca-kr-yahe ] 

strong stem da- dha ; 



weak da-dh, da-dhi. 



1. ca-kr-e 
2. ca-kr-s^ 
3. ca-kr-6 

3. dha place : 

1. [da-dhau] 
2. da-dha-tha 


1. da-dh-6 
2. da-dhi-s6 
3. da-dh-( 



1 Lat. tu-tud-i. 

The only example of this form is dadhi-dhve. 




4. ni lead : strong stein ni-ne", ni-nai ; weak ni-ni. 


1. ni-nay-a 
2. ni-n6-tha 
3. ni-nay-a 




1. ni-ny-6 
2. ni-m-s6 
3. ni-ny-6 

[ni-ni-vahe j 


5. stu praise 

: strong stem tu-st6, 

tu-stau ; weak tu-stu. 





1. tu-stav-a 
2. tu-st<5-tha 
3. tu-stav-a 

1. tu-stuv-6 
2. tu-stu-s6 
3. tu-stuv-e" 



6. tap heat : 

strong stem ta-tap, ta-tap ; weak tep. 





1. ta-tap-a 
2. ta-tap-tha 
3. ta-tap-a 

1. tep-6 
2. tep-i-s6 
3. tep-6 * 




7. gain go : strong stem ja-gam, ja-gam ; weak ja-gm. 












8. vac speak : strong stem u-vac, u-vac ; weak uc. 














2. uc-i-i 

3. uc-6 






139. 1. bhaj share, though beginning with an aspirate, 
follows the analogy of the contracting perfects with e 
(137, 2 a) ', e. g. ba-bhaj-a : bhej-6. bandh bind, after 
dropping its nasal, does the same ; e. g. ba-bandh-a : 
bedh-ur (AV.). 

2. yam guide, van win, vas wear have the full reduplica- 
tion throughout (135, 4) ; yam takes Samprasarana of the 
radical syllable : ya-yama : yem-6 ( ya-im-e) ; van syn- 
copates its a : va-van-a, va-vn-^ ; vas retains its radical 
syllable unweakened throughout : va-vas-e (cp. 139, 9). 


3. vid know forms an unreduplicated perfect with present 
meaning : 1. ve"d-a / knoiv (olBa, German weiss), 2. vet-tha 
(ola--0a ; tveiss-t), 3. ve"d-a (olSt ; weiss) ; pi. 1. vid-ma (t8-/jiv; 
wissen), 2. vid-a, 3. vid-ur. 

a. A few isolated unreduplicated forms from about six other roots 
occur: taks-a'thur; skambh-athur and skambh-ur ; cet-atur; yam- 
a"tur and yam-ur ; nind-i-md ; ark-i-re. 

4. The initial of ci gather, ci observe, cit perceive, ji conquer, 
han kill reverts to the original guttural in the radical syllable : 
3. s. act, ci-kay-a, ci-kt-a, ji-gay-a, ja-ghan-a. bhr bear 
almost invariably reduplicates with j in the RV. : ja-bhar-tha, 
ja-bhara, ja-bhr-iir; ja-bhr-d, ja-bhr-i-s6, ja-bhr-i-r6 ; 
but only once with b : ba-bhr-e'. 

5. ah say is defective, forming only the 3. s. and pi. : ah-a 
and ah-ur. The two additional forms 2. s. at-tha, 3. du. 
ah-atur occur in the Brahmanas. 

6. Five roots beginning with a prosodically long a re- 
duplicate with an: ams attain, afij anoint, ardh thrive, arc 
praise, arh deserve. Only the first two make several forms. 
Here the radical nasal is repeated with the initial vowel : 
s. 3. an-dms-a (Gk. ^/-ey/c-a) ; pi. 1. an-as-ma, 2. an-a6-a, 
3. an-as-ur ; mid. s. 3. an-as-e" ; l s. 3. an-anja, mid. s. 1. 
an-aj-6, pi. 3. an-aj-re". The analogy spread from these to 
the roots which have no nasal : pi. 3. an-rc-iir, an-rdh-iir, 
an-rh-iir ; mid. s. 3. an-rc-6, an-rdh-e*. 

7. bhu be has the double irregularity of reduplicating 
with a and retaining its u throughout (cp. Gk. Trt-fyv-acn) : 
sing. 1. ba-bhu-v-a (Gk. 7re-0u-/ca). 2. ba-bhu-tha and 
ba-bhu-v-i-tha. 3. ba-bhu-v-a. Du. 2. ba-bhu-v-athur. 
3. ba-bhu-v-atur. PI. 1. ba-bhu-v-i-ma. 2. ba-bhu-v-a. 
3. ba-bhu-v-ur. 

1 In a Sutra occurs the 2. pi. mid. an-as-a-dhve. 


su briny forth has the same peculiarities l in sa-su-v-a, 
the only perfect form of this root occurring. 

8. cyu stir reduplicates ci-cyu (beside cu-oyu) and dyut 
shine similarly di-dyut. This was due to the vocalic 
pronunciation of the y : ciu, diut. 

9. The reduplicative vowel is lengthened in more than 
thirty perfect stems ; e. g. kan be pleased : ca-kan ; gr ivake : 
ja-gr; kip be adapted: ca-klp ; dhl think: di-dhi ; tu be 
strong: tu-tu; su swell: su-su.- 

a. In the Mantra portion of the Samhitas there once occurs a peri- 
phrastic perfect form with the reduplicated perfect of kr make govern- 
ing the ace. of a fern, substantive in a derived from a secondary 
(causative) verbal stem. This form is gamayam cakara (AV.) he 
caused to go (lit. made a causing to go}. In the Brahniana parts of the 
later Samhitas (TS., MS., K.) such periphrastic forms are occasionally 
met with, and they become more frequent in the regular Brahmanas. 

Moods of the Perfect. 

140. Modal forms of the perfect are of rare occurrence in 
the Samhitas except the RV. 

1. The subjunctive is normally formed by adding a to 
the strong perfect stem accented on the radical syllable. 
In the active the secondary endings are the more usual ; 
when the primary endings are used the reduplicative syllable 
is in several forms accented. 3 In about a dozen forms the 
weak stem is used. Middle forms, of which only seven or 

1 The root si lie also reduplicates with a in the part, sa-say-ana". 
These three, bhu, su, si, are the only roots with an i or u vowel that 
reduplicate with a. 

2 Here the radical vowel itself is shortened. The quantitative form 
of the stem is subject to the rule that it may not contain two prosodi- 
cally short vowels (except in the 1. s. act.). Hence sab. reduplicates 
either as sa-sah or sa-sah. (in a weak form). 

3 Cp. the accentuation of the reduplicating class in the present 


eight occur, are almost restricted to the 3. sing. Examples 
are : 

Act. s. 1. an-aj-a 1 (afij anoint) ; 2. ta-tan-a-s (tan stretch), 
bu-b6dh-a-s (budh waive), pi-pray-a-s (pri please) ; ju-jos- 
a-si (jus enjoy) ; ci-kit-a-s (cit observe), mu-muc-a-s (muc 
release). 3. ci-ket-a-t, ja-ghan-a-t (han smite), ta-tan-a-t, 
tu-stav-a-t ('/stu praise), pi-pray-a-t ; di-des-a-ti (dis 
point), bii-bodh-a-ti, mu-moc-a-ti ; mu-muc-a-t, vi-vid-a-t 
(vid find). 

Du. 2. ci-ket-a-thas, jii-jos-a-thas. PI. 1. ta-tan-a-ma. 
2. ju-jos-a-tha. 3. ta-tan-a-n, 

Mid. s. 3. ta-tap-a-te, ju-jos-a-te. PI. 1. an-as-a- 
mahai. 1 

2. The injunctive 2 occurs in hardly a dozen forms, a few 
in the sing, act., the rest in the 3. pi. mid. ; e.g. s. 2. sa-sas 
(=sa-sas-s: sas order). 3. du-dho-t (dhu shake), su-sro-t 
(sru flow) ; mid. pi. 3. ta-tan-a-nta (cp. 140, 6). 

3. The optative is formed by adding the accented modal 
suffix combined with the endings to the weak perfect stem. 
The active forms are much commoner than the middle. 
Examples are : 

Act. s. 1. an-as-yam, 3 ja-gam-yam, ri-ric-yam, va- 
vrt-yam. 2. ba-bhu-yas, va-vrt-yas. 3. an-aj-yat, 1 ja- 
gam-yat, va-vrt-yat, ba-bhu-yat. 

Du. 2. ja-gam-yatam. PL 1. va-vrt-ya-ma. 3. ja-gam- 
yiir, va-vrt-yur. 

Mid. s. 1. va-vrt-iya. 2. va-vrdh-i-thas. 3. va-vrt-i-ta. 
PI. 1. va-vrt-I-mahi. 

a. There also occurs one mid. precative form sa-sah-I-s-thas (sah 


1 In these three forms the a of the reduplicative syllable an is 
shortened as if the indicative contained an augment. 

2 Identical in form with the unaugmented pluperfect (140, 6). 

3 From ams attain, with the long reduplicative vowel retained. 
Cp. 139, 6. 


4. The imperative perfect is formed like that of the 
present reduplicating class, the radical syllable being weak 
except in the 3. s. act., where it is strong. Nearly all the 
forms occurring, which number about twenty, are active. 
Examples are : 

Act. s. 2. ci-kid-dhi (^/cit), di-did-dhi (v'dis), nm- 
mug-dhi (Vmuc), sa-sa-dhi (Vsas). 1 3. ba-bhu-tu, 2 

Du. 2. nm-muk-tam, va-vrk-tam (vrj twist). PI. 2. 
di-dis-tana (v'dis), va-vrt-tana. 

Mid. s. 2. va-vrt-sva. PI. 2. va-vrd-dhvam. 


5. Both active and middle forms of the perfect participle 
are common. It is formed from the weak perfect stem, 
with the accent on the suffix, as cakr-vams, cakr-ana. 
If, in the active form, the stem is reduced to a monosyllable, 
the suffix is nearly always added with the connecting vowel i, 
but not when the stem is unreduplicated ; e. g. papt-i-vams 
(Gk. TreTTT-coy), but vid-vams (Gk. e^-coy). Examples are : 

Act. ja-gan-vams (Vgam), ja-grbh-vams (Vgrabh), 
ji-gi-vams ( v/ji), ju-ju- vams 3 (Vju), ta-sthi-vams (Vstha), 
ba-bhu-vams (Gk. Tre-^f-co?), ri-rik-vams (\/ric), va-vrt- 
vams, va-vrdh- vams, 3 sa-sah- vams, 3 su-sup-vams ( V svap) ; 
iy-1-vams (Vi), us-i-vams (vas dwell) ; das- vams (das 
worship), sah-vams (A/sah). 

Mid. an-aj-ana ( Vanj), an-as-ana (v^ams), ij-ana (-/yaj), 
uc-ana (V vac), ja-gm-ana (\/gam), ti-stir-ana ( Vstf), tep- 
ana (V tap), pa-spas-ana (V spas), bhej-ana (\/bhaj), 

1 Cp. Gk. K-K\v-Oi, 2. pi. K-K\v-rf (/cXv = sru hear). 

2 With u unchanged as in strong forms elsewhere (139, 7). 
r> With long reduplicative vowel. 

158 CONJUGATION [140-141 

yem-ana (Vyam), va-vrdh-ana, sa-say-ana (Vsi), sl-sriy- 
ana (v'sri), si-smiy-ana (Vsmi). su-sup-ana (^/svap), 
sen-ana (\/sah). 


6. Corresponding to the imperfect there is an augmented 
form of the perfect called the pluperfect. The strong stem 
is used in the singular active, the weak elsewhere. The 
secondary endings only are used ; in the 3. pi. ur always 
appears in the active and Iran l in the middle. The s and t 
of the 2. and 3. s. are in some forms preserved by an 
interposed I. There are also several forms made with 
thematic a in this tense. The augment is often dropped, as 
in other past tenses. The total number of pluperfect forms 
occurring is about sixty. Examples are : 

Act. s. 1. a-cacaks-am, a-jagrabh-am, a-tustav-am ; 
cakar-am, ciket-am (\/cit). 2. a-jagan (= a-jagam-s) ; 
na-nam-a-s; a-vives-I-s('/vis). 3. a-jagan (=a-jagam-t), 
a-ciket (\/cit) ; ra-ran (= raran-t : ran rejoice) ; a-ja- 
grabh-i-t ; a-cikit-a-t and a-ciket-a-t ; tastambh-a-t. 

Du. 2. a-mu-muk-tam ; mu-nmk-tam. 3. a-vavas-i- 
tam (vas desire). 

PI. 2. a-jagan-ta ; a-cucyav-i-tana. 3. a-cucyav-ur. 

Mid. s. 1. a-susrav-i. 3. didis-ta (\/dis). PI. 3. a-cakr- 
iran, a-jagm-iran, a-pec-iran; a-vavrt-ran, a-sasrg-ram 
(-/srj). 2 There are also several transfer forms as from 
a stems ; e. g. a-titvis-a-nta, cakrp-d-nta, da-dhrs-a-nta. 


141. This tense is of very common occurrence in the 
Vedas, being formed from more that 450 roots. It is an 

1 Two forms take ran only instead of Iran. There are also several 
transfer forms in anta. 

2 With reversion of the palatal to original guttural, and ending 
ram for ran. 

141] AORIST 159 

augmented tense, taking the secondary endings and forming 
moods and participles. It is distinguished from the imperfect 
by having no corresponding present and by difference of 
meaning. There are two types of aorist. The first or 
sigmatic aorist is formed by inserting s, with or without an 
added a, between the root and the endings. It is taken by 
more than 200 roots. The second aorist adds the endings 
to the simple or the reduplicated root either directly or with 
the connecting vowel a. It is taken by over 250 roots. 
There are four forms of the first Aorist, and three of the 
second. Upwards of 50 roots take more than one form. 
One verb, budh ivake, has forms from five varieties of this 

First Aorist. 

a. The stem of the first form is made by adding to the 
augmented root the suffix sa. It is inflected like an imperfect 
of the sixth or a class of the first conjugation, the sa being 
accented in unaugmented forms. It is taken in the Samhitas 
by only ten roots J containing one of the vowels i, u, r, and 
ending in one of the consonants j, s, s, or h, all of which 
phonetically become k before s. 2 These roots are : mrj wipe, 
yaj sacrifice, vrj tivist ; krus cry out, mrs and sprs touch ; 
dvis hate ; gun hide, dun. milk, ruh ascend. In the indicative 
no dual forms are found ; and in the mid. only the 3. s. and 
pi. are met with. The only moods occurring are the 
injunctive and the imperative, with altogether fewer than 
a dozen forms. This form of the aorist corresponds to the 
Greek First Aorist (e. g. e-^e^e, Lat. dixi-t). The augment, 
as in other past tenses, is sometimes dropped. 

1 In B. nine additional roots take the sa aorist : krs drag, dis point, 
dih smear, drs" see, druh be hostile, pis crush, mih. mingere. vis enter, vrh 
tear ; and in S. lih lick. 

2 The stem of this aorist therefore always ends in ksa. 

160 CONJUGATION [141-143 

Indicative. Act. s. 1. avrksam. 2. adruksas (B.), 
adhuksas. 3. akruksat, aghuksat, aduksat l and adhuk- 
sat, amrksat (\/mrs), aruksat, asprksat. PI. 1. amrksa- 
ma (v'mrj), aruksama. 8. adhuksan ; duksan 1 and 

Mid. s. 3. adhuksata ; duksata 1 and dhuksata. PI. 3. 
amrksanta (A/mrj). 

In the injunctive only the following forms occur : 

Act. s. 2. duksas, 1 mrksas (\^mrs). 3. dviksat. PI. 2. 
mrksata (^/mrs). 

Mid. s. 3. duksata 1 and dhuksata, dviksata. PI. 3. 

In the imperative only three forms occur : 

Act. dii. 2. mrksatam (Vmrj). 3. yaksatam. 

Mid. s. 2. dhuksasva. 

142. The other three forms of the First Aorist are made 
by adding to the augmented root the suffixes s, is, s-is 
respectively. They are inflected like imperfects of the 
second or graded conjugation. The sis form is used in the 
act. only (excepting three optative forms) and is taken by 
not more than six roots. The other two are very common, 
being formed from nearly 300 roots in V. and B. taken 

Second or s form. 

143. This form of the aorist is taken by at least 135 
roots in V. and B. In addition to the indicative it forms 
all the moods and a participle. 


1. The radical vowel as a rule takes Vrddhi (a being 
lengthened) in the active. In the middle, excepting final i 
and u (which take Guna) the radical vowel remains im- 

1 On these forms without initial aspiration cp. 62 a. 




changed. The only point in which the inflexion differs 
from that of the imperfect of the graded conjugation is that 
the 3. pi. act. invariably ends in ur. In the active, the 
endings s and t of the 2. 3. s. disappear and the tense sign 
also, unless the root ends in a vowel ; e. g. a-har = a-har-s-t, 
but a-ha-s a-ha-s-t. The AV. and TS., however, less 
often than not, insert a connecting I before these endings, 1 
thus preserving both the latter and the s of the tense stem ; 
e.g. a-naik-s-i-t (nij wash). The forms of the indicative 
actually occurring would, if made from bhr bear in the 
active, and from budh waJce in the middle, be as follows : 


1. a-bhar-s-am 
2. a-bhar ' 
3. a-bhar 







1. a-bhut-s-i (62 a) 

2. a-bud-dhas (62 b) 

3. a-bud-dha (62 6) 




a-bhud-dhvam (62 a) 

The middle voice, as exemplified by a root ending in u, 
stu praise, is inflected as follows : 

Sing. 1. a-sto-s-i. 2. a-sto-s-thas. 3. a-sto-s-ta. Du. 1. 
[a-sto-s-vahi]. 2. [a-sto-s-atham]. 3. a-sto-s-atam. 
PI. 1. a-sto-s-mahi. 2. a-sto-dhvam (66 B 2 6). 3. a-sto- 

1 The RV. and K. have no forms with the inserted I ; while in B. 
the chief forms without it are adrak (drs see} and ay at (yaj sacrifice} ; 
also bhais (Vbhi) = bhais-s, which while losing the s ending pre- 
serves the appearance of a 2. sing. 

1819 M 


2. The subjunctive is common in the KV. 1 in active 
forms, but not in the middle. The root regularly takes 
Guna throughout (active and middle). The primary endings 
are frequent. The forms occurring, if made from stu praise, 
would be : 

Act. sing. 1. st6-s-ani. 2. sto-s-a-si, st6-s-a-s. 3. st6- 
s-a-ti, sto-s-a-t. Du. 2. sto-s-a-thas. 3. st6-s-a-tas. 
PL 1. st6-s-a-ma. 2. st6-s-a-tha. 3. st6-s-a-n. 

Mid. sing. 1. sto-s-ai. 2. st6-s-a-se. 3. sto-s-a-te. 
Du. 2. st6-s-athe (for st6-s-aithe). PI, 3. st6-s-a-nte. 

3. Injunctive forms are fairly common. When normal 
they are of course identical with the unaugmented indicative. 
But the sing. 1. act. is irregular in never taking Vrddhi : 
all the forms of it that occur either have Guna, as sto-s-am, 
je-s-am (v / ji) ; or lengthen the radical vowel, as yu-s-am 
(yu separate) ; or substitute e for a in roots ending in a, as 
ye-s-am (ya go), ge-s-am (ga go), sthe-s-am (stha stand). 
The latter irregularity also appears in pi. 1 : je-s-ma, 
ge-s-ma, de-s-ma (da' give), beside the normal yau-s-ma 
(yu separate). 

4. The optative occurs in the middle only, the 2. 3. s. 
always having the precative s (with one exception). The 
forms actually occurring are.: 

Sing. 1. di-s-iya 2 (da cut), bhak-s-iya (bhaj divide), 
ma-s-iya 3 (man think), muk-s-iya (muc release), ra-s-iya 
(ra give), sak-s-iya 4 (AV.), str-s-iya (str strew). 2. mam- 
s-I-s-thas 5 (man think). 3. dar-s-i-s-ta (dr tear), bhak-s- 
ita G (SV.), mam-s-1-s-ta, mrk-s-i-s-ta (mrc injure). Du. 2. 

1 Subjunctives of this aor. are very rare in B. except yaks-a-t 
and vaks-a-t (Vvah). 

2 With radical a reduced to i : cp. 5c. Similarly dhi-s-Iya (\/dha) 

3 With an reduced to a ( = sonant nasal). 

4 From sah overcome, with radical vowel lengthened. 

5 Anusvara for n (66 A 2). 
c Without the precative s, 

143-144] MOODS OF THE S AORIST 163 

tra-s-i-tham l (tra protect). PI. 1. bhak-s-i-mahi, mam-s-i- 
mahi, 2 vam-s-i-mahi and va-s-i-mahi 3 (van win), sak-s-i- 
mahi (sac folloiv), dhuk-s-i-mahi (duh milk). 3. mam- 
s' Irata. 

5. Only six imperative forms occur, and four of these are 
transfers (with thematic a). They are: Act. s. 2. ne-s-a 
(ni lead) and par-s-a (pr take across). Mid. s. 2. sak-sva 
(Vsah). 3. ra-s-a-tam. Du. 2. ra-s-atham. PI. 3. 

6. Only two or three forms of the active participle 
occur: dak-s-at 4 and dhak-s-at (dah burn), sak-s-at (Vs&h). 

About a dozen stems, irregularly formed by adding s to 
the root with an intermediate a and taking the regular 
ending ana, may be accounted middle s aorist participles ; 
e. g. mand-a-s-ana rejoicing, yam-a-s-ana being driven. 

Irregularities of the s form. 

144. 1. Before the suffix s, (a) final radical n (as well 
as m) becomes Anusvara (66 A 2), as a-mam-s-ata (V'man), 
vam-s-i-mahi (-/van) ; (fc) s becomes t in the verb vas 
dwell and possibly also in vas shine : a-vat-s-i-s 5 (AY.) tlwu 
hast dwelt and a- vat (= a-vas-s-t) has shone (AV.). 

2. The RV. has one example of an incipient tendency to 
preserve the s and t of the 2. 3. s. in 2. s. a-ya-s (=a-yaj-s-s) 
beside the phonetically regular form of the 3. s. a-yat 
(= a-yaj-s-t). The AV. has three or four examples of this : 
s. 2. sra-s (=sraj-s-s: Vsrj); 3. a-srai-t (= a-srai-s-t: 

1 For tra-s-Iyatham. 

2 With Anusvara for n (66 A 2). 

3 With an reduced to a (= sonant nasal). 

4 Without initial aspiration : cp. 62 a and 156 a. 

5 See 66 B 1. In an Upanisad the 2. du. appears as &-vas-tam, the 
aor. suffix s having been lost without affecting the radical s. 



Vsri) ; a-hai-t ( a-hai-s-t : ^hi) ; a-va-t l (= a-vas-s-t : 
vas shine). The later Samhitas here frequently preserve 
these endings by inserting I before them : s. 2. a-rat-s-i-s 
( -/radii), a-vat-s-i-s (vas dwell) ; 3. a-tam-s-i-t (</tan), 
a-naik-s-i-t (-/nij), tap-s-i-t (V tap), baai-s-i-t (\/bM), 
vak-s-i-t (V'vah), ha-s-i-t, hvar-s-i-t (-/hvar). 

a. The ending dhvam (before which the s of the aor. is lost) becomes 
dhvam when the s would have been cerebrali/ed (66 B 2) : a-sto- 
dhvam ( = &-sto-z- dhvam) is the only example. 

3. The roots da give and da cut reduce the radical vowel 
to i in a-di-s-i, di-s-iya ; gam, man, van lose their nasal in 
a-ga-smahi, ma-s-iya, va-s-i-mahi (beside vam-s-i-mahi) ; 
while sah. lengthens its vowel in a-sak-s-i, sak-s-i ; sak-s- 
ama; sak-s-iya; sak-sva. 

4. The roots srj emit and prc mix take metathesis in the 
act.: s. 2. sra-s (= srak). 3. a-srak; a-prak. Du. 2. 

5. The following are the forms occurring in the 3. s. ind. 
act. in which (a) the ending t is lost : a-jai-s ( \/ji), a-pra-s, 
a-ha-s ; (1)) both the tense-sign s and the ending t are lost : 2 
a-kran (krand cry out), a-ksar (ksar flow), a-cait (cit 
perceive), a-chan (chand seem), a-tan (tan stretch), a-tsar 
(tsar approach stealthily), a-dyaut (dyut shine), a-dhak (dah 
burn), a-prak (prc mix), a-prat (prach ask), a-bhar (bhr), 
a-yat (yaj sacrifice), a-yan (yam guide), a-raut (rudh 
obstruct), a- vat (vah convey), a-vat 1 (vas shine), a-svait (svit 
be bright), a-syan (syand move on), a-srak (srj emit), a-svar 
(svar sound), a-har (hr take), a-raik (ric leave). 

6. After a consonant other than n, m, r the tense sign s 
is dropped before t, th, and dh ; e. g. a-bhak-ta (beside 
a-bhak-s-i) ; a-muk-thas (beside a-muk-s-i). 

1 But the t may in this instance represent the changed final radical 
s : 144, 1 (&). There are a few additional examples in B. : ajait 
(beside ajais and ajaislt : Vji); acait (</ci); nait (Vni). 

2 And even the final consonant of the root when there are two (28). 

145] IS AOKIST 165 

Third or is form. 

145. About 145 roots take this aorist in V. and B. It 
differs from the s aorist merely in adding the s with the 
connecting vowel i, which changes it to s (67). 


1. The radical vowel as a rule takes Guna throughout ; 
but in the active a final vowel takes Vrddhi and a medial 
vowel is sometimes lengthened. The endings are the same 
as those of the s aorist except that the 2. 3. s. end in is 
(rr is-s) and it (= is-t). This aorist has all the moods, but 
no participle. Middle forms are not common and very few 
occur except in the 2. 3. sing. 

The normal forms occurring, if made from kram stride, 
would be : 

Act. sing. 1. a-kram-is-am. 2. a-kram-is. 3. a-kram-it. 
Du. 3. a-kram-is-tam. PI. 1. a-kram-is-ma. 3. a-kram- 

Mid. sing. 1. a-kram-is-i. 2. a-kram-is-thas. 3. a-kram- 
is-ta. Du. 3. a-kram-is-atam. PI. 3. a-kram-is-ata. 

2. Subjunctive forms are rare except in the 2. 3. s. act. 
Examples are : 

Act. sing. 1. dav-is-ani. 2. av-is-a-s, kan-is-a-s. 3. kar- 
is-a-t, bodh-is-a-t. PI. 3. san-is-a-n. 

Mid. pi. 1. yac-is-a-mahe. 3. san-is-a-nta. 

3. Injunctive are commoner than subjunctive forms. 
They occur most frequently in the 2. 3. s. and plur. 
Examples are : 

Act. sing. 1. sams-is-am (sams praise). 2. av-is (av 
favour), tar-is (tr cross), yodh-is (yudh fight), sav-is (su 
generate). 3. as-it (as eat), tar-it. Du. 2. taris-tam, mardh- 
is-tam (mrdh neglect). PL 1. sram-is-ma. 2. vadh-is-ta 
and vadh-is-tana. 3. jar-is-ur (jr waste away). 

Mid. sing. 1. radh-is-i (radh succeed). 2. mars-is-thas 

166 CONJUGATION [145-146 

(mrs not heed). 3. pav-is-ta fan purify). PL 1. vyath-is- 
mahi (vyath waver). 

4. Optative forms are rare, occurring in the middle only. 
The 2. 3. s. take the precative s. Examples are : 

Sing. 1. edh-is-iya (edh thrive). 2. mod-is-i-s-thas (mud 
rejoice). 3. jan-is-i-s-ta. Du. 1. sah-is-i-vahi. PL tar-is- 

5. Imperative forms are rare, occurring in the active only. 
Sing. 2. av-id-dhi. 3. av-is-tu. Du. 2. av-is-tam. 3. av- 
is-tarn. PL 2. av-is-tana. 

a. The radical medial a is lengthened in kan enjoy, car move, das 
waste, mad exhilarate, stan thunder, svan sound, and optionally in vad 
speak, ran rejoice, san gain, sah prevail ; while the radical syllable 
appears in a reduced or unstrengthened form in the opt. s. 1. mid. of 
gam and rue shine : gm-is-iyd and ruc-is-iyd. 

6. The root grabh seize takes the connecting vowel I (as it does in 
other verbal forms) instead of i, as d-grabh-is-ma. 

c. In s. 1. ind. act. the ending im appears instead of is-am in the 
three forms a-kram-im, a-grabh-im, and vadh-im, doubtless owing to 
the analogy of the 2. 3. s. in is, It. In B. is also found a-grah-ais-am 

Fourth or sis form. 

146. This form differs from the preceding one simply in 
prefixing an additional s to the suffix. Only seven verbs 
ending in a, n, or m, ga sing, jna know, 1 pya fill up, ya go, 
ha leave, van win, ram rejoice, take this aorist. The total 
number of forms occurring is under twenty; and middle 
forms are found in the optative only. The forms occurring 
are : 

1. Indicative. Sing. 1. a-ya-sis-am. Du. 3. a-ya-sis- 
tam. PL 2. a-ya-sis-ta. 3. a-ga-sis-ur, a-ya-sis-ur. 

2. Subjunctive. Sing. 3. ga-sis-a-t, ya-sis-a-t. 

1 In B. also occurs dhya think, besides forms in s-it from dra sleep, 
va blow, hva call. 


3. Optative. Sing. 1. vam-sis-iya. 2. ya-sis-i-s-thas, 1 
PI. 1. pya-sis-i-mahi. 

4. Injunctive. Sing. 1. ram-sis-am. Du. 2. ha-sis-tam. 
3. ha-sis-tam. PI. 2. ha-sis-ta. 3. ha-sis-ur. 

5. Imperative. Du. 2. ya-sis-tam. PL 2. ya-sis-ta. 2 

Second Aorist. (<* -if'** 

147. This aorisfc resembles an imperfect formed directly 
from the root, the terminations being added with or without 
the connecting vowel a. 

The first form is like an imperfect of the accented a class 
(125, 2), the stem being formed by adding a to the un- 
modified root. 3 It corresponds to the second aorist of the 
first conjugation in Greek. It is taken, in V. and B. 
together, by nearly eighty roots, chiefly with a medial vowel. 
Middle forms are rare. 

1. Indicative. The forms actually occurring would, if 
made from vid find, be as follows : 

Act. sing. 1. avidam. 2. a vidas. 3. a vidat. Du. 1. 
avidava, PL 1. avidama. 2. avidata. 3. avidan. 

Mid. sing. 1. avide. 2. avidathas. 3. avidata. Du. 1. 
avidavahi. 3. avidetam. PL 1. avidamahi. 3. avidanta. 

2. The subjunctive forms from the same root would be : 
Act. sing. 2. vidasi, vidas. 3. vidati, vidat. Du. 1. 

vidava. 2. vidathas. 3. vidatas. PL 1. vidama. 2. vid- 
atha, vidathana. 

Mid. sing. 3. vidate. PL 1. vidamahe. 

3. The injunctive forms from vid would be : 

Act. sing. 1. vidam. 2. vidas. 3. vidat. PL 3. vidan. 
Mid. sing. 3. vidat a. PL 1. vidamahi. 3. vidanta. 

4. The optative is rare in V., but not infrequent in B. 

1 With precative s. 

2 With I for i. 

8 Three roots with r, however, show forms with Guna (147 a 2 and c). 

168 CONJUGATION [147-148 

It is almost restricted to the active. The forms from vid 
would be : 

Act. sing. 1. videyam. 2. videos. 3. vide"t. PL 1. 

Mid. sing. 1. vid6ya. PI. 1. vide"mahi. There also occurs 
one precative form, s. 3. vide"sta (AV.). 

5. Imperative forms are rare and almost restricted to the 
active. Those made by sad sit are : 

Sing. 2. sada. 3. sadatu. Du. 2. sadatam. 3. sadatam. 
PI. 2. sadata, sadatana. 3. sadantu. 
Mid. pi. 2. sadadhvam. 3. sadantam. 

6. Rather more than a dozen examples of the participle, 
taking active and middle together, occur : e. g. trp-ant, 
sucant; guhamana, sucamana. 


a. Several roots form transfer stems according to this instead of the 
root form, chiefly by reducing the radical syllable. 

1. khya see, vya envelope, hva call shorten their a to a : -khya-t, 
d-vya-t, &-hva-t; da give, dh&put, siha, stand occasionally do the same, 
in the forms a-da-t ; d-dha-t (SV.) and dha-t ; a-stha-t (AV.) ; sas 
order shortens a to i ; e. g. 3. s. inj. 6fsat, part, sisdnt. 

2. kr make and gam go form a few transfers from the root class in 
the AV., retaining the strong radical vowel : d-kar-a-t, a-gam-a-t, 

&. The root is reduced by the loss of its nasal in krand cry out, tams 
shake, dhvams scatter, bhram6 fall, randh make subject, srams fall e. g. 
3. sing, dtasat; pi. dhvasdn ; subj. pi. 1. radhama ; inj. sing. 1. 
radham ; 2. kradas ; 3. bhrasat. 

c. The root takes Guna in r go, drs see, srflow ; e.g. dr-anta (unaug- 
mented 3. pi. ind. mid.) ; d&rS-am (s. 1. inj., but pi. 3. inj. drs&n, opt. 
1. s. drs^yam, pi. drse"ma) ; s&rat (unaugmented 3. s.). 

Second Form: Root Aorist. 

148. This form of the simple aorist is taken by about 
100 roots in V., and about 25 others in B., the commonest 
being those with medial a (about 30). It corresponds to 


the second aorist of the second conjugation in Greek. It is 
inflected in both active and middle. 


1. The root is strong in the sing, act., but weak elsewhere. 
Roots ending in vowels, however, tend to retain the strong 
vowel throughout the active except the 3. pi. Those ending 
in a regularly retain that vowel throughout the ind. act. 
except in 3. pi. where it is dropped before ur, which is 
always the ending in these verbs. In the 3. pi. mid. the 
ending ran is more than twice as common as ata ; ram as 
well as ran is taken by three roots. 

a. The forms occurring from roots ending in a, if made 
from stha, would be : 

Act. sing. 1. a-stha-m (ji-crTrj-v). 2. a-stha-s. 3. a-stha-t 
(C-OTT;). Du. 2. a-stha-tam. 3. a-stha-tam. PI. 1. a-stha-ma 
(e-crTr}-jj,v). 2. a-stha-ta. 3. a-sth-ur. 

Mid. sing. 2. a-sthi-thas (e-ara-tfr;?). 3. a-sthi-ta. PI. 1. 
a-sthi-mahi. 3. a-sthi-ran. 

&. Roots in r take Guna throughout the ind. act. except 
the 3. pi. The forms from kr would be : 

Act. sing. 1. a-kar-am. 2. a-kar. 3. a-kar. Du. 2. 
a-kar-tam. 3. a-kar-tam. PI. 1. a-kar-ma. 2. a-kar-ta. 
3. a-kr-an. 

Mid. sing. 1. a-kr-i. 2. a-kr-thas. 3. a-kr-ta. Du. 1. 
a-kr-vahi. 3. a-kr-tam. PI. 1. a-kr-mahi. 2. a-kr- 
dhvam. 3. a-kr-ata. 

c. bhu le retains its u throughout (as in the perfect), 
interposing v between it and a following a : 

Act. 1. a-bhuv-am. 1 2. a-bhu-s. 3. a-bhu-t (e-0i/). 
Du. 2. a-bhu-tam. 3. a-bhu-tam. PL 1. a-bhu-ma 
(e-<t>v-fj.ei'). 2. a-bhu-ta and a-bhu-tana. 3. a-bhu-v-an. 

d. The following are forms of the 2. 3. s. act. in which 

1 With split u ; in the later language a-bhuv-am, 


the endings a and t are lost : 2. a-kar, a-gan (= a-gam-s), 
a-ghas, a-var (vr cover), a-spar (spr win) ; with lengthened 
augment: a-nat 1 (nas attain), a-var (vr cover), a-vas* (vas 
shine). 3. a-kar, a-kran 3 (kram stride), a-gan, 3 a-ghas, 
a-cet (cit observe), a-tan, a-dar (dr pierce), a-bhet (bhid 
pierce), a-bhrat (bhraj shine), a-mok (muc release), a-myak 
(myaks be situated), a-vart (vrt turn), a-star ; with lengthened 
augment: a-nat, 4 a-var (vr cover), a-vas 2 (vas shine) ; without 
augment : vark 5 (vrj twist), skan 6 (skand leap). 

e. In the 3. pi. act. and mid. roots with medial a are 
syncopated: a-ks- an (= a-ghas- an), a-gm-an (=a-gam-an); 
a-gm-ata (=a-gam-ata), a-tn-ata ( a-tan-ata) ; but in 
the 2. 3. s. mid. they lose their nasal : a-ga-thas, a-ga-ta, 
a-ma-ta (but 1. du. gan-vahi, pi. a-gan-mahi). 

/ Final a is in the mid. ind. reduced to i, and before m 
also to I; e.g. 2. a-di-thas, a-sthi-thas. 3. a-dhi-ta 
(e-0e-ro). PI. 1. a-dhi-mahi (TS.) and a-dl-mahi (VS.), 

g. In the 3. s. ind. ghas is reduced to g : gdha (=ghas-ta) 7 ; 
while r go takes Guna: ar-ta (unaugmented) and ar-ta 
(wp-ro), 3. pi. ar-ata. 

h. The forms taking ran in 3. pi. mid. are : a-krp-ran, 
a-grbh-ran, a-jus-ran, a-drs-ran, a-pad-ran, a-budh-ran, 
a-yuj-ran, a-vas-ran (vas shine), a- vis-ran, a-vrt-ran, 
a-srg-ran, 8 a-sthi-ran, a-sprdh-ran ; with ram : a-drs-ram, 
a-budh-ram, a-srg-ram. 8 

1 For a-nas-s, the phonetic result of which should have been 
a-nak (636). 

2 For a-vas-s, a-vas-t. These forms have by an oversight been 
omitted in 499 of my Vedic Grammar. 

8 For 6-kram-t, &-gam-t. 

* For a-nas-t. 5 For varj-t. 6 For skand-t. 

7 By syncopation gh-s-ta ; loss of s between consonants (66 B 2 a) 
gh-ta, and loss of aspiration, which is thrown forward on the t and 
renders it sonant (62 6). 

8 With reversion to the original guttural. 


2. The subjunctive is common, nearly 100 forms being 
met with. The forms occurring, if made from kr, would be : 

Act. sing. 1. kara and kar-ani. 2. kar-a-si and kar-a-s. 
3. kar-a-ti and kar-a-t. 1 Du. 2. kar-a-thas. 3. kar-a-tas. 
PL 1. kar-a-ma. 3. kar-anti, kar-a-n. 

Mid. sing. 2. kar-a-se. 3. kar-a-te. 2 PL 1. kar-a-mahe 
and kar-a-mahai. 3. kar-anta. 

3. The injunctive is fairly frequent, nearly sixty forms of 
it being met with. Examples are : 

Act. sing. 1. kar-am, dars-am, 3 bhuv-am, bhoj-am. 

2. je-s, bhu-s, bhe-s (bhi/ear), dhak 4 (dagh reach), bhet 
(bhid split), rok (ruj break). 3. bhu-t, sre-t (Vsri), nak 
and nat (nas attain). PL 1. dagh-ma, bhu-ma ; ched-ma, 5 
ho-ma 5 (hu call). 3. bhuv-an, vr-an (vr cover) ; kram-ur, 
dur (da give), dh-ur (dha put). 

Mid. sing. 1. nams-i (nams = nas attain). 2. nut-thas 
(nud push), mr-thas (mr die), mrs-thas (mrs neglect), rik- 
thas (ric leave). 3. ar-ta (r go), as-ta (as attain), vik-ta 
(vij tremble), vr-ta (vr choose). PL 1. dhi-mahi (dha put). 

4. More than forty optative forms are met with. Examples 

Act. sing. 1. as-yam (as obtain), vrj-yam, de-yam (da 
give). 2. as-yas, rdh-yas, gam-yas, jne-yas, bhu-yas. 

3. bhu-yat 6 (AV.). PL 1. as-yama, rdh-yama, kri-yama, 
bhu-yama, sthe-yama. 3. as-yiir (as attain), dhe-yiir. 

Mid. sing. 1. as-iya. 3. ar-i-ta (r go). PL 1. as-i-mahi, 
idh-i-mahi (idh Mndle), nas-i-mahi (nas reach). 

The root is weak in the isolated forms fdh-a-t, bhuv-a-t, sriiv-a-t. 

The weak root appears once in the form idh-a-t6. The weak root 
also appears once in the 2. du. form rdh-athe. 

This may, however, be an irregular a aorist : cp. 147 c. 

For dagh-s. 

With strong radical vowel. 

6 The RV. has no forms of the 3. s. in yat, but only precatives in 


a. There are also about thirty precative forms (made from 
about twenty roots in the Samhitas), all of which except two 
are active. Examples are : 

Act. sing. 1. bhu-yasam. 3. as-yas (= as-yas-t), gam- 
yas, dagh-yas, pe-yas (pa drink), bhu-yas. Du. 2. 
bhu-yastam. PI. 1. kri-yasma. 2. bhu-yasta. 

Mid. s. 3. pad-i-s-ta, muc-i-s-ta. 

5. Over ninety forms of the imperative occur, all but 
about twelve being active. Several forms in the 2. persons 
act. have a strong root, which is then usually accented. 
Examples are : 

Act. s. 2. kr-dhi, ga-dhi (gam), piir-dhi (pr fill), bo-dhi, 1 
yo-dhi 2 (yudh fight), sag-dhi (sak be able) ; ga-hi (gam go), 
ma-hi (ma measure), sa-hi (sa bind). 3. gan-tu (gam go), 
dha-tu, bhu-tu, sr6-tu. 

Du. 2. kr-tam and kar-tam (AV.), ga-tam and gan-tam, 
da-tam, dhak-tam (dagh reach), bhu-tam, var-tam (vr 
cover), vo-lham (vah carry), sru-tam. 3. gan-tam, pa-tam, 
vo-lham. PI. 2. kr-ta and kar-ta, ga-ta and gan-ta, bhu-ta, 
yan-ta, sru-ta and sr6-ta ; kar-tana, gan-tana, dha-tana, 
bhu-tana. 3. gam-antu, dhantu, sruv-antu. 

Mid. s. 2. kr-sva, dhi-sva (dha put), yuk-sva (yuj join) ; 
accented on the root : mat-sva, yak-sva (yaj sacrifice), ra-sva, 
vam-sva (van win), sak-sva (sac follotv). PL 2. kr-dhvam, 

6. Of the participle only seven or eight examples occur 
in the active, but nearly forty in the middle. Examples are : 

Act. rdh-ant, kr-ant, gm-ant, sthant. 

Mid. ar-ana, idh-ana, kr-ana, drs-ana and drs-ana, 
budh-ana, bhiy-ana, vr-ana (vr cover), subh-ana and 
sum-bhana, suv-ana (always to be pronounced svana) and 
sv-ana (SV.). 

1 Formed from both bhu be (for bhu-dhi) and budh awake (for 
bod-dhi instead of bud-dhi). 

2 For yud-dhi (through y6d-dhi). 


Third or Reduplicated Form. 

149. This aorist is formed from nearly ninety verbs in 
the Samhitas and from nearly thirty more in the Brahmanas. 
Though (with a few slight exceptions) unconnected in form 
with the causative, it has come to be connected with the 
causative in sense, having a causative meaning when the 
corresponding verb in aya has that meaning. The character- 
istic feature of this aorist is the almost invariable quantitative 
sequence of a long reduplicative and a short radical vowel 
(- w). In order to bring about this rhythm, the reduplicative 
vowel (unless it becomes long by position) is lengthened, if 
the radical vowel is (or is made) prosodically short. With 
this view the radical vowel is shortened in vas bellow, sadh 
succeed, hid be hostile and, by dropping the nasal, in krand 
cry out, jambh crush, randh subject, syand flow, srams fall 
The stem of the great majority of forms is made with a 
thematic a. But about a dozen roots ending in vowels 
(a, i, u, r) and svap sleep make occasional forms from stems 
without thematic a, the inflexion then being like that of an 
imperfect of the reduplicating class (127, 2). A medial 
radical vowel remains unchanged or is weakened, but a final 
vowel takes Guna. All the moods occur, but no participle. 

Special Rules of Reduplication. 

a. The vowels a, r, 1 are represented in the reduplicative 
syllable by i. 

b. The vowel of the reduplicative syllable, unless already 
long by position, is lengthened. 

1. The forms of the indicative actually occurring would, 
if made from jan beget, be as follows : 

Act. s. 1. ajijanam. 2. ajijanas. 8. ajijanat. Du. 2. 
ajijanatam. PI. 1. ajijanama. 2. ajijanata. 3. ajijanan. 

Mid. s. 3. ajijanata. PI. 2. ajijanadhvam. 3. ajljananta. 


The following are examples : 

Act. s. 1. aninasam (nas be lost), acikrsam (krs drag), 
apiplavam (B.), apiparam (pr pass). 2. aci-krad-as, 
abubhuvas; sisvapas; without thematic a: a-jigar (gr 
swallow and gr waken) ; sisvap. 3. aciklpat, acucyavat (K.), 
ajihidat (\/Md), adidyutat, abubudhat, avivasat (-s/vas), 
avi-vrdhat, asisyadat ( \/syand) ; bibhayat, sisnathat (snath 
pierce); without thematic a: a-sisre-t (V^sri), a-sisnat. 
PI. 3. avivasan (\/vas), asisrasan (Vsrams), asisadan 
( N/sad) ; abibhajur (B.). 

Mid. s. 3. avivarata (vr cover). PI. 2. avivrdhadhvam. 
3. abibhayanta, avivasanta (v/vas), asisyadanta. 

2. The subjunctive is rare, only about a dozen forms 
occurring, all active except one. Examples are : 

Act. s. 1. raradha. 2. titapasi. 3. ciklpati, pisprsati, 1 
sisadhati (-/sadh). PI. 1. riramama, sisadhama. 

3. Injunctive forms are fairly common, more than fifty 
occurring in the active, but only five in the middle. 
Examples are : 

Act. s. 1. cukrudham, didharam(dhr/w/d). 2. ciksipas, 
pisprsas, riradhas, sisadhas. 3. cucyavat, didharat, 
mimayat (ma bellow), sisvadat (svad siveeten). 

Du. 2. jihvaratam. PI. 2. riradhata. 3. riraman, 
susucan (sue shine). 3. sisapanta (sap serve). 

4. The optative forms number hardly a dozen, being 
made from only three roots, mostly from vac speak, the rest 
from cyu stir and ris hurt. They are : 

Act. s. 1. voce'yam. 2. ririses, voc6s. 3. voc6t. 

Du. 2. voc^tam. PI. 1. voc6ma. 3. voce'yur. 

Mid. s. 1. voc^ya. PL 1. cucyuv-i-mahi, 1 vocSmahi. 
3. cucyav-i-rata. 1 There is also the 3. s. mid. precative 
form riris-i-s-ta. 

1 Without thematic a. 


5. Hardly more than a dozen imperative forms occur, all 
of them active. These are : 

Sing. 2. vocatat. 3. vocatu. 

Du. 2. jigrtam 1 (gr waken), didhrtam, 1 vocatam. PI. 2. 
jigr-ta, 1 didhrta, 1 paptata, vocata, susudata (AV.). 
3. pupurantu (pr fill), sisrathantu. 


a. 1. The reduplicative syllable of dyut shine has i 2 : &-didyutat ; 
that of am injure repeats the whole root 3 : am-am-at (= 6-am-am-at) ; 
while it is left short in jigrtam, jigrt& (beside d-jigar), didhrtam, 
didhrt& (beside 6,-didharat), and in the isolated inj. didipas for 
didipas (dip shine}. 

2. The radical syllable suffers contraction or syncopation (as in the 
weak forms of the perfect) in the three verbs nas be lost, vac speak, and 
pat/aM; thus &-nes-at (= 6-nanas-at), d-voc-at (= &-va-uc-at : cp. 
Gk. 6-6t7r-o-i') and d-papt-at. Having all had the reduplicative vowel 
of the perfect (while the regular aorist reduplicative I appears in 
the alternative forms i-ninas-at and d-plpat-at), they were probably 
pluperfects in origin. But they have come to be aorists as is shown 
by their meaning and by the occurrence of modal forms (as vocatu, 
&c., and paptata). 

3. The initial of the suffix is retained from the causative stems 
jiia-paya, stha-paya, ha-paya, bhi-saya, ar-paya, ja-paya (Vji)- 
The radical vowel is reduced to i in the first four, while the redupli- 
cative vowel comes after instead of before the radical vowel in the 
fifth : thus a-ji-jnip-at ; &-ti-sthip-at ; jl-hip-as ; bl-bhis-as, bi-bhis- 
athas ; arp-ip-am 4 ; d-ji-jap-a-ta 5 (VS.). 

Benedictive or Precative. 

150. This is a form of the optative which adds an s 
after the modal suffix and which is made almost exclusively 
from aorist stems. In the RV. it occurs in the 1. 3. s. and 

1 Without thematic a. 

2 Cp. its perfect reduplication : 139, 8. 

3 Cp. the perfect reduplication of roots with a + nasal (139, 6). 

4 Here the p of the suffix is not only retained, but reduplicated. 

5 The causative of ji conquer from which this aor. is formed, would 
normally have been jay-aya. In B. also occurs the form 6-ji-jip-ata. 

176 CONJUGATION [150-151 

1. pi. active, and in the 2. 8. s. mid. The endings together 
with the modal suffix are : 

Act. s. 1. ya-s-am. 3. ya-s (= yas-s) ; pi. 1. ya-s-ma. 

Mid. s. 2. i-s-thas. 3. i-s-ta. 

a. The only perfect precative occurring is the 2. s. mid. : 

&. Of the root aorist nearly thirty precatives are met with 
in the Samhitas. They occur in the act. 1. 3. s., 2. du., 
1. 2. pi. ; mid. 3. s. (see 148, 4 a). The a aorist and the 
reduplicated aor. have one precative form each in the 3. s. 
mid. (147, 4 and 149, 4). In the s aorist four precative 
forms occur in the 2. and 3. s. mid. (see 143, 4). 

Simple Future. 

151. The stem is formed by adding the suffix sya or 
(rather less frequently with connecting i) i-sya to the root. 
As the future sense is often expressed by the subjunctive 
and sometimes also by the indicative, the future tense is not 
common in the RV. , being formed from only sixteen roots, 
while the AV. makes it from about thirty-two others, and 
the TS. forms it from over sixty roots. In V. and B. taken 
together over one hundred form the future in sya and over 
eighty that in isya. The only derivative verbs that form 
the future (always with isya) are causatives, of which four 
stems appear, two in the RV. and two in the AV. Roots 
ending in r always take isya, whereas those ending in other 
vowels generally take sya. 

a. Final vowels and prosodically short medial vowels take 
Guna, final a and medial a remaining unchanged ; e. g. 
ji conquer : je-sya ; ni lead : ne-sya ; da give : da-sya ; 
mih shed water : mek-sya ; yuj join : yok-sya ; krt cut : 
kart-sya ; dan lurn : dhak-sya ; bandh Und : bhant-sya ; 
bhu he: bhav-isya; sr flow : sar-isya; vrt turn : vart- 

151-152] SIMPLE FUTURE 177 

o. Causatives, which always take isya, retain the present stem, 
dropping only the final a ; thus dharay-isya" (dhr support}; vasay-isya" 
(vas wear} ; dus-ay-isy& (dus spoil} ; varay-isyi (vr cover}. 

b. The inflexion of the future is like that of the present of 
the first conjugation (bhavami). Middle forms occur in the 
sing. only. The forms met with, if made from kr do, 
would be : 

Act. s. 1. kar-isyami. 2. kar-isyasi. 3. kar-isyati. 
Du. 2. kar-isyathas. 3. kar-isyatas. PI. 1. kar-isya- 
mas, -masi. 2. kar-isyatha. 3. kar-isyanti. 

Mid. s. 1. kar-isy<. 2. kar-isyase. 3. kar-isyate. 

1. Only one subjunctive, the 2. s. act. kar-isyas, has 
been met with in V., and one other, 1. du. mid., not-syava- 
hai (nud push) in B. 

2. More than twenty participles occur, of which only four 
are mid. Examples are: 

Act. kar-isy-ant, dhak-sy-ant (Vdah) ; mid. yak-sya- 
mana (-/yaj), stavisya-mana (Vstti). 


c. In su bring forth the future stem is formed with unchanged final 
vowel, which is moreover accented : su-sya ; while the medial a of sah 
is lengthened : sak-sya". 

Periphrastic Future. 

152. There is no certain example of this form of the 
future in the Samhitas. But such a phrase as anv-aganta 
yajnapatir vo atra (TS., VS.) the sacrificer is following after 
you here may be an example of its incipient use. 1 

In B. this future is taken by nearly thirty roots. It is made by 
using the N. s. of an agent noun in tr (180), to which the present of 
the verb as be is added in the 1. 2. persons, while in the 3. persons du. 
and pi. the N. du. and pi. appear. The use of this tense-form is 

1 The forerunners in V. of this new tense-formation in B. are the 
agent nouns in tr which, generally accented on the root, are used 
participially governing an ace. and may be employed predicatively 
with or without the copula ; e. g. data yo v&nita maghdm (iii. 13 3 ) wfto 
gives and wins bounty. 

1819 N 

178 CONJUGATION [152-154 

almost limited to the active, only a few isolated examples being 
found in the middle. Forms occurring, if made from bhu fee, would 
be: Act. sing. 1. bhavitasmi ; 3. bhavita. PI. 1. bhavitasmas ; 3. 
bhavitaras. Mid. sing. 1. 2. bhavitase. PI. 1. bhavitasmahe. 


153. This is a past tense of the future meaning would 
have. Only one example occurs in the Samhitas : a-bhar- 
isya-t (EV. ii. 30 2 ) was going to bear off. This form is 
very rare in B. also, except in the SB. where it is found 
more than fifty times. 


154. The passive, which takes the terminations of the 
middle, differs from the latter only in the forms made from 
the present stem and in the 3. s. aor. From the middle of 
verbs of the fourth class it differs in accent only : nah-ya-te 
binds : nah-ya-te is bound. 

The stem is formed by adding accented ya to the root, 
which appears in its weak form. 

1. Final a mostly becomes I ; e. g. da give : di-ya ; but it 
also remains ; e. g. jna know : jna-ya. 

2. Final i and u are lengthened ; e.g. ji conquer: ji-ya-te ; 
sru hear: sru-ya-te. 

3. Final r becomes ri ; e. g. kr make : kri-ya-te. 1 

4. Final r becomes Ir ; e. g. sr crush: sir-ya-te. 2 

5. Eoots ending in a consonant preceded by a nasal, lose 
the nasal ; e. g. anj anoint : aj-ya-te ; bandh bind : badh- 
ya-te ; bhanj break : bhaj-ya-te ; vane move crookedly : vac- 
ya-te ; sams praise : sas-ya-te. 

1 The only two roots in which r is preceded by two consonants and 
which form a passive are str strew and smr remember. Their passives do 
not occur in the Samhitas, but in B are found stri-y-te and smar-yd-te. 

2 The passive of pf fill does not occur in the Samhitas, but in B. it is 
pur-ya-te (the f being preceded by a labial). 

154-155] PASSIVE 179 

6. Koots liable to Samprasarana (17 note 1) take it ; e. g. 
vac speak : uc-ya-te ; vad speak : ud-ya-te ; vah carry : 
uh-ya-te ; grab seize : grh-ya-te. 

a. Derivative verbs in aya (causatives) drop the suffix while retain- 
ing the strong radical vowel. Only one such stem has been noted in 
the Samhitas : bhaj-ya'-te is caused to share (from bhaj-dya causative of 
bhaj share). 

a. The forms of the present indicative passive occurring, 
if made from hu call, would be : 

Sing. 1. hu-ye. 2. hu-ya-se. 3. hu-ya-te. Du. 3. 
hu-y6-te. PI. 1. hu-ya-mahe. 3. hu-ya-nte. 

1). As regards the moods only two certain subjunctive 
forms (s. 3. uh-ya-te, bhri-ya-te) and one injunctive (s. 3. 
su-ya-ta : su Tiring forth) occur. No optative forms occur 
in the EV. or AV. 1 There are, however, nearly thirty 
imperative forms occurring in the 2. 3. s. pi. These forms, 
illustrated by hu call, are : s. 2. hu-ya-sva. 3. hu-ya-tam. 
PI. 2. hu-ya-dhvam. 3. hu-ya-ntam. 

c. Of the participle over forty examples occur ; e. g. hu- 
ya-mana Icing called. Of the imperfect only about eight 
forms have been noted, occurring only in the 3. s. and pi. : 
a-hu-ya-ta and a-hu-yanta. 


d. tan stretch forms its passive from ta : ta-ya"-te 2 . Similarly jan 
beget becomes ja-ya-te is born, which, however, in form belongs to the 
radically accented fourth class, mri-ya-te dies (\/nir.) and dhri-yd-te 
(\/dhr) is steadfast, while passive in form, are intransitive in sense. 

Aorist Passive. 

155. Outside the present system the passive has no 
special finite form except in the 3. sing. aor. This is a 
peculiar middle form (made from about forty-five roots in 

1 But they are met with in the Brahmanas. 

2 In B. kha-ya-te is formed from khan dig. 


180 CONJUGATION [155-156 

the Samhitas) l which is used with a predominantly passive 
meaning. When it is formed from verbs with a neuter sense, 
like gam go, that sense remains unchanged (as in the past 
passive participle). It is a 8. s. ind. in which the augmented 
root takes the ending i. The characteristic feature of this 
form is the strengthening of the root as compared with other 
middle forms ; e. g. a-kar-i beside a-kr-i (1. s. mid.). 
Prosodically short medial i, u, r take Guna, and medial a is 
normally lengthened ; final i, u, r take Vrddhi, while final a 
interposes a y before the ending. The accent of unaug- 
mented forms is always on the root. Examples are : 
a-ved-i (yidfind), a-bodh-i (budh wake), a-dars-i (drs sec), 
a-vac-i (vac speak); a-sray-i (sri resort), a-stav-i (stu 
praise), a-kar-i (kr do), a-dha-y-i (dha put). 

More than twenty unaugmented forms are also used 
injunctively ; e. g. srav-i let ~be heard. 


a. 1. The medial a is not lengthened in d-jan-i, the unaugmented 
j&n-i (beside jan-i), and d-vah-i. 

2. From the denominative stem jaraya^Za?/ the lover the unique form 
jaraya-y-i let him be embraced is formed. 

I. Active Participles. 

156. The stem of the present (except the reduplicating 
class), the future, and the aorist active participle is formed 
with the suffix ant. 2 The strong stem may be obtained by 
dropping the i of the 3. pi. ind. act. ; e. g. bhav-ant, ksip- 
ant, as-yant; dun-ant, krnv-ant, bhind-ant, pri-nant. 

1 About a dozen more are found in B. 

2 On the declension of participles in ant see 85 ; on the formation 
of their fern, stems, 95 a. 

156-157] PARTICIPLES 181 

Stems of the reduplicating class do not distinguish strong 
forms because they drop the n : e. g. juhv-at (3. pi. 

The strong stem of the future participle may similarly be 
obtained by dropping the i of the 3. pi. act. : bhavisyant, 

The active participle is formed by the root aorist, the 
a aorist, and the s aorist, from the unaugmented tense stem 
in the latter two ; e. g. vida-nt, sak-s-ant (sah prevail) ; and 
from the weakened or unmodified root in the former ; e. g. 
rdh-ant, kr-ant (kr make), gm-ant (gam go), pant (pa 

a. Irregularities. In the pres. part, the initial a of as be and the 
medial a of han slay are lost : sant (3. pi. santi), ghn-ant (3. pi. ghn- 
&nti); while the n of the suffix is lost in das-at worshipping and s~as-at : 
(3. pi. sas-ati). The n is also lost in the s aor. part, of dan burn : 
daks-at and dh&ks-at. Whether it was also lost in saks-at, the part, 
of the same aor. from sah prevail, is uncertain because it is only met 
with in a weak case. 

157. The reduplicated perfect participle is formed 
from the weak (but uncontracted or unsyncopated) stem to 
which the suffix vams is directly added. There are more 
than fifty such stems. Examples are : cakr-vams, jagan- 
vams (gam go), tastabh-vams (stambh prop), tasthi-vams 
(stha stand), dadrs-vams, dad- vams (da give), ba-bhu-vams, 
vavrt-vams, sasa-vams (san gain), susup-vams (svap 

a. Some half-dozen of these participles are formed by 
adding the suffix with connecting i to the reduplicated stem 
contracted to a single syllable : I-y-i-vams (i go) ; us-i-vams 
(vas dwell) ; ok-i-vams 2 (uc be pleased) ; papt-i-vams (pat 
fall) ; sasc-i-vams (sac follow) ; in the later Samhitas also 

1 Both daS and sas belong to the root, and not the reduplicating 

2 With strong radical vowel and reversion to the original guttural. 

182 CONJUGATION [157-158 

jaks-i-vams (ghas eat). 1 The only certain example of a perf. 
part, adding the suffix with connecting i to the fully 
reduplicated stem is vivis-i-vams (TS.). 2 

&. A few perfect participles are formed by attaching vams 
to the unreduplicated stem : das-vams worshipping, vid-vams 
knowing, sah-vams prevailing, and perhaps khid-vams 3 
oppressing. Similarly formed is midh-vams bountiful, though 
the root does not occur in independent use. Three un- 
reduplicated roots take connecting i in the later Samhitas : 
das-i-vams (SV.) worshipping, vis-i-vams (AV.) entering, 
varj-i-vams 4 (AV.) having twisted. 

a. Irregularities. In seven stems the palatal reverts to the original 
guttural : oikit-vams (\/cit), jigi-vams (\/ji~), ririk-vams (v"ric), 
ruruk-vams (>/ruc), vivik-vams (-v/vic), susuk-vams (\/suc), ok-i- 
vams (Vac). The radical vowel is strong in dada-vams (AV.), ok-i* 
vams, sah-vams ; while the reduplicative vowel is long in sasah- 
vams and susu-vams 

II. Middle and Passive Participles. 

158. The participles of the future middle, of the present 
passive, and the present middle of the a conjugation are 
formed by adding the suffix mana to the stem (which 
always ends in a); e.g. fut. mid. yaksya-mana (Vyaj); 
pres. pass, kriya-mana (\/kr); pres. mid. yaja-mana. 

a. Verbs of the second conjugation add the suffix ana to 
the weak stem in the pres. mid. ; e.g. bruv-ana (Vbru), 
jiihv-ana (\/hu), rundh-ana (-v/rudh), krnv-ana (Vkr), 

a. There are several irregularities in the formation of the middle 
participles of the root class. 1. The root as sit optionally takes the 
anomalous suffix ma : as-ina beside as- and. 2. The final of the root 

1 jaks syncopated for jagh(a)s. 

2 In B. are also found dadrs-i-vams and ciohid-i-vams. 

3 Occurring only in the voc. khidvas. 

4 Presupposed by the fern, varjufi. 


duh milk optionally reverts to the original guttural : dugh-ana beside 
the regular dub-ana. 3. A few roots take Guna : oh-and, ( Vuh), 
yodh-ana' (Vyudh), say-ana (Vsl), stav-an& (Vstu). 4. Several of 
these participles optionally accent the radical syllable instead of the 
final vowel of the suffix ; e. g. vid-ana beside vid-ana". 

159. The Perfect Middle Participle is formed by adding 
the suffix -ana to the weak form of the stem as it appears 
before the ending of the 3. pi. mid. re (ire, rire). It is 
common, more than eighty examples occurring. The follow- 
ing are some of them : anaj-ana (Vanj), anas-ana (\/ams), 
ar-ana (Vr), ij-ana (\/yaj), uc-ana (V vac), cakr-ana 
(Vkr), cikit-ana (Vcit), jagm-ana (\/gam), tasth-ana 
(\/stha), tistir-ana (A/stf), tep-ana (\/tap), pap-ana (pa 
drink), paspas-ana (V spas), bhej-ana (\/bhaj), yem-ana 
(V yam), lebh-ana (\/labh), vavas-ana (vas tvear anddwell), 
sisriy-ana (\/sri), sismiy-anafA/smi), susup-ana(\ / svap). 

a. Irregularities. 1. This participle of si lie has the double anomaly 
of reduplicating with a and of strengthening the radical syllable : 1 
s'asay-ana'. 2. The root sah prevail adds the suffix to a reduplicated as 
well as to a contracted stem : sasah-an& and seh-an&. 3. The radical 
vowel of kam love and sam labour is not syncopated : cakam-and and 
sasam-ana. 4. Four of these participles have the intensive accent on 
the reduplicative syllable: tutuj-ana 2 , susuj-ana, sus"uv-ana (<v/su), 
and sasad-ana 3 

160. The Perfect Passive Participle is formed by adding, 
in the great majority of instances, the suffix ta (with or 
without connecting i) or, far less commonly, the suffix na 
(directly) to the root. 

1 Cp. a similar irregularity of si in 134, 1 &. 

2 Also normally, but less frequently, accented tutuj-and,. 

3 Cp. the Gk. perf. mid. part. 6aS-/ueVo-s. 

4 The first three cannot be accounted intensives because they have 
not the intensive reduplicative vowel (173, 1). Though the redupli- 
cative vowel of sasad-ana may be that of either perfect or intensive, 
the occurrence of the perf. form Sasadur beside it favours the view 
that it is a perf. participle. 


1. na, which is taken by primary verbs only, is attached 
to the (unweakened) root, which ends in a long vowel or one 
of the consonants d and (rarely) c or j. Before this suffix, 
I and u remain unchanged ; a remains or is reduced to I or i ; 
f becomes Ir or (generally when a labial precedes) ur ; d is 
assimilated to n ; c and j revert to the original guttural. 
Thus li cling : li-na ; du burn : du-na ; dra sleep : dra-na ; 
da divide : di-na ; ha leave : hi-na ; gf swalloiv : gir-na ; 
mr crush: mur-na ; jr waste away, jur-na ; bhid split: 
bhin-na ; skand leap : skan-na ; vrasc cut up : vrk-na ; 
ruj break : rug-na. 

a. Several roots take alternative forms in ta : uun-n& and nut-ta 
(Vnud) ; vin-n& and vit-td (vid find} ; san-n& and sat-td (sad sit) ; 
si-nd and sl-td (sya coagulate) ; pf fill : pur-rid and pur-ta ; sr crush : 
slr-nd and sur-td ; pro mix : -prg-na and prk-ta. 

b. The final palatal of pro mix, vrasc cut up and ruj break reverts tO 
the guttural (cp. 160, 1). 

2. When ta is added direct the root tends to appear in its 
weak form : verbs liable to Samprasarana take it ; a medial 
or final nasal is lost ; a is often reduced to I or i ; ya some- 
times to i. Examples are : ya-ta, ji-ta, bhi-ta, stu-ta, 
hu-ta, kr-ta; nas-ta (\/nas be lost), sik-ta (\/sic), yuk-ta 
(Vyuj), gu-dha (^guh), 1 dug-dha (\/duh), srs-t^ (^srj); 
is-ta (^yaj), vid-dha (\/vyadh), uk-ta (-/vac), u-dha 
(\/vah), 2 sup-ta (\/svap), prs-ta (\/prach) ; ak-ta (\/anj), 
ta-ta (\/tan), ga-ta (\/gam) ; pi-ta (pa drink), sthi-ta 
(\/stha); vi-ta (\/vya). 

a. The root dha put is doubly weakened in hi-td beside -dhi-ta. 
Medial a is reduced to i in sis-ta (sas order). Syncopation and loss of 
s appear in -g-dha eaten (^/ghas). 3 

6. Excepting the occurrence of the normal form -data in the com- 
pound tva-data given by thee, da give regularly uses the weak pres. 

1 With cerebralization and aspiration of the suffix, loss of the radical 
final and lengthening of the radical vowel (cp. 62, 69 c). 

a With the same changes as in gudh& after vah-ta has been reduced 
by Samprasarana to uh-tfi. 8 Cp. p. 170, note 7. 


stem dad in forming its past passive participle : dat-ta. The latter is 
further reduced to -tta in deva-ttd given by the gods, and when com- 
bined with certain prepositions : vy-a-tta opened, parl-tta given aivay, 
prati-tta given back. The same syncopation appears in the compound 
participle of da divide : dva-tta cut off'. 

c. One root in an and three or four in am retain the nasal and 
lengthen the vowel : dhvan sound : dhvan-ta ; kram stride : kran-td ; 
sam be quiet : san-t& ; sram be weary : sran-ta ; dham blow has the 
irregular dhma-td and dham-i-ta. 

d. A few roots in an have a L : khan dig : kha-t& ; jan be born : ja-t& ; 
van win : -va-ta ; san gain : sa-ta. 

3. i-ta is taken by a considerable number of roots ending 
not only in conjunct consonants or in single consonants 
difficult to combine with t, but also in simple consonants, 
especially sibilants, which present no such difficulty. The 
root is not weakened (excepting four instances of Sampra- 
sarana). Secondary verbs (almost without exception causa- 
tives) 2 take ita exclusively (after dropping aya). 3 

Examples are : nind-ita, raks-ita ; grath-ita, Il-ita, 
car-ita, jiv-ita ; pat-ita, pan-ita ; kup-ita, stabh-ita ; 
mus-ita; arp-ita 4 (arp-aya cause to go), cod-ita (cod-aya 
set in motion). 

a. The roots taking Samprasarana are: grabh and grab 
seize : grbh-I-ta and grh-I-ta (AV.) ; 5 vaks increase: uks-ita ; 
vad speak : ud-ita ; srath slacken : srth-ita. 

161. There is once found in the AV. a perfect passive 
participle extended with the possessive suffix vant, which 
gives it the sense of a perfect participle active : asita-vant 
having eaten. 6 

1 Representing the long sonant nasal. 

2 Only one perfect participle passive has been noted from a desidera- 
tive : mimam-s-ita called in question, and one from a denominative : 
bham-it& enraged. 

3 In B. jnapaya, causative of jna knoiv, forms its part, without con- 
necting i : jnap-t6. 

4 Usually (and abnormally) accented arp-ita. 

5 With I for i as in some other forms from this root. 

6 This type of participle hardly occurs even in the Brahmanas. 


162. The Future Passive Participle is in the RV. formed 
with four suffixes : one with the primary suffix ya, which is 
common, the rest with the secondary suffixes ay-ya, e~n-ya, 
and tv-a, each of which occurs about a dozen times. In the 
AV. there begin to be used two other gerundives, formed 
with tavya and aniya, each occurring twice. All these 
participles correspond in sense to the Lat. gerundive 
in -ndus. 

1. In the RV. about forty examples of the gerundive in 
ya occur, and about twenty more in the AV. The suffix is 
nearly always to be read as ia, which accounts for the 
treatment before it of final radical vowels. The root, being 
accented, appears in a strong form excepting a few examples 
which have the short radical vowel i, u, or r. 

a. Final a coalesces with the initial of ia to e, between which and 
the following a a phonetic y is interposed : da give : d6ya ( = da-i-y-a) 
to be given. 

b. Final I, u, r regularly take Guna or Vrddhi, the final element 
of which always appears as y, v, r, as before a vowel ; e. g. II ding : 
-lay-ya ; nu praise : naV-ya ; bhu be : bhaV-ya and bhav-y& future ; 
hu call : haV-ya ; vr choose : var-ya. 

c. Medial i, u, r, if followed by a single consonant, may take Guna 
and a may be lengthened ; e. g. dvis : dves-ya hateful ; yudh : yodh-ya 
to be subdued ; rdh : ardh-ya to be accomplished ; mrj : marj-ya to be 
purified - vac : vac-ya to be said ; but also giih-ya to be concealed ; -dhrs-ya 
to be assailed ; -sad-ya to be seated. 

d. A final short vowel sometimes remains unchanged, a t being 
then interposed : f-t-ya to be gone ; sru-t-ya to be heard ; -kr-t-ya to be 
made ; oarkf-t-ya to be praised, 

2. The suffix ayya, nearly always to be read ayia, is 
almost restricted to the RV. ; e. g. pan-ayya to be admired ; 
vid-ayya to he found ; srav-ayya glorious. It is sometimes 
attached to secondary stems ; to a causative : panay-ayya 
admirable, sprhay-ayya desirable ; to a desiderative : di- 
dhi-s-ayya to be conciliated (^dha) ; to an intensive : vi-tan- 
tas-ayya to be hastened. 

3. e"nya (generally to be read e"nia) is attached to the root, 

162-163] GERUNDIVE 187 

which remains unaltered except when it ends in a vowel : 
thus dvis-6nya malignant, yudh-6nya to be combatted, drs- 
enya worthy to be seen ; but var-enya uhoiceivorthy (vr choose). 
It is once added to an aor. stem : yam-s-enya to ~be guided 
( \/yam). Secondary verbs also take this suffix ; desideratives : 
didrks-6nya icorthy to be seen, susrus-6nya deserving to be 
heard-, intensives: marmrj-6nya to be glorified, vavrdh- 
6nya to be glorified ; denominatives : sapar-e"nya to be 

4. tv-a, almost restricted to the RV. 1 and generally to be 
read tua, is added to the strong form of the root, which is 
accented. Thus kar-tva to be made, he'-tva to be driven on 
(v/hi), s6-tva to be pressed (Vsu), vak-tva to be said; with 
connecting i : san-i-tva to be won ; with connecting I : 
bhav-i-tva 2 future. 

5. The only two examples in V. (both occurring in AV.) 
of the gerundive in tavya, which in both cases is added 
with connecting i, are jan-i-tavya to be born and hims-i- 
tavya to be injured. 3 

6. The only examples of the gerundive in amya (both 
appearing in the AV.) are upa-jiv-aniya to be subsisted on 
and a-mantr-aniya worthy to be addressed. 4 

III. Gerund or Indeclinable Participle. 

163. More than 120 examples of the gerund occur in 
the KV. and AV. It expresses an action which accompanies 
or more often precedes that of the finite verb. It is formed 
with the three suffixes tvi, tva, tvaya (all old cases of stems 

1 A few examples occur in the Brahmanas : j6-tva (ji conquer), 
sna-tva (sna bathe), hin-tva (han slay). 

2 With I instead of i. 

3 This gerundive has become not uncommon in B., where it is 
formed not only from the root, but from secondary stems. 

4 In B. nearly a dozen examples have been met with. 


in tu which is also used to form infinitives) attached to the 
simple root. 

1. The form in tvi, which is almost restricted to the RV. , l 
is the commonest of the three in that Samhita, where fifteen 
examples occur. It probably represents an old locative of 
stems in tu. It is as a rule added directly to the root, 
which has the same form as in the perf. pass, participle 
in ta. Examples are : kr-tvi having made, ga-tvi having 
gone, gu-dhvi having hidden, bhu-tvi having become, vrk-tvi 
having overthrown (\/vrj), hi-tvi having abandoned (Vha). 
There are two forms in which the suffix is added with the 
connecting vowel i : jan-i-tvi having produced and skabh-i-tvi 
having propped. 

2. The suffix tv-a (an old inst. sing, of a verbal noun in tu) 
is taken by nine roots, in the EV. and about thirty more in 
the AV. The root has the same form as before the ta of the 
perf. pass, participle. The forms occurring in the KV. are : 
pi-tva (pa drink), bhit-tva having shattered, bhu-tva having 
become, mi-tva having formed (\/ma), yuk-tva having yoJced, 
vr-tva having covered, sru-tva having heard, ha-tva having 
slain, hi-tva having abandoned. Some of the forms from the 
AV. are: is-tva having sacrificed (\/yaj), jag-dhva Jiaving 
devoured (Vjaks), tir-tva having crossed (Vtf), tr-dhva 
having shattered (</ trh), dsit-tva, having given (Vd&), pak-tva 
having cooked (Vpac), bad-dhva having bound (V'bandh), 
bhak-tva having divided (v^bhaj), ru-dhva having ascended 
(V run), vrs-tva having cut up (\/vrasc), sup-tva having 
slept ( -v/svap) ; three take the connect ing vowel i : cay-i-tva 
noting (\/cay), hims-i-tva having injured, grh-i-tva having 
seized ; a few also are formed from secondary stems in aya 
(which is retained) ; e. g. kalpay-i-tva having arranged. 

3. The rarest gerund is that in tvaya, which is formed 

1 This gerundive is not found in the AV., but it has not entirely 
disappeared in the Brahmanas. 

163-164] GERUND 189 

from only eight roots in the RV. 1 : ga-tvaya having gone, 
jag-dhvaya having devoured, dat-tvaya having given, drs- 
tvaya having seen, bhak-tvaya having attained, yuk-tvaya 
having yoked, ha-tvaya having slain, hi-tvaya having aban- 
doned ; three more of these gerunds appear in the Yajurveda : 
kr-tvaya having done, ta-tvaya having stretched, vr-tvaya 
having covered. 

164. When the verb is compounded the suffix is regularly 
either ya or tya. In at least two-thirds of such forms the 
vowel of the suffix is long in the RV. The root is always 

1. ya is added (but never with i) to the root, which has 
the same form as before tva, except that final a and am 
remain unchanged. Nearly forty roots in the RV. and 
about thirty more in the AV. form these compound gerunds. 
Examples from the RV. are : ac-ya bending (= a-ac-), abhy- 
lip-ya having enveloped (\/vap), abhi-kram-ya approaching, 
abhi-gur-ya graciously accepting (gr sing), sam-grbh-ya 
gathering, ni-cay-ya fearing, vi-tur-ya driving forth (v'tr), 
a-da-ya taking, ati-div-ya plat/ing higher, antt-drs-ya looking 
along, a-rabh-ya grasping, ni-sad-ya having sat doivn ; from 
a causative stem : prarp-ya setting in motion (pra-arpaya). 
Examples from the AV. are: ud-uh-ya having carried up 
(A/vah), sam-gir-ya sivalloiving up (V^gf), upa-ddd-ya 
putting in (\/da), sam-bhu-ya combining, ut-tha-ya arising 
(\/stha), sam-siv-ya having sewed; from a causative stem : 
vi-bhaj-ya having apportioned (\/bhaj). 

a. Three roots are found in the RV. compounded with adverbs or 
substantives : punar-da-ya giving back, mitha-spfdh-ya vying together, 
karna-gfh-ya seising ly the ear, pada-gfh-ya grasping by the foot, hasta- 
gfh-ya grasping by the, hand. 

1 This gerund occurs twice in the AV. and about half a dozen times 
in B. It is once formed from a causative stem in the SB. : spaS-ay-i- 

190 CONJUGATION [165-167 

165. 2. tya (nearly always with long vowel in the RV.) 
is added instead of ya to compound verbs ending in a short 
vowel ; l e. g. 6-tya having come (a-i), abhi-ji-tya having 
conquered, a-dr-tya regarding, apa-mi-tya 2 having borrowed, 
upa-srii-tya having overheard ; with adverbial or nominal 
prefix: aram-kr-tya having made ready, akhkhali-kr-tya 
shouting, namas-kr-tya (AV.) paying homage. 

a. The analogy of these verbs is followed by some roots ending in 
n or m preceded by a, which drop the nasal as in the perf. pass. part. : 
vi-hd-tya having driven away (Vhan), a-g-tya having come (Vgam), 
ud-yd-tya (AV.) lifting up (Vyam). 

166. The accusative in am of certain verbal nouns, 
though not yet construed like a gerund in the Samhitas, is 
not infrequently so construed in the Brahmanas and Sutras. 
Before the suffix, the root (which is almost always com- 
pounded) appears in the form it assumes before the i of the 
3. s. aor. pass. (155); e.g. sakham sam-a-lambh-am taking 
hold of a branch (SB.)-, mahanagam abhi-sam-sar-am running 
together around a great snake (SB.). 

IV. Infinitive. 

167. The infinitive, all the forms of which are old cases 
of verbal nouns, ace., dat., abl.-gen., or loc., is very frequent, 
occurring about 700 times in the RV. Only the ace. and 
dat. forms are common, but the datives outnumber the ace. 
in the proportion of 12 to 1 in the RV. and 3 to 1 in 
the AV. It is a remarkable fact that the infinitive in turn, 
the only form surviving in Sanskrit, occurs not more than 
five times in the RV., while the dative infinitive, which in 
the RV. is more than seven times as common as all the 
rest put together, has already for the most part disappeared 
in the Brahmanas. 

1 Sometimes not original but reduced from a long vowel. 
a Here mi is reduced from ma measure. 

167] INFINITIVE 191 

a. The infinitive is as a rule formed from the root, not being 
connected with any tense stems or ever showing the distinctions of 
voice. The forms in dhyai, dse and sam are, however, not infrequently 
connected with a present stem ; that in dhyai is once formed from 
a perfect stem, and is also in several instances taken by causative 
stems. The forms in dhyai and tava"i are at once recognizable as 
infinitives by their abnormal endings ; that in sdni, though it has an 
ordinary case-ending, by its isolated stem-formation. The ace. inf. 
in turn and am and the abl. gen. inf. show their infinitive character 
by their power of combining with prepositions and their verbal 
construction. Some infinitives, however, cannot be distinguished 
from ordinary cases of verbal nouns : they are not to be regarded as 
genuine infinitives unless they are isolated case forms or have a verbal 

1. Dative Infinitive. 

This infinitive 1 ends in e, which with the final a of a root 
or stem combines to ai. 2 It is formed from : 

a. roots, about sixty forms occurring. About a dozen are 
formed from roots ending in long vowels and from one in i, 
all of them (except an alternative form of bhu) being com- 
pounded with prefixes ; e. g. para-dai to give up, pra-hyd 
to send (Vhi) ; -miy-e to diminish (Vmi), -bhv-e" and bhuv-e" 
to be ; -tir-e to cross. 

The rest are from roots ending in consonants. About 
a dozen are uncompounded, as mah-6 to be glad, mih-6 to 
shed water, bhuj-6 to enjoy, drs-e" to see. But the compounded 
forms are commoner ; e. g. -grabh-e to seize, -idh-e to kindle, 
-mid-e to thrust, -prch-e 3 to ask, -vac-e 4 to speak, -vidh-e 3 
to pierce, -syad-e 5 to flow. 6 

1 The only dat. inf. in ordinary use in B. is that in tav&L. Otherwise 
only five or six in e (see note 6) ; two in tave, dv-i-tave and star- 
tave, and one in dhyai, sa-dhyai to conquer ( \/sah) have been noted in B. 
Loc. infinitives have disappeared. 

2 Except srad-dh6 to trust and pra-me" to form, which drop the a. 

3 With Samprasarana. 

4 With lengthened vowel. 

r> With loss of nasal (v'syand). 

c In B. have been noted half a dozen infinitives in e from roots 


fe. verbal nouns derived with nine different suffixes. 
These in the aggregate are more numerous. 

1. Some twenty-five are datives of stems in as ; l e. g. 
ay-as-e to go, caks-as-e to see, car-as-e to fare, pusy-as-e 
to thrive, bhiy-as-e to fear, sriy-as-e to ~be resplendent. 

2. Five or six datives of stems in i are found in the RV., 
and one or two in other Samhitas ; tuj-aye to breed, drs-ay-e 
to see, mah-ay-e to rejoice, yudh-ay-e to fight, san-ay-e to 
win : grh-aye to seize (K.), cit-aye to understand (VS.). 

3. Four or five are datives of stems in ti: is-tay-e to 
refresh, pi-tay-e to drink, vi-tay-e to enjoy, sa-tay-e 
to win. 

4. More than thirty are datives of stems in tu 2 (added to 
the gunated root, sometimes with connecting i) ; e. g. 
at-tav-e to eat, 6-tav-e to go, 6-tav-e to weave (\/u = va), 
kar-tav-e to make, gan-tav-e to go, pa-tav-e to drink, bhar- 
tav-e to bear aivay, yas-tav-e to sacrifice, vak-tav-e to speak, 
vas-tav-e to shine, v6-lhav-e to convey (-v/vah) ; av-i-tav-e 
to refresh, car-i-tav-e to fare, sav-i-tav-e to bring forth (\/su), 
srav-i-tav-e to flow (\/sru), hav-i-tav-e to call (Vh.u) ; 
jiv-a-tav-e to live, star-i-tav-e (AV.) to lay low (A/str). 

5. More than a dozen are datives of stems in tava (which 
is added like tu to the gunated root) and have the peculiarity 
of being doubly accented ; e. g. 6-tavai to go, 6-tavai to 
weave, gan-tavai to go, pa-tavai to drink, man-tavai to think, 
sar-tavai to floiv ; yam-i-tavai to guide, srav-i-tavai to 

ending in consonants, all but one being compounded : drs-6 (TS.) to 
see, prati-dhfs-e to withstand (TS.), pra-mrad-e to crush (SB.), a-rdbh-e 
to take hold (SB.), a-sSd-e to sit upon (AB.), ati-sfp-e to glide over (MS.). 
All these except pra-mrad-^ occur in the RV. 

1 Which is generally accented, but about half a dozen examples 
accent the root. 

2 The only examples of this infinitive noted in B. are dvitave and 


a. This infinitive is still in regular use in B., where the following 
examples have been noted : 6tav&i and yatav&i to go, kartavfii to do, 
de"dlyitavai to jly away, drogdhavai to plot, m&ntavdi to think, mnthi- 
tavai to rule, st&rtavai to lay low, ati-caritav&i to transgress, a-netav&i to 
bring, nir-astavai to throw out, pai'i-staritavai to strew around, sam- 
hvayitavdi to call together. 

6. There is only one certain example of a dative infinitive 
from a stem in tya : i-tyai to go. 

7. More than thirty-five are datives (almost restricted to 
the KV.) of stems in dhya, which is added to verbal stems 
ending in a (generally accented) ; e. g. iya-dhyai to go (A/!), 
gama-dhyai to go, cara-dhyai to fare, saya-dhyai to lie 
(A/ si), stava-dhyai to praise (\/stu); piba-dhyai to drink 
(\/pa), prna-dhyai to fill (A/P?), huva-dhyai to call (\/hu) j 1 
vavrdha-dhyai 2 to strengthen ; naSaya-dhyai 3 to cause to 
disappear, vartaya-dhyai 3 to cause to turn. 

a. Only one of these infinitives has been noted in B. : sadhyai to 
conquer (Vsah). j; n the TS. occurs one example ending in e instead 
of ai : gamd-dhye to go. 

8. Five are datives of stems in man : tra-man-e to protect, 
da-man-e to give (Gk. 86fj.v-ai), dhar-man-e to support, 
bhar-man-e to preserve, vid-man-e (Gk. 'iB-^v-ai) to kno^v. 

9. Three are datives of stems in van : tur-van-e to over- 
come (\/tr), da-van- e (Gk. Sovvai SoFevai) to give, dhur- 
van-e 4 to injure. 

2. Accusative Infinitive. 

This infinitive is formed in two ways. 

a. One of them (of which more than a dozen examples 
occur in the RV. besides several others in the AV.) is made 
with am added to the weak form of the root, which nearly 

1 The last three are made from regular present stems. 

2 From the reduplicated perfect stem. 

3 From the causative stem, from which about ten such infinitives 
are formed. 

4 With interchange of vowel and semivowel : ur = vr. Cp. 171, 2. 

1819 O 

194 CONJUGATION [ir>7 

always ends in a consonant (except dha, mi, tf) ; e. g. 
sam-idh-am to kindle, sam-prch-am to ask, a-rabh-am to 
reach, a-riih-am to mount, subh-am to shine ; pra-tir-am 
to prolong (\/tr), prati-dha-m to place upon, pra-miy-am to 
neglect (\/mi). 

&. The second form which is made from stems in tu 
(= Lat. supine) is much less common than the datives from 
the same stems. Only five examples occur in the EV. and 
about as many others in the AV. ; EV. : 6-tum to iveave, da- 
tum to give (Lat. da-turn), pras-tum to ask, pra-bhar-tum 
to present, anu-pra-volhum to advance ; AV. : at- turn to eat, 
kar-tum to make, dras-tum to see, yac-i-tum to ask, 
spar dh-i- turn to contend ivith ; K., VS. : khan-i-tum to dig. 

a. The ace. inf. has become nearly twice as frequent as the dat. in B. 
The form in am is not unusual, while that in turn is quite common. 

3. Ablative- Genitive Infinitive. 

This infinitive is rare, fewer than twenty examples occur- 
ring in the Samhitas. It is rather of the nature-of a verbal 
noun than a genuine infinitive. Like the ace. infinitive it 
is formed in two ways : from a radical (consonant) stem and 
from a verbal noun in tu. It thus ends either in as or tos ; 
and as each of these endings represents both the abl. and 
the gen., the cases can only be distinguished syntactically. 

a. The as form has the abl. sense almost exclusively. 
There are six examples of it in the EV. : a-trd-as 'being 
pierced, ava-pad-as falling down, sam-prc-as coming in con- 
tact, abhi-sris-as binding, abhi-svas-as blowing, ati-skad-as 
leaping across. There seems to be one certain example of 
the gen. : ni-mis-as to wink. 

1). Of the tos form the EV. has six examples in the abl. 
sense : 6-tos and gan-tos going, jan-i-tos "being born, 
ni-dha-tos putting down, sar-i-tos being shattered, s6-tos 
pressing, nan- tos being struck. Three examples in the gen. 
sense are : kar-tos doing, da-tos giving, y6-tos warding off. 

a. The abl. gen. inf. lias become as common as the dat. in B. 


4. Locative Infinitive. 

This form of the infinitive is rare ; hardly more than 
a dozen examples occur even if several doubtful forms are 

a. Five or six are locatives of radical stems : vy-us-i at 
the dawning, sam-caks-i on beholding, drs-i and sam-dfs-i 
on seeing, budh-i at the tvaking. As these forms, however, 
have nothing distinctive of the infinitive and govern the 
genitive only, they are rather to be regarded as ordinary 
locatives of verbal nouns. 

b. From a stem in tar are formed dhar-tar-i to support 
and vi-dhartar-i to bestow ; it is, however, doubtful whether 
these forms are genuine infinitives. 

c. The EV. has eight locatives from stems in san, with 
a genuine infinitive sense: ne-san-i to lead, par-san-i to 
pass, abhi-bhu-san-i to aid, su-san-i to swell, sak-san-i 
to abide (Vsac) ; with connecting I: tar-i-san-i; from 
present stems : gr-ni-sani to sing, str-ni-san-i to spread. 

I. Causatives. 

168. This is by far the commonest of the secondary 
conjugations, being formed from more than two hundred 
roots in the Samhitas and from about a hundred additional 
ones in the Brahmanas. Of about 150 causative stems 
in the RV., however, at least one-third have not a causative, 
but an iterative sense. The whole formation may indeed 
originally have had an iterative meaning. This perhaps 
explains how an iterative formation, the reduplicated aorist, 
specially attached itself to the causative. The same root 
occasionally forms both the iterative and the causative, as 
pat-aya-ti flies about and pat-aya-ti causes to fly beside the 
simple verb pata-ti flies. 



The causative is formed by adding the suffix aya to the 
root, which is usually strengthened. 

1. Initial or medial i, u, r, 1 (if not long by position) take 
Guna ; e. g. vid "know : ved-aya cause to Jmow ; krudh be 
angry, krodh-aya enrage] rd dissolve (intr.): ard-aya 
destroy ; trp be pleased : tarp-aya delight ; kip be adapted : 
kalp-aya arrange. 

a. Several roots, mostly lacking the causative meaning, 
leave the radical vowel unchanged ; e. g. rue shine : ruc-aya, 
id. (but roc-aya illumine). 

1}. Initial or medial a (if not long by position) is lengthened 
in about thirty roots; e.g. am be injurious-, am-aya suffer 
injury ; nas be lost : nas-aya destroy. 

a. In the following roots the a optionally remains short in the 
causative : gam go, das waste away, dhvan disappear, pat fly, mad be 
exhilarated, ram rest ; thus pat fly : pat- aya fly about, once cause to fly, 
and pat-aya cause to fly. 

0. In about twenty-five roots the a always remains short, the 
causative meaning being mostly absent ; e. g. dam control : dam-aya 
id. ; jan beget : jan-aya id. 

c. Final i, u, r take Guna or Vrddhi ; e. g. ksi possess : 
ksay-aya 1 cause to dtvell securely, cyu tvaver: cyav-aya 
shake ; bhu be : bhav-aya cause to become ; ghr drip : ghar- 
aya cause to drip ; sru hear, jf ivaste away, and sr flow have 
Guna as well as Vrddhi: srav-aya and srav-aya cause to 
hear ; jar-aya and jar-aya wear out, sar-aya and sar-aya 
cause to flow ; dr pierce has Guna only : dar-aya shatter. 

d. Koots ending in a add paya ; 2 e. g. dha put : dha-paya 
cause to put. 

e. The causative retains the suffix throughout the conju- 
gation even outside the present system. Its inflexion is 
identical with that of the primary verbs of the first conju- 

1 The only example of a causative from a root in final i (except the 
irregular japaya from ji conquer and srapaya from &ri resort). 

2 As to other roots taking paya see 'Irregularities', 2. 

168] CAUSATIVE 197 

gation(132). Subjunctive, 1 imperative, 1 injunctive, imperfect, 
and present participle forms are common ; but the optative 
is very rare in the active and does not occur at all in the 
middle. Only four future forms occur in the RV. and the 
AV. : dusay-isyami I shall spoil, dharay-isyati will support, 
vasay-isyase thou wilt adorn thyself, varay-isyate will shield. 
In the perfect only one periphrastic form (139, 9 a) occurs : 
gamayam cakara :{ (AV.). Reduplicated aorist forms are 
connected with only six causative stems (p. 175, a. 3). There 
are also three is aorists formed from the causative stem: 
vyathay-is from vyath-aya disturb ; ailay-it from il-aya 
quiet down ; dhvanay-it from dhvan-aya envelope. 4 

f. Of nominal derivatives the following are examples : 
a pres. pass. part, bhaj-ya-mana ; a few perf. pass, parti- 
ciples: ghar-i-ta smeared, cod-i-ta impelled, ves-i-ta caused to 
enter a few gerundives in ayya (162, 2) : trayay-ayya to he 
guarded ; panay-ayya admirable ; sprhay-ayya desirable ; 
ten infinitives in dhyai : nasaya-dhyai to destroy, &c. 
(p. 193, 7) ; four gerunds in the AV. : arpay-i-tva having 
delivered up, kalpay-i-tva having arranged, saday-i-tva having 
set down, sramsay-i-tva letting fall. 


1. Three causatives in the AV. shorten the a before paya : jna-paya 
cause to know, sra-p&ya cook, sna-paya bathe beside sna-paya (RV.). 

2. Four roots in vowels other than a, that is, in r or i, take paya ; 
r go : ar-paya cause to go ; ksi dwell : kse-pdiya cause to dwell (beside 

1 The only du. mid. form occurring is 3. madayaite ; and the only 
mid. form in ai (except 1. du.) in the RV. is madayadhvai. 

2 The 2. s. in tat occurs in both V. and B. ; and from vr cover occurs 
the unique 2. pi. varaya-dhvat in K. 

3 In B. such forms are still uncommon except in the SB., where 
they are numerous. 

4 In B. desideratives are formed from about a dozen causative 
stems ; e. g. di-drapay-isa desire to cause to run. 

198 CONJUGATION [168-169 

ksay-dya) ; ji conquer and Sri resort substitute a for i : ja-p&ya cause to 
conquer, sra-p&ya raise. 1 

3 The root bhl fear forms the quite anomalous causative stem 

4. The roots pa drink and pya swell add aya with interposed y : 
pay-fiya cause to drink and pyay-aya fill up. This is probably to be 
explained by the assumption that the original form of these roots was 
pai and pyai. 

5. The vowel of grabh grasp is weakened by Samprasarana : grbh-dya 
grasp ; while that of dus spoil is lengthened : dus-aya, id. The 
root pfy?tf, owing to its initial labial, forms its causative with medial 
u for a : pwc-&ya, fulfil. 

II. Desideratives. 

169. The desiderative, which is the least common of the 
secondary conjugations, is formed from the root with an 
accented reduplicative syllable and the suffix sa. This sa is 
never added with a connecting i in the EV., nor, with the 
single exception of pi-pat-i-sa, in the AV., ji-jiv-i-sa in the 
VS., and ji-gam-i-sa in the TS. 2 The desiderative is formed 
from fewer than sixty roots in the Samhitas and from more 
than thirty additional ones in B. It is inflected like verbs 
of the first conjugation (132). 

The accent being on the reduplicative syllable, the root as 
a rule remains unchanged ; e. g. da give : di-da-sa desire to 
give ; bhid cleave : bi-bhit-sa ; ni lead : ni-m-sa ; guh hide : 
ju-guk-sa (62 a, 69 a) ; bhu be : bu-bhu-sa ; drs see : di- 
drk-sa. But 

1. final i and u are lengthened, and r becomes Ir ; e. g. 
ji conquer: ji-gi-sa ; sru hear: su-sru-sa; kr make: ci- 

2. final a is in three roots reduced (cp. 171, 3) to I and in 

1 In B. the root ruh rise, even though ending in a consonant, takes 
paya after dropping its h : ro-paya raise (beside roh-dya). 

2 In B. about a dozen other roots form their desiderative stem 
thus ; e. g. ci-kram-i-sa, ji-grah-i-sa, vi-vid-i-sa (vid ftnow), &c. 

169-171] DESIDEKATIVES 199 

one to i : ga go: ji-gi-sa (SV.) ; pa drink: pi-pi-sa (beside 
pi-pa-sa) ; ha go forth : ji-hi-sa ; dha put : di-dhi-sa (beside 

Special Rule of Reduplication. 

170. The characteristic reduplicative vowel is i, which 
appears in all stems except those formed from roots contain- 
ing u (which reduplicate with u) ; e. g. jya overpower : 
ji-jya-sa; mis mix: mi-mik-sa; prilove: pi-pri-sa; vrtturn: 
vi-vrt-sa ; but guh hide : ju-guk-sa ; bhu be : bu-bhu-sa. 


1*1. 1. Five roots with medial a followed by m or n lengthen the 
vowel : gam go : ji-gam-sa ; han smite : ji-gham-sa (66 A 2) ; man 
think lengthens the reduplicative vowel also : mi-mam-sa (66 A 2) ; 
van loin and san gain drop the nasal : vi-va-sa and si-sa-sa. 

2. dhvr injure, after interchange of semivowel and vowel to ur, 
lengthens its u : dii-dhur-sa. Cp. p. 193, note 4. 

3. Haifa dozen roots containing a or a shorten the radical syllable 
by a kind of syncopation : da give and dha put lose their vowel : 
di-t-sa (= df-d[a]-sa) beside df-da-sa ; dhf-t-sa ( = df-dh[a]-sa) 
beside di-dhi-sa ; dabh harm, labh take, sak be able, sah prevail lose 
their initial radical consonant and their vowel : di-p-sa * ( = di[da]bh- 
sa), lip-sa 2 (= li[la]bh-sa), sik-sa (= &[sa]k-sa), sik-sa, with 
lengthened reduplicative vowel (= si[sa]k-sa). 3 

a. ap obtain and rdh thrive (treated as ardh) contract the redupli- 
cated i with the radical initial to i: ip-sa (=i-ap-sa) and irt-sa 

4. In ci note, cit perceive, ji conquer, han slay, the radical initial 
reverts to the original guttural : ci-ki-sa, ci-kit-sa, ji-gi-sa, ji- 

1 Also dhipsa in B. 

2 Also lipsa in B. 

8 In B. are similarly formed dhiksa (dah burn), pitsa (pad go\ 
ripsa (rabh grasp). 


5. ghas eat changes its final s to t (66 B 1) : ji-ghat-sa (AV.) be 

6. Three roots reduplicate with a long vowel : tur cross ( = tf) : 
tu-tur-sa ; badh oppress : bi-bhat-sa ; * man think : ml-mam-sa. 2 On 
the other hand the reduplicative syllable is reduced in the desiderative 

f yaj sacrifice and nas attain by loss of the initial consonant : i-yak-sa 
(for yi-yak-sa) and f-nak-sa (for ni-nak-sa). In one form from ap 
obtain the reduplication is dropped altogether : ap-santa. 

a. The two roots with initial vowel as eat and edh increase form their 
desiderative stem with the reduplicative vowel in the second syllable : 
aS-isi-i-sa (B.) and ed-idh-i-sa (VS.). 

In the inflexion of the desiderative all the moods of the 
present system, besides the imperfect, are represented, 
though not fully ; and of present participles more than 
twenty-five examples are met with. The forms occurring, 
if made from vi-va-sa desire to win, would be : 

Present ind. act. sing. 1. vivasami. 2. vivasasi. 
3. vivasati. Du. 2. vivasathas. 3. vivasatas. PI. 1. 
vivasamas. 3. vivasanti. 

Mid. sing. 1. vivase. 2. vivasase. 3. vivasate. 
PI. 1. vivasamahe. 3. vivasante. 

Subj. act. sing. 1. vivasani. 3. vivasat. PI. 3. vivasan. 

Inj. act. sing. 3. vivasat. Mid. pi. 3. vivasanta. 

Opt. act. sing. 1. vivaseyam. 3. vivaset. PI. 1. vivase- 
ma. Mid. sing. 1. vivaseya. 

Impv. act. sing. 2. vivasa and vivasatat. 3. vivasatu. 
Du. 2. vivasatam. 3. vivasatam. PI. 2. vivasata. 
3. vivasantu. 

Part. act. vivasant. Mid. vivasamana. 

Impf. act. sing. 2. avivasas. 3. avivasat. PL 3. 

1 With shortening of the radical vowel. 
8 With lengthening of the radical vowel 

171-172] DESIDERATIVES 201 

a. Outside the present system only two desiderative verbal forms l 
have been met with, two is aorists in the AV. : &-cikits-Is and 
irts-is. 9 Three participial forms have also been noted : the perf. 
pass. part. mimams-i-t& 3 and the gerundives didrks-e'nya ivorthy to be 
seen and s'usrus-e'nya worthy to be heard.* Finally, over a dozen verbal 
adjectives formed with u from the desiderative stem occur in the RV., 
e. g. iyaks-ti ivishing to sacrifice. They have the value of a pres. part, 
governing a case. 

III. Intensives (Frequentatives). 

172. These verbs are meant to convey intensification or 
frequent repetition of the action expressed by the simple 
root. They are common, being formed from over ninety 
roots in the Samhitas, and about twenty-five others in the 
Brahmanas. The formation is restricted to roots with 
initial consonants, nor is it ever applied to derivative verbs. 

The stem, of which a peculiar form of strong reduplication 
is characteristic, has two forms. The primary type, which 
is by far the commonest, adds the personal endings imme- 
diately to the reduplicated stem (accented on the first syllable 
in strong forms : App. III. 12 e). It is inflected, in both 
active and middle, like a verb of the third or reduplicated 
class (132) ; e. g. nij tvash : 3. sing, n^-nek-ti. The secondary 
form, which is rare, adds accented ya in the same way as 
the passive (154) to the reduplicated stem. It is conjugated 
in the middle only, like the passive ; e. g. vij tremble : 
ve-vij-ya-te trembles violently. 

1 In B. periphrastic perfect forms from five or six desiderative 
stems have been noted. 

2 In B. is aorists from half a dozen desiderative stems occur ; e. g. 
aips-it, aips-is-ma, a-jighams-is, a-mimams-is-thas. One or two 
simple and periphrastic futures also occur in B., as titiks-isyate (tij 
be sharp), didrks-i-taras (drs see). 

3 In B. also jijyus-i-t& (jiv live}, dhiks-i-t (dan burn}, susrus-i-tf 
(sru hear). 

* In B. also lips-i-tavya (labh take}, didhyas-i-tavya (dhya think), 
jijnas-ya (jna know). 

202 CONJUGATION [172-173 

a. The primary intensive optionally inserts I between the 
root and terminations beginning with consonants. This I 
is found in the 1. 3. s. ind. act. and the 2. 3. s. impv. and 
impf. act. ; e. g. ind. eakas-i-mi, cakas-i-ti ; impv. 2. cakas- 
i-hi. 3. johav-i-tu ; impf. 3. a-johav-i-t. 

Special Rules of Reduplication. 

173. 1. Radical i and u are reduplicated with the respective 
Guna vowels e and o ; e. g. dis point : de-dis ; ni lead : 
ne-ni ; sue shine : So-Suc ; nu praise : no-nu ; bhu be : 

2. Radical a and f are reduplicated in two ways : 

a. More than a dozen roots with medial a (ending in 
mutes or sibilants, and one in m) as well N as three with 
final r, reduplicate with a : kas shine : ca-kas ; pat fall : 
pa-pat ; gam go : ja-gam ; gr wake : ja-gr ; dr split : da-dr ; 
dhr hold : da-dhr ; also cal stir : ca-cal. 

&. All other roots containing r (dr and dhr also alter- 
natively) and those with medial a followed by r, 1, or a 
nasal, reduplicate with ar, al, an or am ; e. g. kr com- 
memorate : car-kr and car-kir ; krs drag : car-krs ; dr 
split : dar-dr and dar-dir (beside da-dr) ; dhr hold : dar-dhr 
(beside da-dhr) ; hrs he excited : jar-hrs car move : car-car ; 
phar scatter : par-phar ; cal stir : cal-cal (beside ca-cal) ; 
gam^ro : jan-gam (beside ja-gam) ; jambh chew up : jan-jabh ; 
dam^ lite : dan-das ; tan thunder : tam-stan (66 A 2). 

3. Over twenty roots with final or penultimate nasal, 
r or u, interpose an I (or i if the vowel would be long by 
position) between the reduplicative syllable and the root ; 
e. g. gam go : gan-i-gam (but gan-i-gm-at) ; han slay : 
ghan-i-ghan ; krand cry out : kan-i-krand and kan-i-krad ; 
skand leap : kan-i-skand and can-i-skad ; bhr bear : bhar- 
i-bhr ; vrt turn : var-i-vrt ; nu praise : nav-i-nu ; dhu shake : 
dav-i-dhv ; dyut shine : dav-i-dyut. 

174] INTENSIVES 203 


174:. The radical vowel is shortened in roots with medial a : ka 
shine : ca-kas ; badh oppress : ba-badh ; vas bellow : va-vas. In a few 
roots containing r or r the radical syllable varies ; thus gr swallow : 
jar-gur and jal-gul ; car move : car-cur beside car-car ; tf cross : tar- 
tur beside tar-tar. 

a. The root r go reduplicates with al : al-ar (dissimilation) ; gab. 
plunge, with a nasal: jan-gah; 1 badh oppress, with its final mute: 2 
bad-badh (beside ba-badh) ; bhr 3 bear and bhur quiver, with a palatal : 
jar-bhr, jar-bhur ; bhur and gur greet reduplicate u with a : jar-bhur, 

b. Roots with initial guttural, if interposing I before the root, 
reduplicate with the same guttural ; thus krand cry out : kan-i-krand ; 
gam go : gan-i-gam ; han (for ghaii) slay : ghan-I-ghan ; kr make has 
both kar-i-kr 4 and car-i-kr ; 4 skand leap has both kan-i-skand and 

A. The forms of the primary type that occur, if made 
from nij ivash, would be the following : 

1. Pres. ind. act. sing. 1. n6nej-mi, n^nej-i-mi. 2. n6- 
nek-si. 3. ne'nek-ti, n6nej-i-ti. Du. 2. nenik-thas. 5 3. ne- 
nik-tas. PL 1. nenij-mas, nenij-masi. 3. n6nij-ati. 

Mid. sing. 1. nenij-6. 3. nenik-te\ Du. 3. n6nij-ate, 
PL 3. nenij-ate. 

2. Subj. act. sing. 1. n6nij-ani. 6 2. n6nij-a-s. 3. ne~nij- 
a-t. Du. 1. n6nij-a-va. PL 1. n^nij-a-ma. 3. n^nij-a-n. 

Mid. du. 3. nenij-aite. PL 3. n6nij-a-nta. 

1 In B. also jafi-jap-ya-te (jap mutter}. Here also vah carry re- 
duplicates with n (together with interposed I) though there is no 
trace of a nasal in the root : van-i-vah-yate. 

2 This is the only example of such reduplication. 

3 This root shows the same peculiarity in the perfect (139, 4). 

4 The intensive of this root occurs only in the participle karikr-at 
and carikr-&t. 

5 The only form occurring in this person has the interposed i and 
strong radical syllable : tar-tar-i-thas. 

6 The only form actually occurring in this person is janghan-aiii 
(accented like the subj. of the reduplicating present). 


3. Opt. No certain forms occur in the RV. and only two 
active forms in other Samhitas: sing. 3. vevis-yat (AV.), 
pi. 1. ja-gr-yama (VS., MR, TS.), jagri-yama (TS.). The 
3. s. mid. nenij-ita occurs in K. 

4. Impv. About twenty active (but no middle) l forms 
occur. Made from jagr these would be: sing. 2. jagr-hi, 
jagar-i-hi, jagr-tat. 3. jagar-tu, jagar-i-tu. Du. 2. jagr- 
tam. 3. jagr-tam. PI. 2. jagr-ta. 2 

5. Of the participle over forty stems occur, about two-thirds 
of them being active. Examples are: act. kanikrad-at, 
c&kit-at, janghan-at, jagr-at, dardr-at, nanad-at, roruv- 
at ; mid. jarbhur-ana, dandas-ana, yoyuv-ana (yu join), 

6. Impf. Fewer than thirty forms of this tense occur, 
only three of them being middle. Examples of the persons 
occurring are : 

Act. sing. 1. a-cakas-am. 2. a-jagar. 3. a-dardar, 
a-var-I-var, a-johav-i-t; dav-i-dyot, nav-i-no-t. Du. 2. 
a-dardr-tam. PI. 1. marmrj-ma. 3. a-carkrs-ur, a- 
dardir-ur, a-nonav-ur. 

Mid. sing. 3. a-dedis-ta, a-nan-na-ta. 3 PI. 3. marmrj-ata. 

a. Outside the present system few intensive forms occur. There 
are four act. perfect intensives with present sense : sing. 1. jagara. 
3. jagar-a (typiwope"), davidliav-a (dhu shake), nonav-a (nu praise}; also 
dodrav-a (dru run : TS.), yoyav-a (yu separate : MS.), lelay-a (11 l>e 
unsteady : MS.). There is besides the perf. part, jagr-vams. A causa- 
tive intensive appears once in the participial form var-I-varj-dyant-i 
twisting about. 4 

1 In B. occurs the 2. s. mid. form nenik-sva (V^ij). 

2 The RV. has no impv. forms with interposed I, but the AV. and 
VS. have a few in the 2. 3. s., as cakas-I-hi, johav-I-tu. A few 
examples occur in B. also. 

8 From nam bend, with loss of nasal (a = sonant nasal), for d-nan- 

4 In B. also occur the causative stems from intensives jagar-aya 
and dadhar-a'ya (dhr hold}. 

174-175] INTENSIVES 205 

B. The forms of the secondary type, which is indis- 
tinguishable from a passive in form, number only about 
a dozen. They occur only in the 2. 3. s. and 3. pi. ind. pres., 
besides a few participles. They are : 

Pres. ind. sing. 2. co-sku-ya-se (sku tear). 3. dedis- 
ya-te, ne-ni-ya-te, marmrj-ya-te, rerih-ya-te, vevrj-yate, 
vevi-yate (vi enjoy). PI. 3. tartur-yante (Vtf), marmrj- 

Part, carcur-ya-mana (v'car), neni-ya-mana, marmrj- 

IV. Denominatives. 

175. These verbs, inflected like those of the a conjugation 
(132), are derived, almost exclusively with the suffix ya, 
from nouns, to which they express some such relation as 
' be or act like ', * treat as ', ' turn into ', or l use as ', ' wish for '. 
More than a hundred denominative stems occur in the RV. 
and about fifty in the AV. 1 The suffix is normally accented, 
but a certain number of undoubted denominatives, such as 
mantra-ya utter a prayer, artha-ya make an object of, desire, 
have the causative accent, thus forming a connecting link 
between the regular denominatives and the causatives. 

A. Before the suffix ya : 

1. final i 2 and u are lengthened ; 3 e. g. kavi-ya be wise 
(kavi), rayi-ya desire ivealtli (rayi) : rju-ya be straight 
(rjii) ; vasu-ya desire wealth (vasu) ; satru-ya play the 
enemy (satru), &e hostile. 

2. final a usually remains unchanged, but is often length- 
ened ; it is sometimes changed to I ; and even dropped ; 

1 Denominatives are less common in B. ; thus the AB. has hardly 
twenty, and the SB. about a dozen. 

2 Except arati-ya act like an enemy, be hostile beside arati-ya", and 
jani-ya seek a wife beside janl-ya ; gatu-ya set in motion (gatii). 

3 In the Pada text the I is usually, the u is always, written short. 


e. g. jara-ya treat like a lover, deva-ya serve the gods, rta-ya 1 
act according to sacred order; asva-ya desire horses, rta-ya 
observe sacred order (beside rta-ya) , yajna-ya sacrifice ; 
adhvari-ya perform the sacrifice (adhvara), putri-ya 2 desire 
a son (putra), rathi-ya 2 drive in a car (ratha) ; adhvar-ya 
perform sacrifice (beside adhvari-ya), tavis-ya be mighty 
(tavisa : beside tavisi-ya). 

3. final a remains unchanged ; e. g. gopa-ya act as herdsman, 
protect, prtana-ya 3 fight. Final o, in the only example 
occurring, becomes av : gav-ya desire cotvs. 

4. Consonant stems, the commonest being those in as, 
nearly always remain unchanged; e.g. bhisaj-ya play the 
physician, heal ; uksan-ya act like a bull (uksan) ; vadhar-ya 
hurl a bolt (vadhar) ; su-manas-ya be gracious (su-manas) ; 
tarus-ya engage in fight (tarns). 

a. A few denominative forms are made without a suffix, direct 
from nominal stems, but nearly always beside regular denominatives 
in ya ; e. g. bhisak-ti from bhis&j act as physician beside bhisaj-y& ; 
and the forms taruse-ma, tarusa-nte, tarusa-nta (from tarusa 
conqueror} beside tarus-y^,. 


B. All the tenses, moods, and participles of the present 
system are represented. If made from namas-ya pay homage 
the forms occurring would be : 

1. Pres. ind. act. sing. 1. namasyami. 2. namasyasi. 
3. namasyati. Du. 2. namasyathas. 3. namasyatas. 
PI. 1. namasya-masi, -mas. 2. namasyatha. 3. namas- 

Mid. sing. 1. namasy^. 2. namasyase. 3. namasyate. 

1 With causative accent. 

2 The Pada text in this and nearly every example has i-ya. Even 
the Samhita text of the AV. has putri-y&. 

3 The a may also be dropped : prtanya fight against. 


Du. 2. namasy<Sthe. 3. namasy^te. PL 1. namasya- 
mahe. 3. namasyante. 

2. Subj. act. sing. 1. namasya. 2. namasyas. 3. na- 
masyat. Du. 3. namasyatas. PL 3. namasyan. 

Mid. sing. 2. namasyase. 3. namasyate. 

3. Inj. act. sing. 2. namasyas. PL 3. namasyan. 

4. Opt. act. sing. 2. namasyas. 3. namasy^t. PL 1. 

Mid. sing. 3. namasy^ta. 

5. Impv. act. sing. 2. namasya. 3. namasyatu. Du. 2. 
namasyatam. 3. namasyatam. PL 2. namasyata. 3. na- 

Mid. sing. 2. namasyasva. PL 2. namasyadhvam. 
3. namasyantam. 

6. Part. act. namasyant. Mid. namasyamana. 

7. Impf. act. sing. 2. anamasyas. 3. anamasyat. Du. 3. 
namasyatam. PL 3. anamasyan. 

Mid. sing. 3. anamasyata. Du. 2. anamasyetham. PL 3. 

a. The only finite forms occurring outside the present 
system are four aorists. Two are injunctives : 2. s. unay-is 
(RV.) from unaya leave unfulfilled (una) ; 2. pi. papay-is-ta 
(TS.) from papaya lead into evil (papa) ; and two indicatives : 
3. s. asaparyait (AV.) has worshipped (an irregular form, 
probably = a-sapary-it) ; 3. pi. a-vrsay-is-ata (VS.) they 
have accepted. 1 The TS. has also the three fut. participles 
kanduy-isyant about to scratch, meghay-isyant about to be 
cloudy, sikay-isyant 2 about to drip, with the corresponding 
perf. pass. part, kanduyita, meghita, sikita. 3 

1 In B. also occurs the is aor. asuyit has murmured. 

" In B. also occurs the future gopay-isyati. 

3 In B. there are also a few other past pass, participles and a few 




176. Two classes of prepositions have to be distinguished. 
The first comprises the genuine or adverbial prepositions. 
These are words with a local sense which, primarily used to 
modify the meaning of verbs, came to be connected inde- 
pendently with the cases governed by the verbs thus 
modified. They show no signs of derivation from inflexional 
forms or (except tiras and puras) forms made with adverbial 
suffixes. The second class has been called adnominal 
prepositions because they are not compounded with verbs, 
but govern cases of nouns only. They almost invariably 
end in case terminations or adverbial suffixes. 

1. Adverbial Prepositions. 

There are fourteen or (if sam is included) fifteen genuine 
prepositions which, when used independently of verbs, 
define the local meaning of cases. They are almost entirely 
restricted to employment with the ace., loc., and abl. As 
their connexion with the abl. is only secondary, the genuine 
prepositions appear to have been originally connected with 
the ace. and loc. only. As a rule these prepositions follow, 
but also often precede, their case. 

1. The accusative is exclusively taken by acha towards, 
ati beyond, anu after, abhi toivards, prati (Grk. irpori) against, 
and tiras across (cp. Lat. trans). 

a. pari (Gk. TTtpi) around takes the ace. primarily, but 
secondarily and more frequently the abl. in the sense of 
from (around). 

176-177] PREPOSITIONS 209 

b. upa to (with verbs of motion) takes the ace. primarily, 
and less frequently the loc. in the sense of beside, upon, at. 

2. The locative is exclusively taken by apt (Gk. kiri ) upon 
and primarily by adhi upon, antar (Lat. inter) bettveen, a on, 
in, at, to, puras before. 

a. adhi takes the abl. secondarily and less commonly in the sense 
of from (upon}. 

b. The last three secondarily take both abl. and ace. ; pur6s does 
so without change of meaning. 

antar with abl. means/row (within) ; with ace., between. 
a with ace. means to, expressing the goal with verbs of motion. 
With the abl., if following, 1 it means/row (on) ; if preceding, up to. z 

3. The ablative seems to be used once or twice indepen- 
dently with ava in the sense of down from. 

2. Adnominal Prepositions. 

177. These prepositions, being adverbs in origin, govern 
oblique cases (except the dat.) independently. Several of 
them govern the genitive and the instrumental, cases that 
are practically never connected with the genuine prepositions 
in the Samhitas. In the following list these prepositions 
are grouped under the cases which they accompany : 

1. Ace. : adhas belotv (also with abl. or gen.), antara 
bettveen, abhi-tas around, upari above, beyond, paras beyond 
(also with abl., more often inst.), pari-tas around (AV.), 
sanitur apart from. 3 

2. Instr. : saha with, sakam with, sumad with, smad 
with ; avas beloio (also abl.), paras outside (also ace. and abl.). 

3. Abl. : adhas belotv (also ace. and gen.), avas down from 

1 It sometimes also precedes the abl. in this sense. 

2 This is almost the only use of a in B. ; in C. it means both /row 
and up to. 

3 In B. several adverbial instrumental expressing situation or 
direction govern the ace. : dntarena between, dvarena below, p&rena 
beyond ; uttarena to the north of, dksinena to the south of. 

1819 P 


(also instr.), ar6 far from (also gen.), rte" without, paras apart 
from (also ace. and inst.), pura before, bahir-dha from out, 
sanutar far from. 

4. Gen. : puras-tad in front of. 1 

5. Loc. : saca (in association) with, beside, at, in. 

Adverbial Case-forms. 

178. Many case-forms of nominal and pronominal stems, 
often not otherwise in use, are employed as adverbs. 
Examples of all the cases appear with adverbial function. 

1. Nona. : prathama-m firstly, dvitiya-m secondly. Such 
adverbs were originally used in apposition to the verbal 

2. Ace. : these adverbs find their explanation in various 
meanings of the case. They represent (a) the cognate ace. ; 
e. g. bhuyas more, and comparatives in taram added to 
verbal prefixes, as vi-taram (kram) (stride) more widely, 
(b) the appositional ace. ; e. g. nama by name, rupam in form, 
satyam truly (c) the ace. of direction ; e. g. agram (i) (go) 
to the front of, before, astam (gam) (go) home ; (d) the ace. of 
distance and time ; e. g. duram a long way off, far ; naktam 
by night, sayam in the evening, nityam constantly, purvam 

a. There are also some ace. adverbs derived from obsolete nominal 
stems, as ara-m sufficiently, nu-n&m now ; others from pronominal 
stems, as adds there, i-dam here, now, ki-m why ?, ydd when. 

3. Instr. : adverbs with the ending of this case (sometimes 
pi.) are formed from substantives, adjectives, and pronouns. 
They usually express manner or accompanying circumstances, 
as sahas-a/om'?%, navyas-a aneiv, ena in this way ; also not 

1 In B. the gen. is governed by this adverb as well as by paras-tad 
after ; e. g. suktasya purastat before the hymn ; samvatsarasya paras tat 
after a year. 

178-179] ADVERBS 211 

infrequently extension of space or time, as agrena in front, 
aktu-bhis by night, div-a by day. 

a. The substantive instrumental are chiefly formed from feminines 
in a not otherwise used, as rtaya in the right way, naktaya by night. 

b. The adjective instrumental^ are formed from stems in a and 
a few in c ; e.g. ucca and ucciis on high, pasca behind, madhya in the 
midst, snais slowly ; prao-a, forwards. There are also several anomalous 
feminines from stems in u and one or two in I ; e. g. asu-y-a swiftly, 
raghu-y-a rapidly, sadhu-y-a straight, urviy-a/ar. 

c. The pronominal instrumentals are formed from stems in a and 
one in u; e.g. ana thus, ama at home, aya thus, kaya 7*010?, ubhaya in 
loth ivays ; amu-y-a in that toay. 

4. Dat. : the adverbial use of the dat. is rare : aparaya 
for the future (from apara later), varaya according to wish 
(vara choice). 

5. Abl. : these adverbs are seldom formed from substan- 
tives, as arat from a distance, asat from near; or from 
pronouns, amat from near, at then, tat thus, yat as far as ; 
but they are fairly often formed from adjectives, as uttarat 
from the north, durat from afar, pascat from behind, sanat 
from of old, saksat visibly. 

6. Gen. : such adverbs are very rare : akt6s ~by night, 
vastos in the morning. 

7. Loc. : agre in front, astam-ik6 at home, ake' near, 
afar, rte ivithout, dur6 afar ; aparisu in future. 

Adverbs formed with Suffixes. 

179. The suffixes more or less commonly used in the 
formation of adverbs may be grouped under the senses 
expressed by the instr., abl., and loc. cases. 

1. Instr. : tha forms adverbs of manner especially from 
pronominal stems : a-tha and more commonly (with short- 
ened vowel) a-tha then, i-t-tha thus, ima-tha in this manner, 
ka-tha hoio ?, ta-tha thus, ya-tha in which manner, anya-tha 
otherwise, visva-tha in every ivay ; urdhva-tha upwards, 



purvsi-tha, formerly, pratna-tha as of old] rtu-tha regularly, 
nama-tha by name ; eva-tha just as. 

a. tham is similarly used in it-tham thus and ka-th&m how? 

dha forms adverbs of manner from numerals or cognate 
words : eka-dha singly, dvi-dha in two ways, kati-dha how 
many times, puru-dha variously, bahu-dha and visva-dha 
in many ways, sasva-dha again and again. It also forms 
adverbs from a few nouns, adverbs, and pronouns : priya- 
dha kindly, mitra-dha in a friendly way ; bahir-dha outward ; 
a-dha then, a-d-dha (thus =) truly. The same suffix, with 
its vowel shortened, forms sa-dha (in one ivay =) together, 
which appears as the first member of several compounds, 
and as an independent word assumes the form of saha with. 

0. The suffix ha probably also represents original dha in i-hfi here 
(Prakrit i-dha), ku-ha where ? visva-ha and visvd-ha cdicays, sama-ha 
in some way or other. 

va, expressing similarity of manner, forms the two adverbs 
i-va like, as, and e-va (often e-va) thus, vam appears in 
e-vam thus, the later form of evd. 

vat forms adverbs meaning like from substantives and 
adjectives ; e. g. manu-vat like Manu ; purana-vat, pur- 
va-vat, pratna- vat as of old. 

sas forms adverbs of manner with a distributive sense : 
sata-sas ~by hundreds, sahasra-sas by thousands, sreni-sas in 
roivs ; rtu-sas season by season, deva-sas to each of the gods, 
parva-sas joint by joint, manma-sas each as he is minded. 

s forms two or three multiplicative adverbs : dvi-s twice, 
tri-s thrice. It also appears in a few other adverbs : adha-s 
below, ava-s downwards; dyu-s (from dyu day) in anye- 
dyii-s next day and ubhaya-dyu-s on both days. 

2. Abl. : tas forms adverbs in the ablative sense from 
pronouns, nouns, and prepositions ; e. g. a-tas hence, amii-tas 
thence, i-tas from here, mat-tas from me ; daksina-tas from 
the right, hrt-tas from the heart ; abhi-tas around, pari-tas 

179-180] ADVERBS 213 

round about These adverbs are sometimes equivalent to 
ablatives ; e. g. ato bhuyas more than that. 

tat (an old abl. of ta that) forms adverbs with an abl. 
sense (sometimes merging into the loc.) ; e. g. adhas-tat 
beloiv ; arat-tat/row afar ; pasca-tat/row behind ; puras-tat 
in or from the front ; prak-tat from the front. 

3. Loc. : as forms adverbs chiefly of a local or temporal 
sense : tir-as across, par-as beyond, pur-as before ; sa-div-as 
and sa-dy-as to-day, sv-as to-morrow, hy-as yesterday ; also 
mith-as wrongly. 

tra or tra forms adverbs with a local sense, mostly from 
pronominal or cognate stems : a-tra here, anya-tra elseivhere, 
visva-tra everywhere ; asma-tra among us, sa-tra in one 
place, daksina-tra on the right, puru-tra in many places, 
bahu-tra amongst many ; deva-tra among the gods, martya- 
tra among mortals, sayu-tra on a couch. 

a. These adverbs are sometimes used as equivalents of locatives, 
e. g. Msta a daksinatra in the right hand. 

da forms adverbs of time almost exclusively from pro- 
nominal roots : i-da noiv, ka-da ivhen ? ta-da then, ya-da at 
what time, sa-da and sarva-da always. 

0. dam occurs beside da in sa-dam always ; and da-nim, an extended 
form of da, in i-da-nlm now, ta-da-nim then, vi6va-da-mm always. 

7. There are also various miscellaneous adverbs, mostly of obscure 
origin, formed with other suffixes of rare occurrence ; e. g. pur-a 
lefore, mith-u wrongly. 

Conjunctive and Adverbial Particles. 

180. anga emphasizes a preceding word (sometimes 
separated from it by short particles like hi and im) in such 
a way as to express that the action especially or exclusively 
applies to that word, = just, only, else e. g. yd anga just he 
who ; yad anga just when, just because tvam anga thou only ; 
kim anga Imv else, ivhy else ? 


a. In B. anga never has this meaning; but it sometimes there begins 
a sentence with an adhortative sense, accentuating the verb : aiig& no 
yajna'm vyacksva pray explain the sacrifice to r/s (MS.). 

atra sometimes occurs as the correlative to yad ivlien ; 
e. g. visve yad asyam ranayanta devah, pra vo tra sum- 
nam asyam when all the gods shall rejoice in it, then may I 
obtain your favours. 

atha, a collateral form of adha, occurs chiefly in the more 
recent hymns of the BV., and entirely supplants the older 
doublet in the later Vedas. Connecting sentences and 
clauses it expresses a temporal or logical sequence. It may 
generally be translated by (and) then, (and) so ; when there 
is a contrast, especially after a negative, it is equivalent to 
but. It often corresponds to a yada wlien or hi since, as, in 
the antecedent clause. With very few exceptions atha begins 
the sentence or clause. Examples are : mariidbhir, indra, 
sakhyam te astu, athema visvah prtana jayasi befriends 
with the Maruts, Indra, then thou shalt win all these battles 
(viii. 96 7 ) ; huve" vain, atha ma (= ma a) gatam / call you, 
so come to me (viii. 10 5 ) ; yade"d adevir asahista may a, 
athabhavat keValah. somo asya when he had overcome the 
godless wiles, Soma became exclusively his (vii. 98 5 ) ; makir 
nesan, makim risan, makim sam sari k6vate, atharista- 
bhir a gahi let none be lost, let none suffer harm, none incur 
fracture in a pit, but come back with them uninjured (vi. 54 7 ). 
From B. : patim nu me punaryuvanam kurutam, atha 
vam vaksyami make my husband young again, then I shall 
tell you (SB.) ; aham durge" hanta^ity, atha kas tvam iti 
Z am called the slayer in danger, but who are you ? (TS.). 

a. &tha is also occasionally used after gerunds (which are equivalent 
to an antecedent clause) : s&ubhagyam asyai dattvaya w &tha w &stam vi 
paretana having wished her luck, then go home (x. 85 33 ). This use is 
common in B., where it also occurs after present participles and 
locatives absolute. 

&. &tha in the sense of also connects substantives, but this use 
represents an abridged sentence ; e.g. ime" somaso &dhi turv&6e, 


y&dau, ime kanvesu vam atha these Swnas are beside Turvatfa, beside 
Yadu, (they are) also beside the Kanvasfor you (viii. 9 U ). From B. : id&m 
hi pita w eva w agre 'tha putro 'tha pautrah/or here first comes the father, then 
the son, then the grandson (SB.). 

c. In B. atha also connects the verbs of a compound relative clause : 
y&sya pita pitamahah punyah syad, atha tn n& prapnuyat whose 
father and grandfather are pious, but who cannot attain to this (TS.). 

atho (= atha u) generally means and also, moreover: 
arvavato na a gahy atho, sakra, paravatah come to us from 
near, and also, mighty one, from afar (Hi. 37 11 ). From B. : 
sam inddha a nakh^bhyo tho lomabhyah he 'kindles 
himself completely up to his nails and also his hair (SB.). 

a. In B. atho sometimes has the sense of but also, e.g. t vai dv6 
bhavatah . . . dtho api trini syuh there are tivo of them, but there may also 
be three (SB.). 

adha occurs in the RV. only, and almost exclusively, as 
compared with atha, in the earlier hymns. Like the latter 
it means then, expressing both a temporal and a logical 
sequence ; when there is a contrast, but. adha... adha both... 
and ; adha dvita and that particularly ; adha nii just now ; 
now at last ; and even adha sma especially then. Unlike 
atha it is never used with u. 

api meaning also, even generally precedes the word it 
emphasizes : yo gopa api tarn huve he who is the herdsman, 
him too I call (x. 19 4 ) ; osadhir bapsad agnir na vayati, 
piinar yan tarunir api Agni tires not of chewing plants, 
returning even to the young ones (viii. 43 7 ). From B. : tad 
dhaitad apy avidvamsa ahiih even those wlio do not Jcnow 
say this (SB.) ; adyapi even to-day (AB.). 

aram is an adverb meaning suitably, in readiness. Some- 
times used like an adjective, it is construed with the dative ; 
e. g. tavan ayam patave s6mo astu, aram manase yuva- 
bhyam^c/i let this Soma be (for you) to drink, according to (your) 
mind for you two (i. 108 2 ) ; sasmai^aram it is ready for him. 
In combination with kr it means serve, prepare (anything) 


for, with gam, serve, with bhu, accrue (to any one) suitably or 
sufficiently, always taking the dative. 

a. dlam, the form in which the preceding word appears in B., is there 
often similarly used ; e. g. sa nalam ahutya asa nalam bhaksaya it 

was not fit for offering, nor fit for consuming (SB.). 

aha in the KV. and AV. emphasizes a preceding word 
whether it be verb, substantive, pronoun, adjective, adverb, 
or preposition. Its sense may generally be expressed by 
surely, certainly, indeed, just, or merely by stress. It also 
appears after other emphasizing particles such as id, gh6d, 
ut6, im. Examples of its use are : kvaha where pray ? 
(x. 51 2 ) ; naha not at all (i. 147 3 ) ; yasyaha sakrah savan- 
esu ranyati in the pressings of whomsoever the mighty one 
rejoices (x. 43). 

In B. this use of aha is still found. But here it generally occurs in 
the first of two slightly antithetical sentences, the verb of the first 
being then nearly always accented, while the antithesis in the second 
sentence is either not expressed at all, or is indicated by the particles 
atha, u, or tu; e.g. p&racy aha deve"bhyo yajnam vahaty arvacl 
manusyan avati turned away it takes the sacrifice to the gods ; turned hither 
it advances men (SB.). Sometimes (in MS. and TS.) alia is thus used 
with the first of two va's ; e. g. kasya vahedam svo bhavita kasya va 
this will to-morrow belong either to the one or the other (MS.). 

a (otherwise a preposition) appears in V. fairly often 
emphasizing, in the sense of completeness, words expressive 
of number or degree, or sometimes even ordinary adjectives 
and substantives ; e. g. trir a divah. three times each day 
(i. 142 5 ) ; k6 vo varsistha a, narah who is the very mightiest 
of you, heroes? (i. 37 6 ) ; pra bodhaya puramdhim jara a 
sasatim iva awake the wise man, just as a lover a sleeping 
maiden (i. 134 3 ). 

ad (originally an abl. of the pronoun a from or after 
that) is used as an adverb expressing sequence of time = 
thereupon, then, often as a correlative to yad, yada or yadi 
when, sometimes to the relative when equivalent to those 
conjunctions : yadd ayukta haritah sadhasthad ad ratri 


vasas tanute as soon as he has yoked his steeds from their stall, 
then night spreads her garment (i. 115 4 ) ; adha yo visva 
bhiivanabhy avardhata, ad r6dasi jy6tisa vahnir atanot 
now (who =) when he surpassed all beings, then the charioteer 
overspread the two ivorlds with light (ii. 17 4 ). 

a. It sometimes connects words and clauses in the sense of and, 
moreover : asau ca ya na urvdra^ad imam tanvam rn&rna that field of ours 
and this my body (viii. 91 6 ) ; ydd, indra, dhan prathamajam ahinam, an 
mayinam dminah protd mayah when, Indra, thou didst slay the firstborn 
of the serpents and then didst bring to nought the wiles of the wily (i. 32 4 ). 

b. It is sometimes used with interrogatives, when it means then, 
pray : kim ad dmatram sakhyam how mighty then is the friendship ? 
(iv. 23 6 ). 

c. Unless used with interrogatives, ad almost invariably begins 
the Pada. 

d. ad is often followed by fd, when it means just then, then at once, 
then more than ever. 

iti thus is used with verbs of speaking and thinking, 
which have sometimes to be supplied. The particle generally 
concludes the speech and is followed by the verb : ya indraya 
sunavama w iti w aha ivho says * we will press Soma for Indra ' 
(iv. 25 4 ) ; n6ndro asti^iti n6ma u tva aha * Indra does not 
exist ' one and another says (viii. 100). Less commonly the 
verb precedes : jyestha aha camasa dva kara w iti the eldest 
said ' I will make two cups ' (iv. 33 5 ). Very rarely both iti and 
the verb precede the speech: vi prchad iti mataram, ka 
ugrah. lie asked his mother, ( who are the strong ones? ' (viii. 77 1 ). 
The verb is occasionally omitted : tvasta duhitrS vahatum 
krnoti^iti^idam visvam bhuvanam sam eti 'Tvastr prepares 
a wedding for his daughter' (thinking) thus this whole world 
comes together (x. 17 1 ). Thus a principal sentence as direct 
speech is used with iti where in other languages a subordinate 
sentence would be employed. 

1. In B. the use of iti is much the same, only that iti regularly follows 
and seems seldom to be omitted ; the verbs of saying and thinking, 
too, with which it is employed, are more numerous : t&tha^fti deva 
abruvan 'yes', said the gods (SB.). 


2. There are in B. also some additional uses : 

a. Very often the quotation is only an appellative that may be 
expressed by inverted commas : yams tv etdd deva aditya iti^,a-c&ksate 
whom they call thus : l the divine Adityas' (SB.). 

&. Sometimes iti is used at the end of an enumeration to express 
that it forms a well-known aggregate : etad vai sirah samrddham 
yasmin prano vak eaksuh. srotram iti that is a complete head in which 
are breath, speech, eye, ear (KB.). 

c. The particle is also often used in a special sense with reference 
to a ritual act to indicate how it is done : iti^dgre krsati^&tha^iti^ 
dtha iti v _,a"tha w iti w a"tha v _,iti (SB.) so he first draios the furrow, then so, then 
so, then so, then so (= as you see). 

d. Sometimes a conjunction is introduced before the quotation 
that ends with iti, but without changing the construction : s& rta"m 
abravld y&tha sdrvasv eva" samavad v&sani w iti (MS.) he sioore (that) 
' I will dwell with all equally* (= that he would'}. 

. ittha primarily means so : ganta minam . . yatha pura w 
ittha as before, so come ye now (i. 39 7 ) ; satyam ittha truly so 
(viii. 33 10 ). Secondarily it comes to mean (just so as it 
should be=) truly: krn6ti w asmai varivo ya ittha^indraya 
s6mam usate' sunoti he (Indra) gives case to him that truly 
presses Soma for Indra ivlio desires it (iv. 24 6 ). In this sense 
the word is sometimes used like an adjective : ittha sakhi- 
bhyah/or (those who are truly =) true friends (iii. 32 16 ). 

id (n. of the pron. stem i, Lat. i-d) is a very common 
particle in the RV., is much less frequent in the AV., and 
is comparatively rare in B. 1 It emphasizes preceding words 
of all kinds, including the finite verb (which it accents), and 
may usually be rendered by just or stress only, sometimes 
by even ; e. g. tad in naktam tad id diva mahyam ahuh 
this is what they tell me by night, this by day (i. 24 12 ) ; syama 
id indrasya sarmani may we be in Indra's care (i. 4 6 ) ; adha 
sma no maghavan carkrtad it then especially tliink of us, 
Bounteous One (i. 104 5 ) ; sadrsir adyd sadfsir id u svah 
alike to-day, alike even to-morrow (i. 123 8 ). When the verb is 

1 In classical Sanskrit id survives only in the compound particle 
ced if = ca-id. 


compound, the particle regularly follows the preposition, 
not the verb itself: ulukhala-sutanam ava^id v, indra, 
jalgulah. gulp eagerly doum, Indra, the drops shed by the 
mortar (i. 28 1 ). 

a. In B. the particle is similarly used : na" ta it sadyo 'ny&smai &ti 
diset he should not assign (just those = ) the same (coles') to another on the 
same day ($B.) ; tatha^m nuna"m t&d asa now thus it came to pass (f-lB.). 

iva is an enclitic particle with two uses : 

1. It means as if, as, like in abbreviated similes in appo- 
sition, never introducing a clause like yatha. It follows 
the word with which comparison is made ; if the comparison 
consists of several words, the particle generally follows the 
first, less commonly the second. The comparison is usually 
complete, but not infrequently it is only partially expressed. 
This employment of iva is very common in V., but com- 
paratively rare in B. Examples of this use are : dure" cit 
san talid ivati rocase even though far away, thou shinest 
brightly as if near at hand (i. 94 7 ) ; tat pa dam pasyanti 
diviva caksur atatam they see that step like an eye fixed in 
heaven (i. 22 20 ) ; sa nah pita w iva sunave agne supayand 
bhava as such be accessible to us, Agni, as a father to his son 
(i. I 9 ) ; dviso no ati nava w iva paraya take us across our foes 
as [across the ocean] in a ship (i. 97 7 ) ; tabhi rajanam 
parigrhya tisthati samudra iva bhumim with these he keeps 
embracing the king, as the sea the earth (AB.). 

2. It modifies a statement not intended to be understood 
in its strict sense, meaning as it ivere. It chiefly follows 
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions or verbs. This use of iva is 
rare in V., but very common in B. Examples are : iha^iva 
srnve I hear close at hand as it were (i. 37 3 ) ; tad, indra, 
pra^iva viryam cakartha that heroic deed, Indra, thou didst 
perform (asitwere=) quite pre-eminently (i. 103 7 ) ; yapra^iva 
nasyasi who (as it ivere = ) almost losest thyself (i. 146 1 ) ; 
yadi tan na^iva haryatha if ye are not quite pleased with that 
(i. 161 8 ). From B. : tasmat sa babhruka iva hence he (is as 


it were) may be called brmvn (SB.) ; rebhati^iva he seems to 
chatter (AB.) ; tan na sarva iva^abhipra padyeta not exactly 
every one should have access to that (SB.) ; upari^iva vai tad 
yad urdhvam nabheh above may l>e called what is higher than 
the navel (SB.). 

im (an old enclitic ace. of the pron. root i) occurs in V. 
only, and is almost restricted to the EV. 

1. It is generally employed as an ace. sing, of all genders 
= him, her, it, sometimes even as an ace. du. or pi. It either 
takes the place of a noun, or prepares for a following noun, 
or is accompanied by other pronouns (tarn, yam, enam, 
enan) ; e. g. a gachanti^im avasa they come to him with aid 
(i. 85 11 ) ; a w im asum a6ave bhara bring him, the swift, to the 
swift (i. 4 7 ) ; tarn im hinvanti dhitayah him devotions impel 
(i. 144 5 ); yad im enan usat6 abhy avarsit (vii. 103 3 ) 
when it has rained upon them that longed (for rain). 

2. im also appears as a generalizing particle with relatives 
(whoever), with yad (whenever), with interrogatives (who, 
pray ?), with kim cana (nothing at all) ; e. g. ya im bhavanti 
ajayah whatever conflicts take place (vii. 32 17 ) ; ka im vyakta 
narah wlio, pray, are the radiant men ? (vii. 56 1 ). 

u is an enclitic particle, often written u where the metre 
requires or favours a long syllable, especially in the second 
syllable of a Pada, before a single consonant. It often 
appears contracted to o (cp. 24) with a preceding a or a 
(mostly the final of particles or prepositions, also of the 
pron. esa, sometimes of verbal forms). It has two main 
uses in the KV. : 

1. It is employed deictically with verbs and pronouns. 

a. With verbs it expresses the immediate commencement 
of an action : with a present = now, already ; with a past 
tense =just; with an imperative, injunctive, or optative 
used in an impv. sense = at once ; sii is here very often 
added, u sii being = instantly. When the verb is accom- 
panied by a preposition, the particle regularly follows the 


latter. Examples of its use are : ud u tyam jatavedasam 
devam vahanti ketavah. Us learns now bear aloft the god that 
Jcnoivs all creatures (i. 50 1 ) ; abhud u bhah. the light has just 
arisen (i. 46 10 ) ; tapa^u sv agne antaran amitran burn 
instantly, Agni, our neighbouring foes (iii. I8 2 ). 

a. This use of u with verbal forms does not seem to be found in B. 

I). It emphasizes deictic pronouns, which may then be 
rendered by stress, and interrogative pronouns, when it may 
be translated by pray ; e. g. ayam u te, sarasvati, vasistho 
dvarav rtasya subhage vy ayah this Vasistha has opened 
for thec, bountiful Sarasvatl, the tivo doors of sacrifice (vii. 95 6 ) ; 
ka u sravat ivho, pray, will hear ? (iv. 43 1 ). 

a. In B. this use is very rare with deictic pronouns, but not 
infrequent with interrogatives ; e. g. idam u no bhavisyati yadi no 
jesy&nti this at least will remain to us, if they conquer us (TS.) ; kim u B& 
yajnena yajeta yo gam iva yajiaam n duhita ivhat sort of sacrifice, 
pray, would he offer if he were not to milk out the sacrifice like a cow ? (MS.). 

2. The particle u is used anaphorically to connect sen- 
tences, when a word (usually the first) is repeated in the 
second, in the sense of also ; e. g. trir naktam yathas, trir 
u, asvina, diva thrice by night ye come, thrice also, Avins, 
by day (i. 34 2 ) ; tvam trata tvam u no vrdhe' bhuh thou be 
our protector, thou, too, be for our increase (i. 178 5 ). The 
repeated word need not always have the same form : yd no 
dv6sty adharah sas padista, yam u dvismas tarn u pran6 
jahatu may he who hates us fall doivnward; whom also we hate, 
him too let his breath forsake (iii. 53 21 ). The u sometimes 
appears in both sentences, sometimes in the first only: 
vayam u tva diva sute", vayam naktam havamahe we 
call thee by day to the pressed Soma, we also by night (viii. 64). 

a. It is sometimes used without referring back definitely, 
but simply adding some similar quality or activity with 
reference to the same thing = and also, and ; e. g. sa devo 
devan prati paprathe prthii, visve'd u ta paribhur brah- 
manas patih he, the god, has extended himself widely to the gods, 
and he, Lord of Prayer, embraces all this universe (ii. 24 11 ). 


1. It also, in the same sentence, expresses a contrast = on 
the contrary, or, more frequently, with the demonstrative ta 
corresponding to the relative ya = again, in return ; e. g. 
striyah satis tan u me pumsa ahuh those who are women, 
them on the contrary they speak of to me (as) men (i. 164 1G ) ; 
yo adhvare'su h6ta . . tarn u namobhir a krnudhvam Mm 
tvho is priest at sacrifices, in return bring hither zvith devotions 
(i. 77*). 

a. In B. the anaphoric use is common, prevailing chiefly in the 
SB.; e.g. tasmad va indro 'bibhet, tasmad u tvastabibhet of that 
Indra was afraid, of that also Tvastr ivas afraid (MS.). 

a. The demonstrative here often refers back with u to previous 
statements : uto pancavattam ev& bhavati : pankto yajfiah, panktah 
pasuh, pancartavah samvatsar&sya : esa w u pancavattasya sampai : 
but it is also divided into five parts : the sacrifice is fivefold, cattle are fivefold, 
the seasons of the year are five : this is the sum of what is divided into five 
parts (SB.). Similarly used are the phrases tad u ha smaha with 
reference to this he used to say, tad u hovaca with reference to this he said ; 
tdd u t&tha n& kuryat that one should not do thus. 

0. A slight contrast is expressed by u in the second sentence : 
yadi nasnati pitrdevatyo bhavati, yady v asnati devan aty asnati 
if he does not eat, he becomes a worshipper of the Manes, but if he does eat, he 
eats before the gods (SB.). 

7. Used in combination with kim, u expresses a climax in the 
second clause = hoiv much more : manusya in nva upastirnam ichnti, 
kim u deva yesam navavasanam even men wish for something spread out, 
how much more the gods whose is a new dwelling (TS.). 

uta in the KV. means and, connecting two or more words 
or sentences. 

a. The particle commonly couples two words ; e. g. yah . . 
prthivim uta dyam e"ko dadhara who alone has supported 
heaven and earth (i. 154 4 ). When there is an enumeration 
of more than two objects, uta comes after the last ; e. g. 
adite, mitra, varuna^uta Aditi, Mitra, and Varu/ia 
(ii. 27 14 ). When a word is repeated from the beginning of 
a clause, uta (like u) follows the repeated word : trih sau- 
bhagatvam trir uta sravamsi nah thrice (grant) us prosperity 
and thrice fame (i. 34 5 ). 


I. When uta connects a sentence with a preceding one, it 
is placed at the beginning : ete"nagne brahmana vavrdhas- 
va . . uta pra nesy abhi vasyo asman with this prayer, 
Agni, strengthen thyself, and lead us onward to greater 
fortune (i. 31 1S ). 

c. uta... uta means loth... and; uta va or; uta va...uta 
va either... or; e.g. uta^idanim bhagavantah. syama w uta 
prapitva uta madhye ahnam both now may ice be fortunate 
and at eventide and at midday (i. 4 1 4 ) ; samudrad uta va 
divas pari from the ocean or from heaven (i. 47 G ) ; ya apo 
divya uta va sravanti khanitrmah either the ^vaters that are 
celestial or that flow in channels (i. 49 2 ). 

a. In B. uta does not mean a.nd, but also, even, emphasizing the 
assertion generally and not (like dpi) a single notion in the sentence : 
uta yadi^itasur bhavati jivaty ev& even when his breath is gone, he still 
lives (TS.). Even when preceding a substantive utd seems to refer to 
the whole statement : uta m&tsya ev& mdtsyam gilati it is also tfie case 
that one fish devours another (SB.). 

/3. With the optative ut& expresses that an action might after all 
take place : uta^evam cid devan abhi bhavema after all we might thus 
overcome the gods (SB.). 

6. utd...uta in B. (as well as in V.) means both... and: utfi. rtaVa 
uta pasava iti bruyat he should say l both the seasons and the animals ' (SB.). 

7. utd, is regularly the first word in the sentence except that kim 
or forms of ta or ya precede it : tasmad uta bahiir apasur bhavati 
therefore even though rich he becomes cattleless (SB.). 

uto (= uta u) in the EV. means and also: uto no asya 
usaso jus6ta hi and may he also be pleased with us this 
morning (i. 13 1 6 ). 

a. In B. uto has the sense of but also or also : ahavaniye havimsi 
srapayeyuh . . . uto garhapatya eva srapayanti they should cook the 
oblation on the Ahavantya fire, but they also cook it on the Garhapatya (SB.). 

eva has two uses in the RV. and the AV. : 
1. At the beginning of sentences or clauses it means thus, 
referring either to what precedes or follows ; e. g. evagnir 
gotamebhir astosta thus Agni has been praised by the 
Gotamas (i. 77 5 ) ; eva tarn ahur : indra 6ko vibhakta 
thus they speak of him : ' Indra is the one dispenser ' (vii. 26 4 ). 


It often appears as the correlative of yatha as : yatha na 
pur vain aparo jdhaty, eva, dhatar, ayumsi kalpayaisam 
as the later abandons not the earlier, so, Creator, arrange their 
lives (x. 18 5 ). With the impv. eva = 50, then : eva vandasva 
varunam brhantam (viii. 42 2 ) then praise the lofty Varuna 
(who has done these great deeds). 

2. As an emphasizing particle following the word on 
which stress is laid, eva may be variously rendered just, 
quite, alone, &c., or by stress ; e. g. tarn eva him only ; 
6ka eva quite alone ; atraiva just here ; svayam eva quite 
spontaneously, jata eva scarcely lorn, na^eva not at all. 

a. In B. the first of the above uses has entirely disappeared (evdm 
here taking the place of ev&), while the second is extremely common. 
The particle follows all kinds of words requiring emphasis for any 
reason ; this is especially the case when a word is repeated ; e. g. 
yam &gre 'gnim hotraya pravrnata, s& pradhanvad, y&m dvitiyam 
pravrnata, sa pra^eva^adhanvat the Agni whom they first chose for the 
priesthood, perished; he whom they chose the second time, likewise perished 
(SB.). When two notions are connected by way of contrast or other- 
wise, evd may follow either the first or the second ; e. g. amum ev& 
deva upayan, imam dsurah (SB.) the gods inherited that ivorld (heaven), 
the Asuras this one (the earth) ; somo yusmakam, vag evasmakam (let) 
Soma (be) yours, Vac ours (SB.). 

evam thus occurs only once in the RV. (as correlative to 
yatha as) and in the AV. not at all with yatha, but only as 
an adverb with the verb vid Imoiv : ya evam vidyat he who 
may possess such knowledge. 

In B. evam is very common, having two uses : 

1. It is correlative to y&tha as, being often accompanied by a form 
of the same verb as the latter ; e. g. y&tha v&i parj&nyah suvrstim 
vdrsaty, ev&m yajn6 yajamanaya varsati as Parjanya rains heavily, so 
the sacrifice rains for the sacrificer (TS.). When the second verb is 
omitted, y&tha...evdm is equivalent to iva ; e.g. te" deva abhy 
asrjyanta ydtha vittim vetsydmana evdm the gods rushed up like those 
wishing to obtain property (SB.). 

2. It accompanies verbs as an adverb, especially in the very 
frequent phrase yd, ev&m vda he who possesses such knoivledge ; ut6 w 
evfim cin na labheran after all (hey icill thus not touch it (&B.). 


kam appears both as an accented and an unaccented 
particle. The former use is found in both V. and B., the 
latter in the RV. only. 

1. a. kam as an adv. with the full meaning well (equivalent 
to the Vedic sam) appears in B. only ; e. g. kam me 'sat 
may it be well with me (SB.); it also occurs in a negative 
form : a-kaxn bhavati lie fares not well (TS.). 

b. kam has the same meaning attenuated after datives 
(generally at the end of a Pada) either of persons = for the 
benefit of (dat. commodi) or of abstract nouns (final dative) ; 
e. g. yuvam etam cakrathul? sindhusu plavam taugryaya 
kam ye two have placed that ship in the waters for the benefit of 
the son of Tugra (i. 182 5 ) ; tvam devaso amrtaya kam 
papuh thee the gods have drunk for the love of immortality 
(ix. 106 8 ) ; samanam anjy anjate subhe" kam (vii. 57 3 ) with 
the same Ime they adorn themselves in order to shine (ivell). 
From B. : kasmai kam agnihotram huyata iti for wJwse 
benefit is the Agnihotra offered? (MS.) ; tejase kam purnama 
ijyate for the sake of splendour the full moon sacrifice is 
offered (MS.). 

2. The unaccented kam occurs in the RV. only excepting 
one independent passage of the AV. It always appears as 
an enclitic following the particles mi, sii, hi. It means 
willingly, gladly, indeed, but the sense is generally so attenu- 
ated as to be untranslatable, mi kam appears with the inj., 
impv., subj., ind., also in relative clauses ; e.g. aso mi kam 
ajaro vardhas ca be unaging and grow (x. 50 5 ), sii kam 
appears with the imperative only : tistha sii kam, magha- 
van, ma para gah pray stand still, bounteous god, go not 
further (iii. 53 2 ). hi kam generally appears with the ind. 
(occasionally omitted), sometimes with impv. or subj. : 
raja hi kam bhiivananam abhisrih for he indeed is the king 
who rules over beings (i. 98 1 ). 

kim (n. of ki = ka) has two uses. In the first place it 
means why ? e. g. kim u sre'sthah kim yavistho na ajagan 


why has the best, why has the youngest come to us ? (i. 161 1 ). 
It is also a simple interrogative particle (equivalent to a 
mark of interrogation) ; e. g. kim me havyam ahrnano 
juseta would he, free from anger, enjoy an oblation of mine ? 
(vii. 86 2 ) ; kim rajasa ena par 6 any ad asti is there anything 
else beyond the welkin? (AV. v. II 5 ). 

a. In B. kim is similarly used. With following u it here adds 
a climax in a second sentence = hoiv much more (see u) ; with following 
ut& and the optative it means why after all e. g. kim utd tvareran 
why, after all, should they hasten? (&B.). 

kila, an uncommon particle in V., meaning indeed, 
certainly, strongly emphasizes (in RV. and AV.) the preceding 
word (noun, pronoun, adjective, and the negative na) ; e. g. 
svadiis kila^ayam (vi. 47 1 ) sweet, indeed, is this (Soma) ; 
taditna satrum na kila vivitse then thou didst find no foe at 
all (i. 32 4 ). 

a. In B. the use is similar; e.g. ksipram kila^a strnuta (&B.) 
quickly, then, spread (the barhis). But here kila usually follows other 
particles, v&i or (ha) vavd : esa v&i kila haviso yamah this, indeed, is 
the course of the sacrifice (&B.) ; tava ha vava kila bhagava idam Sir, 
this belongs to you only (AB.). 

kuvid, a pronominal interrogative particle, introduces 
sentences which, though apparently independent, are treated 
as dependent, since the verb (except twice in the RV.) is 
regularly accented. This use seems to have arisen from the 
particle's having been employed as an elliptical expression of 
doubt such as might be rendered by ' I wonder (whether) ' ; 
e. g. tarn, indra, madam a gahi kuvin nv asya trpnavah 
come, Indra, to this carouse (to see) whether you shall enjoy it 
(iii. 42 2 ) ; kuvit somasya apam iti have I, indeed, drunk 
Soma (x. 119 1 ) = (I wonder) whether I have drunk, Soma. 

a. In B. kuvid is similarly used ; e. g. kuvin me putr&m dvadhit 

has he actually killed my son? (&B.) : kuvit tusnim aste does he indeed sit 
silent? (6B.). 


khalu indeed, in truth, does not occur at all in the AV., 
and only once in the RV., where it emphasizes an imperative : 
mitram krnudhvam khalu pray, conclude friendship (x. 34 14 ). 

a. In B. the particle is common. It is rarely used alone, but often 
with other particles. 

a. It appears alone with the impv., subj., or ind. ; e.g. &tra khalu 
ramata here, pray, remain (&B.) ; rdhnaVat khalu s& yo maddevatyam 
agnim ad&dhatai he indeed shall prosper who shall establish a fire conse- 
crated to me (TS.); asmakm eva^id&m khalu bhiivanam to us alone 
indeed this ivorld belongs (&B.). 

6. After the particles u or &tho and before or after vai, it emphasizes 
the word preceding the combined particles; e.g. t&d u khalu maha- 
yajflo bhavati thus, indeed, the great sacrifice arises (&B.). 

a. &tho khalu is used either to express an (usually preferred) 
alternative = or else, or rather, but surely rather or to introduce an 
objection ; e. g. vaisvadev&m iti bruyad, &tho khalu aindrdm fti 
bruyat '/or all gods' 1 one should say, or else one should say l for Indra* 
(TS.); diksitena satyam eva vaditavyam ; atho khalv ahuh : ko 
'rhati manusyah sarvam satyam vaditum iti an initiated man should 
speak the truth only ; noiv they make the objection : ' what man can speak the 
whole truth r (AB.). 

13. v&i khdlu can only be distinguished from vai alone as an 
emphatic vai. But khalu v&i in the TS. and AB. has the special use 
of introducing a second causal protasis after a first beginning with 
simple vai, the conclusion then following with ev& ; e. g. prajapatyd 
vai ptirusah ; prajapatih khalu vai t&sya veda : prajapatim evfi, 
sv6na bhagadheye'na upa dhavati noio man comes from Prajdpati ; again 
Prajdpati knows about him : so he approaches Prajdpati with the portion (of 
the sacrifice) belonging to him (TS.). This use occasionally occurs even 
though the preceding clause does not begin with vai. 

gha is an enclitic particle, almost restricted to the RV. 
Generally occupying the second place in the Pada, it is with 
few exceptions metrically lengthened to gha. It emphasizes 
the preceding word, which is nearly always either the 
negative nd, or a pronoun (demonstrative or personal), or a 
verbal preposition, the meaning being variously rendered by 
just, only, very, or merely stress. It emphasizes a noun only 
twice and a verb only once in the RV. : trtiye gha savane 
at least at the third Soma libation (i. 161 8 ) ; tu&anti gha t6 
amrtasa etat those immortals desire this (x. 1C 3 ). 


ca (Gk. re, Lai. -qiie) and is an enclitic conjunction used 
to connect both words and sentences. It regularly follows 
an accented word, and when it adds a clause, the first word 
of that clause. 

1. ca connects substantives (including pronouns and 
numerals) and adverbs ; e. g. mitram huve varunam ca 
I invoke Mitra and Varuna (i. 2 7 ) ; maghavano vayam ca 
the patrons and we (i. 73 8 ) ; Satam 6kam ca a hundred and 
one (i. 117 18 ) ; adya nunam ca to-day and now (i. 13 6 ). 
In a few passages (but never in B.) the ca follows the first 
word instead of the second : nakta ca . . usasa night and 
morning (i. 73 7 ). 

a. are used much in the same way; e.g. gir&yas ca dyava 
ca bhuma the mountains and heaven-and-earth (i. 61 14 ) ; div&s ca gmds 
ca of heaven and of earth (i. 37 6 ) ; asman ca tarns ca us and them (ii. l lc ) ; 
n&va ca navatim ca nine and ninety (i. 32 14 ) ; a ca p&ra ca carantam 
moving hither and away (i. 164 31 ). 

Similarly in B. : devas ca^dsuras ca gods and Asuras (S" B.) ; sastfs 
ca trini ca satani sixty and three hundred ; purastac ca w tip&ristac ca 
from before and from behind. 

/3. sometimes also express a contrast : n&kta ca cakriir usdsa 
virupe : krsn&m ca vdrnam arundm ca s&m dhuh they have made 
night and morning of different aspect : they have put together the black colour 
and the ruddy (i. 73 7 ). 

Similarly in B. : ubh&yam gramy&m ca^aranyana ca juhoti he 
sacrifices both : tvhat is tame and what is wild (MS.). 

a. A peculiar use of ca in the RV. is to add a second 
vocative in the form of a nominative ; e. g. vayav indras 
ca . . a yatam Vayu and Indra, come (i. 2). 

6. Another peculiar use of ca, both in V. and B., is to 
add one noun (nearly always in the nom.) to another which 
has to be supplied ; e. g. a yad indras ca dadvahe when we 
tivo, (I) and Indra, receive (viii. 34 1C ) ; indras ca somam 
pibatam, brhaspate do ye, (thou), Brhaspati, and Indra. 
drink (iv. 50 10 ). 

From B. : ta brhaspatis ca^anvavaitam they two, (he) and 
Brhaspati, followed them (TS.) ; tat samjnam krsnajinaya ca 


vadati so he pronounces harmony (between it) and the black 
antelope skin (SB.). 

a. In B. ca is used to add a single word at the end of a sentence in 
the sense of and (so did} ; e. g. sramena ha sma v&i t&d deva jayanti 
y&d esam j&yyam asa^fsayas ca by penance the gods were tvont to win what 
was to be icon by them, and so did ths seers (SB. ). 

c. ca following the interrogative ka, or the relative ya 
and the interrogative ka combined, gives them an indefinite 
sense: kas ca or yah kas ca any one, 'whoever (cp. 119 I). 

2. ca also connects both principal sentences and relative 
clauses : a deve'bhir yahi yaksi ca come witli the gods and 
sacrifice (i. 14 1 ) ; ya vyusiir yas ca nunam vyuchan that 
have shone forth and that shall now shine forth (i. 113 10 ); 
yd 'sman dve"sti yam ca vayam dvismah who hates us and 
whom we hate (SB.). 

a. connect sentences to express a contrast by 
means of parallel verbal forms which are either identical or 
at least appear in the same number and person, the first 
verb being then always accented : para ca yanti piinar a 
ca yanti they go aivay and come again (i. 123 12 ). 

a. In B. the use of ca...oa is similar; e.g. vatsam ca^upavasrj&ty 
ukham ca^adhi srayati he admits the calf and puts the pot on the fire (TS.). 
The rule of accentuation applies even when the second verb is 
omitted : agn&ye ca havih parid&dati guptya asyai ca prthivy&i 
he delivers the oblation for protection to Fire and lo this Earth (!B.). This 
connecting use is particularly common in parallel abridged relative 
sentences : srvan pasun ni dadhire ye ca gramya y6 ca w aranyah 
they laid down all animals, those that are tame and those that are ivild (SB.). 

3. ca is used a few times in V. in the sense of if with the 
subjunctive or the indicative: indras ca mrlayati no, na 
nah pascad agham nasat if Indra be gracious to us, no 
calamity will hereafter befall us (ii. 41 11 ) ; imam ca vacam 
pratiharyatha, naro, visve'd vama vo asnavat if ye 
graciously accept this song, heroes, it will oUain all goods 
from you (i. 40 6 ). 

cana. properly meaning not even, is most usually employed 


after a negative ; e. g. trtiyam asya nakir a dadharsati, 
vayas cana patayantah patatrinah no one dares approach 
his third (step), not even the tvinged birds though they fly 
(i. 155 5 ). From its use in such supplementary clauses, 
where it may also be translated by even, the latter sense 
comes to be the natural or even necessary one after a negative 
in a single clause sentence ; e. g. yasmad rte" na sidhyati 
yajn6 vipascitas cana without whom the sacrifice does not 
succeed [not] even of the wise man (i. 18 7 ) ; indram na mahna 
prthivi cana prati even the earth is not equal to Indra in 
greatness (i. 81 5 ). As one of the two negatives is superfluous 
in a single clause sentence, cana alone occasionally does 
duty for the negative: mane" cana tvam para sulkaya 
deyam not even for a great reward would I give thee away 
(viii. I 5 ). 

a. In a few passages, even when there is no accompanying 
negative, cana throwing off its own negative sense, means 
even, also : aham cana tat suribhir anasyam I too would 
acquire this with the patrons (vi. 26 7 ) ; adha cana Srad 
dadhati therefore also they believe (i. 55 5 ). 

a. In B. can& appears only after a negative in single clause 
sentences, in which nd cana means twt even ; e. g. n& hainam sapatnas 
tustursamanas cand strnute no enemy fells Mm even /hough desiring io fell 

him (SB.). 

6. cana gives the interrogative an indefinite sense : kas 
cana any one, na kas cana no one (cp. 119 b). 

cid is an enclitic particle very frequently used to emphasize 
the preceding word. It has two senses : 

1. expressing that the statement is not to be expected 
in regard to the word emphasized : even ; e. g. a drdham cid 
arujo gavyam urvam even the firm cowstall thou hast broken 
through (iii. 32 16 ). This sense is, however, sometimes so 
attenuated as to be capable of being rendered by stress only ; 
e. g. tvam cin nah samyai bodhi svadhih le thou attentive 
to our endeavour (iv. 3 4 ). 


2. generalizing = any, every, all ; e. g. krtam cid e*nah 
pra mumugdhy asmat (i. 24 9 ) remove from us any (every, 
all) sin committed (by us). Similarly, with interrogatives = 
any, with relatives = ever ; thus kas cid any one : srndti kail 
cid esam any one (= every one) hears them (i. 37 13 ) ; sun- 
vadbhyo randhaya karn cid avratam subject every impious 
man to those that press Soma (i. 132 4 ); na or ma kas cid (not 
any =) no one ; kada cid ever = at any time or always ; yas 
cid whoever ; y ac cid if ever ; yatha cid as ever. 

a. In B. the only use that survives is the generalizing sense with 
interrogative pronouns = any, some ; e. g. dtha kam cid aha then he 
says to some one (SB.) ; ydt te kds cid abravit ivhat any one said to 

you (SB.). 

ce"d (= caid) if occurs only three times in the RV., but 
later becomes commoner^ In the RV. and AV. it is found 
with the ind. pres. and aor. ; in the AV. it also occurs once 
with the opt. Thus : vi c6d uchanty, asvina, usasah, pra 
vam brahmani karavo bharante when the Dawns shine forth, 
Asvins, the singers offer prayers to you (vii. 72 4 ) ; brahma 
ced dhastam agrahit sa eva patir ekadha if a Brahman 
has taken her hand, he alone is her husband (AV. v. 17 8 ) ; iti 
manvita yacitah vasam c6d enam yaceyuh thus one would 
think who has been requested, if they were to request a coiv of 
him (AV. xii. 4 48 ). 

a. In B. ce~d is used with the hid. pres., aor., fut. and with the opt. ; 
e. g. atas ce"d eva naiti nasya yajno vyathate if he does not go away 
from there, his sacrifice does not fail (MS.) ; sa hovaca turiyam-turiyam 
ce"n mam abibhajams turlyam evfi, tarhi van niruktam vadisyatiti 
he said ' if they have given me only one-fourth each time, then Vac will speak 
distinctly only to the extent of one-fourth ' (SB.) ; t&m c6n me n& vivaksyasi, 
murdha te vi patisyati if you cannot explain this (riddle) to me, your head 
will burst (SB.) ; etam ced any&sma anubruyas t^ita eva te sir as 
chindyam if you icere to tell this to another, I would strike off your head (SB.). 

tatas occurs in the RV. several times adverbially in the 
local sense of the ablative = thence ; e. g. tato visam pra 
vavrte thence the poison has turned aivay. It also, but very 


rarely, has the temporal sense of thereupon, then ; e. g. 
yajnair atharva prathamah pathas tate, tatah. suryo . . 
ajani with sacrifices Atharvan first extended the paths, then the 
sun was born (i. 83 5 ). 

a. In B., on the other hand, the temporal sense of thereupon is extremely 
common. Here it also often appears at the beginning of a sentence 
connected with a preceding one in the sense of therefore, consequently ; 
e. g. sa yajn&m eva", yajnapatrani pr vivesa; t&to hainamnd s"skatur 
nfrhantum it entered into the sacrifice itself, into the sacrificial vessels; 
consequently those two were unable to expel it (SB.). 

tatha occurs in the EV. in the sense of so, thus] e.g. 
tatha rtuh such is the rule (i. 83 19 ). It also appears as a 
correlative (though less often than eva) to yatha ; e. g. 
Byavasvasya sunvatas tatha srnu yathasrnor atreh listen 
to the sacrificing Syava&oa as thou didst listen to Atri (viii. 36 7 ). 

a. In B. the use is similar ; e. g. tdtha^m nundm tdd asa so, indeed, 
it came to pass (SB.) ; as correlative (though less often than evdm) to 
ydtha : na" vdi t^itha^abhud ydtha^dmamsi it has not come about as I had 
thought (S"B.). 

&. t^tho ( = t&tha^u) occurs in B., meaning and in the same way, but 
so ; e. g. tdtho evottare ni vapet and in the same way he should assign 
the last hoo (TS.) ; sa ydd daksina-pravana syat, ksipre ha ydjamano 
'mum lokdm iyat, tdtho ha ydjamano jyog jivati if it (the altar) were 
sloping to the south, the sacrifice)- would quickly go to yonder world, but thus 
(as it is) the sacrificer lives a long time (SB.). 

tad is often used adverbially in the RV. It then has three 
different senses : 

1. It frequently means then as correlative to yad when ; 
e. g. yaj jayatha vrtrahatyaya tat prthivim aprathayah 
when thou wast lorn for the Vrtra-fight. thou didst spread out 
the earth (viii. 89 5 ). 

2. It is also often used in the sense of thither (ace. of the 
goal) ; e. g. tad it tva yukta harayo vahantu thither let the 
yoked lays waft thee (iii. 53 4 ). 

3. Occasionally it has the sense of therefore ; e. g. tad vo 
deva abruvan, tad va agamam that the gods said to yon. 


therefore I Imve come to you (i. 161 2 ) ; pra tad vismih stavate 
virydua therefore Visnu is praised for his heroism (i. 154 2 ). 

a. In B. tad/ has four different adverbial uses: 

1. as a correlative to y&d (wken } inasmuch as) = thereby, and to 
y&tra (tohere) = there ; e. g. ydn nv ev& rajanam abhisunv&nti, t&t t&m 
ghnanti now when they press the king (soma), they kill him thereby (S"B.) ; 
ydtranya dsadhayo mlayanti tad ete" modamana vardhante where 
other plants wither, it (the wheat) grows merrily (SB.). 

2. in the sense of thereupon, then ; e. g. atha^itithim s&mam ta"d 
augh& aganta, tan ma navam upakalpya w upasasai notv in such and 
such a year a flood icill then come, then having built a ship you shatt turn 
to me (SB.). 

3. constantly with reference to a preceding statement in the sense 
of as to that, thereby, thus ; e. g. yajnam ev& tad deva upayan the gods 
thus obtained the sacrifice (SB.) ; tat tad avaklptam ev& yad brahmano 
'raj any dh syat so it is quite suitable that a Brahman should be ivithout 
a king (&B.) ; tad ahuh as to that they say ; tad u tat now as to this (SB.). 

4. before yad with reference to a preceding statement to add an 
explanation, and may be rendered by that is to say, now ; e. g. t&d 
yad es& et&t tapati tena esa sukrah noiv, inasmuch as he burns here, 
therefore he is bright (SB.). Similarly in the phrase t&d ydt t6,tha that is 
to say, why it is so (is as follows) = the reason for this is as follows (SB.). 

tarhi at that time, then, occurs only once in the RV., but 
several times in the AV. : na mrtyur asid amrtam na 
tarhi there was not death nor immortality then (x. 129 2 ). In 
the AV. the word appears as correlative to yada 2vhen, and 
in B. to yatra, yad, yada, yarhi when, and yadi ?/; e. g. 
raksamsi va enam tarhy a labhante yarhi na jayate the 
Eaksases then seize him ivhen (the fire) does not arise (AB.) : 
yadi va rtvijo 'loka bhavanty aloka u tarhi yajamanah 
if the priest is tvithout a place, the sacrificer is then also without 
a place (SB.). 

tasmad therefore is not found as an adverb in the RV., 
but occurs several times as such in the AV., and is constantly 
so used in B. As correlative to yad because it appears once 
in the AV. and is very common in B. ; e. g. yad vai tad 
varunagrhitabhyah kam abhavat tasmat kayah (MS.) 
because those ivho were, seized by Varunafelt well, therefore it is 
called Mya (body). 


tu, though accented, never commences a sentence or Pada. 
It has two uses : 

1. It is an emphasizing particle. In the KV., where it 
occurs nearly fifty times, it seems to be restricted to this 

a. In about two-thirds of its occurrences tu emphasizes 
an exhortation in the 2. pers. impv. (rarely the 3. pers., or 
the subj. in an impv. sense) = pray, then-, e.g. a tv 6ta, ni 
sidata pray come, sit you doivn (i. 5 1 ) ; na te dure" parama 
cid rajamsy, a tu pra yahi haribhyam even the highest 
spaces are not far to thee ; come hither, then, wth thy two bays 
(iii. 30 2 ). 

b. In several passages tu emphasizes assertions (generally 
following the demonstrative ta) in the sense of surely, indeed ; 
e. g. tat tv asya that surely is his work (iii. 30 12 ). 

2. It is an adversative particle meaning but. This is its 
sense in the only passage of the AY. in which it occurs, and 
is its only meaning in B. ; e.g. cakara bhadram asmabhyam 
atmane tapanam tu sah he has done ivliat is good for us, but 
painful to himself (AV. iv. 18 6 ) ; tad evam v6ditor na tv 
evam kartavai that one should know thus, but not do thus (MS.). 
With aha or mi in the preceding clause, it expresses the 
sense it is true... but; e.g. tad aha t6sam vaco, 'nya tv 
evatah sthitih this indeed is what they say, but the established 
practice is different therefrom (SB.). 

tna occurs in B. as an adverb correlative to y&d because ; e. g. yd 
gramyasya n& w 6snati t^na gramyan fi,va runddhe because he does not 
eat any tame animal, therefore he gains tame animals for himself (MS.). 

tvavd (compounded of tu vav&), a particle sometimes occurring 
in B., does riot perceptibly differ in sense from vav& (q. v.) ; e.g. 
trayo ha tvavd pas&vo 'medhyah there are just three kinds of animals 
unfit for sacrifice (&B.). 

tvai (compounded of tu. vfii) is sometimes found in B. meaning 
but indeed. 

dvita, a particle occurring about thirty times, is restricted 
to the RV. There can be no doubt that it is an old instru- 


mental, etymologically meaning doubly. This sense taken 
either literally = in two ivays, or figuratively = emphatically, 
especially, more than ever, seems to suit all the passages in 
which the word occurs ; e. g. bharadvaj aya^ava dhuksata 
dvita dhenum ca visvadohasam isam ca visvabhojasam 
on Bharadvaja do ye (Maruts) milk down doubly, both the 
all-milking cow and all-nourishing food (vi. 48 13 ) ; raja devanam 
uta martyanam dvita bhuvad rayipati raymam as king of 
gods and mortals may he ~be doubly lord of riches (ix. 97 24 ) ; 
dvita yo vrtrahantamo vida indrah. satakratuh lipa no 
haribhih sutam may he who above all is knotvn as the best 
Vrtra-slayer, Indra Satakratu, (come) to our pressed Soma 
with his bays (viii. 93 32 ) ; gavam e"se sakhya krnuta dvita 
(x. 48) in the search for the cows he especially concluded friend' 
ship (with me). 

. The word occurs several times with ddha, meaning and that too 
doubly or especially, e.g. vi t&d vocer ddha dvita explain this, and (do so) 
particularly (i. 132 s ). 

na has two senses in V. (but only the first of the two 
in B.) : 

1. As a negative particle meaning not it denies an assertion, 
appearing in principal sentences with the ind. of all tenses, 
with the subj., the opt., the inj. (in the sense of a fut.), but 
not with the impv. ; it is also employed in relative and 
conjunctional clauses. It negatives either the assertion of 
the whole sentence (when it appears as near the beginning 
as possible, in V. even before the relative) or only the 
assertion of the verb. It can only be used in a sentence 
which contains a finite verb or in which one is to be supplied. 
There seems to be no undoubted example of its negativing 
any word (such as a participle or adjective) other than the 
verb. The employment of this negative na is much the 
same in B. as in V. 

.- A verb (such as asti is} has often to be supplied with this 
negative in simple sentences, especially with the gerundive, the 


infinitive, or a dative equivalent to an infinitive ; e. g. t&n n& sur- 
ksyam that (is) not to be troubled about (MS.); n& yo v&raya loho (is) not 
for hindering = ivho is irresistible (i. 143 5 ). Or the verb has to be 
supplied in a second sentence from the first ; e. g. ndktam upa 
tisthate, n& pratdh lie ivorships at night, (he does) not (worship) in the 
morning (IS.}. 

6. Two negatives express a strong positive ; e. g. na hi pas&vo n& 
bhunjanti/or cattle alicays eat (MS.). 

2. na is used in V. (very commonly in RV., comparatively 
rarely in AY., but never in B.) as a particle of comparison, 
exactly like iva as, like. This meaning seems to be derived 
from not as negativing the predicate of a thing to which it 
properly belongs ; e. g. ' he (neighs), not a horse neighs ' = 
' he, though not a horse, neighs ' = * he neighs like a horse '. 
This na, being in sense closely connected with the preceding 
word, never coalesces in pronunciation (though it does in the 
written Sandhi) with a following vowel, whereas na not 
generally does. This na always follows the word of com- 
parison to which it belongs ; or if the simile consists of 
several words, the na generally follows the first word, less 
commonly the second ; e. g. aran na nemih pari ta babhuva 
he surrounds them as the felly the spokes (i. 32 15 ) ; pakva 
sakha na like a branch with ripe fruit (i. 8*). 

a. When the object compared is addressed in the voc. (which is 
sometimes to be supplied), the object with which it is compared is 
sometimes also put in the voc. agreeing with it by attraction ; e. g. 
tiso na subhra a bhara like brilliant Dawn, (O sacrifice!-) bring (i. 57 s ) ; 
asve na citre, arusi like a brilliant mare, ruddy Dawn (i. 30 21 ). 

6. When the object compared is not expressed, n& means as it were ; 
e. g. sivabhir n& smayamanabhir agat he has come with gracious smiling 
women as it were (i. 79 2 ). 

c. n& sometimes interchanges with iva ; . g. ratham n& tdsteva 
tdtsinaya as a carpenter (fashions) a car for him who desires it (i. 61 4 ). 

na-kis 1 (not any one) is found in V. only, being almost 
restricted to the RV., where it frequently occurs. It properly 

1 N. sing, of interrogative ki (Lat. gui-s) of which the n. kf-m is in 
regular use (cp. 113). 


means no one ; e. g. nakir indra tvad uttarah no one, 
Indra, is superior to thee (iv. SO 1 ) ; yatha ktfmmam nakir 
ucchisyatai that none of the worms shall be left (AV. ii. 3 1 3 ). 
Losing its N. sense, 1 it comes to be used, though less often, 
as a strong negative adverb meaning not at all, never ; e. g. 
yasya sarman nakir deva varayante na martah. in whose 
protection gods never hinder him nor mortals (iv. 17 19 ). Cp. 

na-kim 2 occurs only twice in one hymn of the RV. in the 
sense of a strong negative adverb = not at all, never : nakim 
indro nikartave Indra can never be subdued (viii. 78 5 ). 

na-nu occurs only twice in the RV. where it has the sense 
of a strong negative = by no means, never. In B. it occurs 
a few times as an interrogative expecting assent (= nonne), 
not?-, e.g. nami susruma have we not heard? (SB.). 

na-hi, as the compounded form of na hi, occurs only in V., 
where it sometimes has the sense of for not ; e. g. nahi tva 
satruh starate for no foe strikes thee down (i. 129 4 ). More 
commonly it emphatically negatives a statement as something 
well known = certainly not, by no means, as appears most 
clearly at the beginning of a hymn ; e. g. nahi vo asty 
arbhakd, de"vasah not one of you, gods, is small (viii. 30 1 ). 

a. This compounded form never occurs in B., where n& hi alone is 
found. On the other hand, n& hi seems never to occur in V. 

nama is used adverbially in the following two senses : 
1. by name ; e. g. sa ha sruta indro nama devah that god 
famous as Indra by name (ii. 20 6 ) ; k6 nama^asi who art thou 
byname? (VS. vii. 29). 2. namely, indeed, verily; e.g. djasro 
gharmo havir asmi nama / am constant heat, namely the 
oblation (iii. 26 7 ) ; mam dhur indram nama devata they 
have placed me among the gods verily as Indra (x. 49 2 ). 

1 Probably because the N. has no longer an independent existence 
coupled with the fact that the pronoun ki has gone out of use except 
in the one form ki-m. 

z Probably A. n. of nfi-kis with lengthened vowel. 


mi l or nu 2 means 1. now ; e.g. sa nv iyate lie is noiv 
implored (i. 145 1 ) ; indrasya nu viryani pra vocam I will 
now proclaim the heroic deeds of Indra (i. 32 l ) ; yoja nv, 
indra, te hari yoke noiv (= at once), Indra, thy two bays 
(i. 82 1 ) ; uvasosa uchac ca mi (i. 48 3 ) Dawn lias shone (in 
the past) and she shall shine now (= henceforth) ; asmabhir 
u mi praticaksya^abhut to us she has just now become visible 
(i. 113 11 ). 2. still: pasyema mi suryam uccarantam we 
would still see the sun rising (vi. 52 5 ) ; mahan indrah. paras 
ca mi great is Indra and still more (i. 8 5 ). 3. pray with 
interrogatives : kada nv antar varune bhuvani when, pray 
( at last), shall I be in (communion with) Varuna (vii. 86 2 ). 
4. ever with relatives : ya mi krnavai whatever (deeds) 
I shall accomplish (i. 165 10 ). 5. ever, at all with negatives : 
na^asya varta na taruta nv asti there is none at all to 
obstruct, none to overcome him (vi. 66 8 ). 6. with cid it means 
(a) even now, still ; e. g. nu cid dadhisva me girah even now 
take to thyself my songs (i. 10) ; dasasya no, maghavan, nu 
cit favour us still, Bountiful one (viii. 46 11 ) ; (b) never ; e. g. 
nu cid dhi parimamnathe asman for never have ye despised 
us (vii. 93 6 ). 

a. The senses of nti found in B. are the following : 
1. Now actually in affirmative sentences, often collecting a previous 
statement ; e. g. nirdaso nv abhud, yajasva ma^anena now he is actually 
more than ten days old : sacrifice him to me (AB.). 2. then, pray, in exhorta- 
tions with the subj., the impv., or ma with the inj., e.g. ^raddhadevo 
vai mfi,nur : avdm mi vedava Manu is godfearing; let us two then try him 
(^B.); ma nu me pr^, harsih pray, do not strike at me (&B.). When 
dtha follows such sentences, mi may be translated by first : nirdajo 
nv astv, atha tva yajai let him (the victim) first be more than ten days old, 
then I will sacrifice him to you (AB.). 3. pray, in questions with or without 
an interrogative ; e. g. kv& nu vfsnur abhut what, pray, has become of 
Vimu 1 (&B.) ; tv&m mi khalu no br&hmistho 'si are you, pray, indeed 
the wisest of us? (&B.). 4. now, after Iti followed by &tha next: iti nu 
purvam patalam, athottaram this now is the first section ; next follows the 

1 Never begins a sentence. 

2 Often begins a sentence. 


second (AB.). 5. indeed, in the first of two antithetical clauses, when 
the second is introduced with tu or kim u ; e. g. yo nv ev& jnat&s 
t&srnai bruyad, n& tv evJ-i s&rvasma iva he may indeed tell it to him who 
is known to him, but not to any and every one (SB.). 

nunam now has three uses in the RV. : 

1. With the ind. pres. it means now as opposed to formerly 
or in future (an opposition often expressed by pura before 
and aparam after) ; e. g. na nunam asti n6 svah. there is no 
now and no to-morrow (i. 170 1 ). 

It is a few times used with the perfect in combination 
with pura to express that an action has taken place in the 
past and still takes place ; e. g. pura nunam ca stutaya 
rsinam pasprdhra indre formerly and now the praises of 
seers have striven to Indra (vi. 34 1 ). 

2. With the subj., impv., opt., or inj., it expresses that an 
action is to take place at once ; e. g. vi nunam uchat she 
shall now shine forth (i. 124 11 ); pra nunam purnavandhuras 
stut6 yahi praised advance now with laden car (i. 82 3 ). 

With the perfect it is a few times used in the RV. to 
express that an action has just been completed ; e. g. upa 
nunam yuyuje hari he IMS just yoked his two lay steeds 
(viii. 4 11 ). 

3. It occurs sometimes with interrogatives = pray ; e.g. 
kada nunam te dasema when, pray, may we serve thee? 
(vii. 29 8 ). 

a. In B. none of these uses seem to survive, while the new sense of 
certainly, assuredly (perhaps once already in the AV.) has appeared ; 
e. g. tatha in nun am tad a,sa,just so assuredly it came to pass (SB,). 

nd (= na id and not treated as a compound by the 
Padapatha) has two uses in both V. and B. : 1. sometimes 
as an emphatic negative, certainty not ; e. g. any6 n&t surir 
6hate bhuridavattarah. no other patron indeed is accounted 
more liberal (viii. 5 30 ) ; aham vadami n6t tvam / am speak- 
ing, not thou (vii. 38 4 ) ; n6d anuhutam prasnami / certainly 
do not eat it before it is invoked (SB.). 2. much more commonly 
as introducing a final clause in order that not with the subj. 


(= Lat. ne) ; e. g. vy ucha, duhitar divo, n6t tva tapati 
surah shine forth, daughter of the sky, lest the sun scorch thee 
(v. 79 9 ) ; n6n ma rudrd hinasat lest Eudra injure me (SB.). 
In B. the verb may also be in the inj. : nMidam bahirdha 
yajnad bhavat lest it be outside the sacrifice (SB.). 

o. nvfii ( = nu vai as analysed by the Padapatha of the TS.) occurs not 
infrequently in B. in the sense of indeed ; e.g. iti iiva etd brahmanam 
udyate such indeed is the Brahmana that is told ({B.). 

ma is the prohibitive negative (Gk. jirj) regularly used 
with the injunctive. It is never used with the impv. ; with 
the opt. only in the single form bhujema (RV.) ; and with 
the subj. only once (SB.) ; e. g. ma no vadhih slay us not 
(i. 104 8 ) ; ma hrnitha abhy asman be not enraged against us 
(viii. 2 19 ). 

a. An interrogative following ma in a few cases receives an indefi- 
nite sense in the RV. ; e. g. ma kdsmai dhatam abhy amitrine nah 

deliver us not to any foe (i. 120 8 ). 

ma-kis (not any one, Gk. ftrj-Tis), occurring about a dozen 
times in the RV., to which it is restricted, is used in pro- 
hibitive sentences with the injunctive in two senses : 

1. no one : makis tokasya no risat may no one of our 
offspring be injured (viii. 67 11 ). 

2. more often an emphatic negative = by no means, never : 
makir devanam apa bhuh be not at all away from the gods 
(x. II 9 ). Cp. na-kis. 

ma-klm, used as an emphatic prohibitive particle with 
the injunctive, occurs only in two passages of the RV. : 
makim sam sari ke>ate let none suffer fracture in a pit 
(vi. 54 7 ). 

yatra is employed in two main senses : 1. usually as 
a relative adverb, meaning ivhere, but sometimes whithei , 
e. g. yajn6 . . naro yatra devayavo madanti where pious 
men rejoice in sacrifice (vii. 97 1 ) ; yatra rathena gachathah 
whither ye go with your car (i. 22 4 ). The correlative is 
generally tatra, sometimes atra or tad. 


o. Occasionally as equivalent to the locative of the relative ; e. g. 
a gha ta gachan uttara yugani ydtra jamayah. krn&vann ajaooi those 
later generations will come in irhich those who are akin to-ill do ichat befits not 
kinsmen (x. 10 10 ). 

2. not infrequently as a temporal conjunction, when, in 
both V. and B. ; e. g. yatra pra sudasam avatam when ye 
helped Sudds (vii. 83 6 ). In V. adha, atra, tad appear as 
correlatives ; e. g. yatra surasas tanvo vitanvate" . . adha 
sma yacha tanve tane ca chardih when thejieroes strain 
themselves (in battle) . . then especially bestow protection on us 
and our sons (vi. 46 12 ). In B. tad is generally the correlative, 
sometimes tatas ; e. g. tarn yatra deva aghnams, tan 
mitram abruvan when the gods killed him, they said to 
Mitra (SB.). 

yatha has two distinct uses in both V. and B. : 

1. as a relative adverb meaning as ; e. g. nunam yatha 
pura now as before (i. 39 7 ) ; yatha vayam usmasi tdt krdhi 
as we wish that do (x. 38 2 ) ; yatha vai purus6 jiryaty evam 
agnir ahito jiryati as a man grows old, so fire when it has 
been laid grows old (TS.). When there is a correlative in the 
RV., it is usually eva, sometimes tatha ; in B. usually 
evam, sometimes tatha. 

2. as a conjunction meaning in order that, so that, intro- 
ducing a posterior clause, generally with the subj., rarely 
the opt. ; e. g. havis krmisva subhago yatha^asasi prepare 
the oblation that thou mayest be successful (ii. 26 2 ) ; a daivya 
vrniniah^ 'vamsi, yatha bhavema milhiise anagah (vii. 97 2 ) 
we crave divine aids that we man appear sinless to the gracious 
god ; tatha me kuru yatha w aham imam senam jayani 
arrange it so for me that I may conquer this army (AB.) ; 
tathaiva hotavyam yatha^agnim ^vyaveyat it must be 
poured so that it should divide the fire (SB.). 

. In the RV. after verbs of knowing or saying y&tha introduces an 
explanation = hoiv ; e. g. k&s t&d bruyad anud6yi ydtha^dbhavat who 
could tell us this, (viz.) hoiv the gift was'? (x. 135"'). Occasionally it is 
used thus even without such verbs : nd praraiye savittir d&ivyasya 


tdd yatha visvam bhtivaiiam dharayisyati that (power} of the divine 
Savitr (is not to ) will not decay, (viz.) that he will support the whole world 
(iv. 54 4 ). 

yad (n. of the relative ya) is used in four distinct senses : 

1. that, expanding the meaning of a word in the preceding 
principal clause ; e. g. grne" tad, indra, te savo yad dhamsi 
vrtram I praise this mighty deed of thine that thou slayest 
Vrtra (viii. 62 8 ); kim aga asa, varuna, jye"stham yat 
stotaram jighamsasi sakhayam, what has been the chief guilt, 
Varuna, that thou wishest to slay thy praiser (who is) thy 

friend? (vii. 86 4 ). This use is not common in V. 

a. yad is similarly employed in B. with reference to n preceding 
t&d (often omitted) ; e. g. t&d y&t payasa srlnati : vrtro v&i soma 
asit that ( = the reason why) he mixes Soma with milk (is) this: Vrtra 
was Soma (&B.). This use is also found in B. after certain verbs : 
6va kalpate it is suitable, ut sahate is able, ich&ti desires, yukt6 bhavati 
is intent on, ve"da knows, and isvard it is possible e. g. n& hi t&d avakdl- 
pate y&d bruyat/or it is not suitable that he should say (&B.) 

2. when with the ind. pres., imp., perf., aor., fut., and 
with the subj. ; e.g. yad dha yanti marutah sam ha 
bruvate when the Maruts go along, they speak together (i. 37 13 ) 
kam apa^yo yat te bhir agachat whom didst thou see when 
fear came upon thee ? (i. 32 14 ) ; indras ca yad yuyudhate 
ahis ca, maghava vi jigye when Indra and the serpent fought, 
the bountiful god conquered (i. 32 13 ) ; citr6 yad abhrat bright 
when he has shone forth (i. 66 6 ) ; tigma yad a^anir patati, 
adha no bodhi gopah when the sharp bolt shall fly, then be 
our protector (iv. 16 17 ). It also occurs rarely in anacolutha 
with the pres. part, and the past pass. part, much as in 
English; e.g. pacanti te vrsabhan, atsi t6sam yan, 
maghavan, huyamanah. they roast bulls for thee, thou eatest 
of them, bounteous one, ivhen being called (x. 28 3 ). 

a. In B. yd occurs with the sense of when with the pres., fut. , and 
aor., and in the sense of whenever or while with the impf. 

3. i/used with the ind. pres., the subj., or the opt. ; e. g. 


yad, indra, udan nyag va huyase, a yahi tuyam if, 
Indra, thou art called above or beloiv, come quickly (viii. 65 1 ) ; 
yad urdhvas tistha dravina^iha dhattad yad va ksayah 
if tliou shalt stand upright, bcstoiv treasures here, or if thou shalt 
lie (iii. 8 l ). The opt. is used when it is assumed that the 
condition will not be fulfilled ; e. g. yad, agne, syam aham 
tvam, tvam va gha sya aham, syus te satya iha^asisah 
if, Agni, I were thou, or if thou wert J, thy prayers here 
would be fulfilled (viu. 44 23 ). 

a. In B. ydd is used with the opt. as in V. (while with y&di the ful- 
filment of the condition is usually assumed) and with the conditional ; 
sa ydd bhidyeta^artim arched yajamanah. if it were to break, the 
sacrificer would fall into misfortune (TS.) ; ydd ev&m na^&vaksyo murdha 
te vy apatisyat if thou hadst not spoken thus, thy head would have fallen to 
pieces (SB.). 

4. in order that, in posterior clauses, with the subj., very 
rarely with the opt. in V. ; e. g. a vaha devatatim sardho 
yad adya divyam yajasi bring hither the host of the gods that 
thou mayest adore the divine throng (iii. 19 4 ) ; yan nunam 
asyam gatim, mitrasya yayam patha that I may now 
obtain refuge, f would go on Mitra'spath (v. 64 3 ). 

. In B. this use of ydd is very rare, occurring only a few limes 
with the subj. ; e. g. tdt praprmhi y&t te prano yatam apip^dyatai 

obtain thou this, that thy breath may pass into the wind (SB.). 

yada when is used in V. and B. with the ind. perf., impf., 
pres., and with the subj. ; with the aor. ind. and the inj. in 
V. only ; and with the fut. and opt. in B. only. The 
correlative word (when there is one) is in V. ad, atha, adha, 
tad, tarhi ; in B. atha and tarhi. 

1. yada is most commonly used in the RV. with the aor. 
ind., when as the beginning of the action is emphasized, 
the sense is as soon as ; e. g. yade"d adevir asahista maya, 
atha^abhavat kdvalah s6mo asya as soon as he had overcome 
the ungodly idles, then Soma became his exclusively (vii. 98 5 ) ; 
abhi grnanti radho yada te marto anu bhogam anat they 



praise thy wealth as soon as the mortal has obtained thy reward 
(x. 7 2 ). When the principal clause contains a historical 
tense, the aor. with yada has the value of a pluperfect. 

a. The injunctive is found only once with yada in the RV. : yada 
mahyam dfdharo bhagam, indra, ad in maya krnavo viryani when 
thou shalt have secured for me my share, Indra, then thou shalt perform 
heroic deeds with my help (viii. 100 1 ). 

2. a. with the impf. and perf. ; e. g. yada vismis trini 
pada vicakrame, yada suryam divi . . ddharaya, ad it te 
hari vavaksatuh when Visnu took his three steps, when thou 
didst fix the sun in the shy, then thy two bays grew in strength 
(viii. 12 27 - 30 ) ; tasya yada marma^agachann atha^acestat 
as soon as they touched his weak- spot, he quivered (MS.) ; sa 
yada^abhyam anuvaca^atha^asya tad indrah sira6 ci- 
cheda as soon as he had told them, Indra cut his head off (SB.). 

b. with the pres. ind. : yada satyam krnut6 manyiim 
indro, visvam drlham bhayate 6jad asmat when Indra 
shows his true anger, all that is firm, trembling, is afraid of him 
(iv. 17 10 ) ; yada vai pasur nirdaso bhavaty atha sa 
medhyo bhavati as soon as the victim is more than ten days 
old, it becomes fit for sacrifice (AB.) ; sa yada kesasmasru 
vdpaty atha snati when he Ms cut off his hair and beard, lie 
bathes (SB.). 

c. with the subj. (here = future perfect) : yada srtam 
krnavo 'tha^im enam pra hinutat pit^bhyah when thou 
shalt have made him done, then deliver him to the fathers (x. 16 1 ) ; 
yada tarn ativardha, atha karsum khatva tasyam ma 
bibharasi when I shall have grown too big for it, you shall, 
having dug a pit, keep me in it (&B.). 

8. a. with the fut. : yadaiva hota paridhasyaty atha pasan prati 
moksyami when the Hoir shall have concluded, I shall tighten the cords (AB.). 

&. with the opt. : s& yada samgranadm jdyed dtha^aindragnam nfr 
vapet as soon as he may have icon a battle, he should sacrifice to Indra and 
Agni (MS.). 

yadi if (sometimes when with a past tense) is found with 
perf. and impf. in V. only; with the ind. pres., aor., fut., 


and with the subj. in V. and B. ; and with the opt. in B. 

1. With the perf. used historically and with the impf. 
yadi means -when, the verb then having the force of a 
pluperfect ; e. g. lid astambhit samidha nakam agnir yadi 
bhrgubhyah pari matarisva havyavaham samidhe" Agni 
supported the vault with fuel 'when Matari&van from the Bhrgus 
had kindled the oblation-bearer (Hi. 5 10 ) ; yadi sahasram 
mahisan aghah, ad it ta indriyam mahi pra vavrdhe 
when thou hadst eaten a thousand bulls, thy might greiv great 
(viii. 12 8 ). But when the perf. has the pres. perf. sense, 
yadi has its ordinary meaning of if: grahir jagraha yadi 
vaitad enam, tasya, indragni, pra mumuktam enam or if 
illness has seised him, from that release him, Indra and Agni 
(x. 161 1 ). 

2. a. with the pres. : yadi manthanti bahubhir vi 
rocate when they rub ivith their arms, he shines (iii. 29 6 ) ; 
adya muriya yadi yatudhano asmi to-day I ivould die, if I 
am a sorcerer (vii. 104 15 ) ; yadi na asnati pitrdevatyo 
bhavati if he does not eat, he becomes dedicated to the 
Manes (SB.). 

lj. with the aor. : yadi matur upa svasa . . asthita, 
adhvaryur modate // the sister (coming) from the mother has 
approached, the priest rejoices (ii. 5) ; yady aha^enam pran- 
cam acaisir, yatha paraca asmaya prsthato 'nnadyam 
upaharet if you have piled it frontways, it is as if one handed 
food from behind to one sitting ivith averted face (SB.). 

c. with the fut. : yady eva karisyatha, sakam devair 
yajniyaso bhavisyatha if ye will act thus, ye shall become 
objects of -worship together with the gods (i. 161 2 ); yadi va 
imam abhimamsye kaniyo J nnam karisye if I shall plot 
against him, I shall procure less food (SB.). 

d. with the subj. : yajama devan yadi saknavama ive 
'will worship the gods, if we shall be able (i. 27 13 ) ; yadi stomam 
mama sravad, asmakam indram indavah . . mandantu 


if lie shall hear my song of praise, lei our drops gladden Indra 
(viii. I 15 ) ; yadi tva^etat piinar bravatas, tvam brutat 
if they two shall say that to thee again, do thou say (SB.). 

a. With the opt. y&di is (excepting one occurrence in the SV.V 
found in B. only, where this use is very common. Here a case is 
usually supposed with a rule applicable to it in the principal clause ; 
e. g. yadi na saknuyat, so 'gnaye purolasam nir vapet if he should not 
be able to do it, f/e should offer a cake to Agni (AB.). 

3. after the verb vid know, yadi is used in the sense of 
whether in one passage of the RV. (x. 129 7 ) and often in B. ; 
e. g. hanta na 6ko v6ttu yadi hato va vrtro jivati va come, 
let one of us find out whether Vrtra is dead or whether he is 
alive (SB.). 

o. y&di va is not only used after a preceding yadi in the sense of 
or 'if, but also alone in the sense of or, nearly always without a verb ; 
e. g. so anga veda yadi va na v6da he alone knows or he does not hnoic 
(x. 129 7 ) ; y&m vahanti satm dsva yddi va saptd whom a hundred 
horses draw, or seven (AV. xiii. 2 7 ) ; yadi va w itaratha or conversely (S"B.). 

y&rhi (at the time} ivhen occurs only in B., where it is used with the 
pres. or past ind., and with the opt. It has almost invariably tarhi or 
etarhi then as a correlative ; e. g. sa tdrhy eva jayate ydrhy agnim 
adhatte he is born at the moment when he lays his fire (MS.) ; yarhi prajah 
ksudham nigdcheyus tdrhi navaratre"na yajeta when his people should 
suffer from hunger, he should sacrifice with the rite of nine nights (TS.). 

y&smad does not occur as a conjunction in V., but it sometimes 
appears as such in B. meaning why ; e. g. dtha yasmat samista- 
yajumsi nama now (follows the reason) ichy they are called Samistayajus 

yad (an old abl. of ya) is found in V. only. It is used 
with the indicative pres. or past, and with the subj. With 
the ind. it means as far as in the RV. ; e. g. arcamasi yad 
eva vidma tat tva mahantam (vi. 21) we praise thee, the 
great, as far as we knotv (how to) ; it seems to mean since, in 
the AV. : ya aksiyan prthivim yad ajayata who ruled the 
earth since it arose (AV. xii. I 57 ). With the subj. yad means 
as long as ; e. g. ananukrtyam apunas cakara yat suryamasa 
mitha uccaratal^ he has once for all done what is inimitable 
as long as sun and moon aUcrnatcli/ shall rise (x. t>8 10 ). 


yavat already appears in V. as an adverb meaning as far 
as, as long as, an extension of its ace. use ; e. g. yavad 
dyavaprthivi tavad it tat (x. 114 s ) as far as heaven ami earth, 
so far it (extends) ; juhomi navy am yavad ise I offer 
oblation as long as I am able (iii. 18 3 ) ; ajato vai tavat puruso 
yavad agnim na^adhatte' man is so long unborn, as he does 
not lay his fire (MS.). 

va or is employed much in the same way as ca and. 
It is enclitic, following the word to which it belongs ; and 
it connects words, clauses, or sentences ; e. g. ata a gahi 
divo va rocanad adhi come from here or from the shining 
realm of heaven (i. 6 9 ) ; yasya bharya gaur va yamau 
janayet whose wife or cow lears t-wins (AB.) ; prati yah 
sasam invati, uktha va yo abhigrnati who promotes the law 
or welcomes songs of praise (i. 54 T ). 

a. is frequently used in the same way ; e.g. g&kti va yat te 
cakrma vida va that we have offered to thee according to our poioer or 
knowledge (i. 31 18 ) ; naktam va hi diva va varsati for it rains by night 
or by day (TS.) ; yad va^ah&m abhidudroha yad va sepd uta^&nrtam 
what evil I have plotted or what I have sworn falsely (i. 2tt 22 ). 

b. But also mean either. ..or. When they contrast two 
principal sentences in this sense, implying exclusive alternatives, the 
verb of the first is accented even when the second is incomplete ; 
e. g. ahaye va tan pradadatu soma a va dadhatu nirrter upasthe let 
Soma either deliver them to the serpent or place them in the lap of dissolution 
(vii. 104 9 ) ; tad va jajnau tad va na jajnau she either agreed to it or did 
not agree to it (SB.) ; tasya va tvam rndna icha s& va tava either do thou 
seek his heart, or he thine (x. 10 14 ). 

vav& (doubtless a contraction of two particles) is found in B. only. 
It emphasizes the preceding word in the sense of certainly, just, being 
particularly frequent in the first of two correlated clauses ; e. g. esa 
vavd so 'gnir ity ahuh that is certainly the same Agni, they say (TS.). 

vai is an emphasizing particle meaning truly, indeed. 

1. In the RV. this particle occurs only in 28 passages, 
in all but three of which it follows the first word of 
the sentence ; e. g. bhadram vai varam vrnate truly they 
make a good choice (x. 164 2 ) ; iti va iti me manah 50, indeed, 
so is my mind (x. 119 1 ) ; na vai strainaiii sakhyani santi 


there are, indeed, no friendships with women (x. 95 15 ). The 
stress is laid on the whole sentence, not on any particular 
word. The particle is often followed by u (va u) without 
any perceptible change of meaning. 

a. In the AV. the use is similar except that here the particle often 
appears after a demonstrative or a relative ; e. g. tdsmad vai s& pdra- 
bhavat therefore, indeed, he perished (xii. 4' 19 ) ; yo vai ta vidyat pratyak- 
sam, sd va adyd mahad vadet whoever may kno>c them plainly, he, verity, 
may speak aloud to-day (xi. S 3 ). 

2. In B. vai usually occupies the same position, but often 
yields the second place to ce~d, hi, khalu, and of course 
always to the enclitics iva, u, ca, sma, ha. When atho 
begins a sentence vai occupies the second place. 

Here the use of vai in the first sentence of a narrative is 
typical ; e. g. yamo va amriyata : t6 deva yamya yamam 
apabruvan Yama died : the gods (then) dissuaded Yaml from 
(thinking of) Yama (MS.). 

. The particle often appears in the concluding sentence in discus- 
sions ; e. g. tdsmad va dp a upa sprsati that is, indeed, why he sips 
water (&B.). 

6. It is very often placed after the first word of a sentence that 
gives the reason for the one that follows ; e. g. sraddhadevo vdi 
mdnur : avam nu vedava now Manu is god-fearing : toe two will 
therefore ascertain (&B.). When vai is used in this way the clause 
containing it is often equivalent to a parenthetical one ; e. g. t6 
vayum abruvan (ayam vdi vayur yo 'yam pavate) vayo tvdm iddm 
viddhi^iti they said to Vdyu (now Vayu is he ivho blows'), l Vdytt, ascertain 
this' (SB.). In this sense vdi is especially frequent in periods of 
three clauses, when that with vai contains the reason, and that with 
evd the conclusion ; e. g. ta etabhis tanubhih sdm abhavan ; pasdvo 
vai devanam priyas tanvah : pasubhir 6va sdm abhavan they were 
together with these bodies ; now animals are the bodies dear to the gods : they 
were therefore together with animals (MS.). 

c. The differences between the use of vai and of eva in B. are the 
following : vai coming after the first word emphasizes the whole 
sentence, while evd emphasizes a particular word in any part of the 
sentence ; vai follows the first word of a sentence beginning a narra- 
tive, ev& never does ; in a period vai is typical in the clause stating 
a reason, evd in that expressing the conclusion. 


sa is often used pleonastically before relatives in B. ; e. g. 
sa yo no vacam vyahrtarn mithun^na na^ammikramat, 
sa sarvam para jayatai lie who shall not follow the word 
uttered by us with (another of) the corresponding gender, lie shall 
lose everything (SB.). This use led to sa being employed in 
a formulaic way not only pleonastically but also without 
reference to gender or number ; e. g. tasya tani sirsani pra 
cicheda. sa yat somapanam asa tatah kapinjalah sam 
abhavat he struck off his heads. Now that which had f been 
Soma-drinking, from that arose the francoline partridge (SB.) ; 
sa vindanti kim a driyeran now if they do not find 
it, why should they mind? (SB.). 

sim is an enclitic particle restricted to the RV. Originally 
the ace. sing, of a pronoun, related to sa as kim to ka, it is 
generally used (much like im) as an ace. of all numbers and 
genders in the third person him, her, it, them, representing 
a substantive (which sometimes follows) and frequently 
placed between a preposition and its verb, occasionally also 
after a relative ; e. g. pari sim nayanti they lead him around 
(i, 95 2 ) ; pra sim adityo asrjat the Aditya made them (the 
streams) to flow (ii. 28 4 ) ; ni sim vrtrasya marmani vajram 
indro apipatat Indra has caused it, his bolt, to fall on Vftra's 
vital spot (viii. 100 7 ) ; yam sim akrnvan tamase viprce, 
tarn suryam whom they created to disperse the darJmess, that 
sim (iv. 13 3 ). 

a. sim sometimes gives the relative the sense of ever ; e. g. yat sim 
iigas cakrma, sisrathas tat whatever sin ice have committed, remove that. 
^v.85*). ' 

sii, su well, used asseveratively = thoroughly, fully, verily 
arid always referring to the verb, is almost restricted as an 
independent particle to the Samhitas, being common in the 
RV., but rare in the others ; e. g. jusasva su no adhvaram 
thoroughly enjoy our sacrifice (iii. 24 2 ) ; namah. su te homage 
verily (be) to thee (VS. xii. 63) ; jar am su gacha go safely to 
old age (AV. xix. 24 5 ). 


a. With preceding u the particle means right toell : ima u su srudhi 
girah hear these songs right well (i. 26 5 ) ; vidmo &v asya mataram we 
know full well his mother (AV. i. 2 1 ). 

b. With preceding ma it = by no means, not at all, never ; e. g. mo su 
tva fc . . asma'n ni riraman let none by any means keep thee from us 
(vii. 32 l ). 

c. su kam is used like the simple su except that it appears with the 
impv. only ; e.g. tisthata . . . su kam stand quite still (i. 191 6 ). 

sma, an enclitic, slightly emphasizing particle, has two 
senses in the RV. : 

1. It generally emphasizes : 

a. demonstrative or personal pronouns, relatives, or nouns, 
and may be rendered by just, especially, or simply by stress ; 
e. g. tasya sma pravita bhava be his helper (i. 12 8 ) ; sa 
srudhi yah sma prtanasu kasu cit . . . suraih svah sanita 
hear thou, ivlio especially in all battles ivith heroes dost win the 
light (i. 129 2 ). 

b. the verb, which or (if it is compounded) the preposition 
of which it follows (generally at the beginning of the sen- 
tence) ; e. g. smasi sma vayam esam tve are indeed theirs 
(i. 37 15 ) ; a sma ratham tisthasi thou mountest indeed upon 
thy car (i. 51 12 ). The verb is in the present ind. or the 
impv., rarely the perf. ; it appears to have been accented 
before sma judging by the only example (vi. 44 18 ) in which 
it is not the first word in the sentence (App. Ill, 19 A). 

c. adverbs and particles ; e. g. uta sma and especially ; na 
sma and ma sma by no means. 

a. In the AV. these emphasizing uses are similar; but in B. they 
have entirely disappeared. 

2. In a few instances sma occurs in the R V. before pura 
with the pres. ind. to express that an action has habitually 
taken place in the past down to the present time ; e. g. y6 
sma pura gatuyanti icho have always aided = who aids now 
and formerly did so (L 169 5 ). 

a. This use is not found in the AV., but has become extremely 
common in B., where sma is always preceded by ha. The meaning 


here expressed is that something habitually took place in the past 
(but does not as in the R V. include the present) ; e. g. na ha sma vai 
pura^agnir aparasuvrknam dahati formerly Agni used not to burn what 
wets not lopped off with the axe (TS.). 

b. Much more frequently, however, pura is left out and the 
particles ha sma, from their frequent association with it, assume its 
meaning ; e. g. te ha sma yad deva asuran j&yanti, tato ha sma w evd^ 
enan pxinar upottisthanti as often as the gods defeated the Asuras, the 
latter ahvays opposed them again (SB.). This use of ha sma is very 
common with the present perfect aha ; e. g. et&d dha sma va aha 
naraddh with regard to this Ndrada used to say (MS.). Other tenses than 
the present with ha sma are found in the AB. where, in two or 
three passages, the perf. and the impf. are used with them in the 
same sense. 

svid is an enclitic particle emphasizing the first word of 
a sentence, usually an interrogative pronoun or adverb. 
It may generally be translated by pray ; e. g. kah svid vrks6 
nisthito madhye arnasah ivliat tree, prat/, teas that which 
stood in the midst of the sea ? (i. 182"). In one passage of the 
RV. this particle gives the interrogative an indefinite mean- 
ing : mata putrasya caratah kva svit the mother of the son 
that wanders trho "knows where (x. 34 10 ). Very rarely (in 
double questions) the particle appears without an inter- 
rogative : asti svin nii viryam tat ta, indra, na svid asti : 
tad rtutha vi vocah is this thy heroic deed, Indra, or is it 
not : that declare in due season (vi. 18 :3 ). 

a. In a few instances svid appears in non-interrogative sentences : 
tvaya ha svid yuja vayam abhi smo vajasataye with thee as companion 
ice are equipped for the obtauiment of booty (viii. 102 3 ). 

b. The employment of svid in B. is similar ; e. g. k&m u svid ato 
'dhi vdram varisyamahe what boon, pray, beyond this shall we choose? 
(MS.) ; tvam svin no brdhmistho 'si art thou, pray, the most learned of 
us? (SB.) ; yd angaresu juhoti tat svid agnau juhoti what he pours 
on the coals, that itself he pours on the fire (MS.). 

ha, an enclitic particle occurring after all words capable 
of beginning a sentence, has a slightly emphasizing and 
asseverative force. It is probably identical in origin with 
gha, but unlike that particle hardly ever (only twice) appears 


in the RV. with its vowel lengthened. It is common in the 
RV., occurring after personal, demonstrative, interrogative, 
and relative pronouns, nouns, verbs, verbal prepositions, and 

a. In B. the use of this particle varies in frequency: it is com- 
paratively rare in the TS., where it generally appears with sma or 
with perfects; while in the &B. it is extremely frequent. It lays 
stress on the first word of sentences so as to emphasize the connexion 
or to mark a new or important step in the narrative ; e. g. iti 
marimrjyeta : ajarasam ha caksusman bhavati ya evam veda with 
these words he should ivipe (his eyes) : so till old age he 'who knows this becomes 
possessed of vision (AB.). 

b. It is very often used after the first word of a story with or 
without v&i. It appears predominantly with the perfect in those 
parts of the SB. and the AB. that narrate with the perfect, mostly 
with verbs of speaking. Thus sa ha^uvaca appears here, while so 
'bravit is said elsewhere. 

hanta occurs three times in the RV. as an interjection in 
exhortations ; e. g. yajamahai yajniyan hanta devan come, 
we will worship the adorable gods (x. 53 2 ). 

a. It is similarly used in B. : hanta w imam yajnam sambharama 
ivett, we willprepare the sacrifice (AB.). 

hi, in origin probably an emphasizing particle, is used 
throughout as a subordinating conjunction which regularly 
throws the accent on the verb. It nearly always follows 
the first word of the sentence, or the second when the first 
two are closely connected. In V. it is used in two ways : 

1 . in indicative sentences (the verb having sometimes to 
be supplied) to express the reason (like yap), meaning either 
for, if the clause containing it follows, or became, since, if it 
precedes ; e. g. balam dhehi tanusu no, tvam hi balada 
asi bestoio strength on our bodies, for thou art a' giver of strength 
(iii. 53 18 ) ; smstivano hi dasiise devas, tan a vaha since 
the gods give ear to the pious man, bring them hither (i. 45 2 ). 

2. in exhortative sentences, mostly with the impv., as an 
emphatic particle = pray, indeed', e.g. yuksva hi kesina 
hari pray harness thy two long-maned bay steeds (i. 10 :! ). 


. In B. three uses of hi may be distinguished : 

1. it expresses the reason, as in the first use in V., only that the 
clause containing hi always follows ( = for only), and the verb is 
much oftener omitted than expressed ; e. g. t&d indro 'mucyata, dev6 
hf sail from that Indra freed himself, for he, (is) a god (&B.). The particle 
vai is often added to strengthen hi ; e.g. v&jro hi va apah/or water is 
indeed a thunderbolt ($B.). 

2. it is sometimes employed to emphasize an interrogative = pray ; 
e. g. kath&m hi karisy&si how, pray, wilt thou do it ? (S*B.). 

3. it expresses assent in answers after a word repeated from 
u preceding question : e. g. tm eva tvm pasyasi^iti ; tdm hi ' do you 
see him?' Yes, (I see) him (SB.). 

o. In B., when hi appears in the relative clause of a period explain- 
ing a previous statement, the verb of the principal clause (to which hi 
properly applies) is sometimes irregularly unaccented; e.g. idam 
hi yada v&rsaty dtha^osadhayo jayante for, wlien it rains here, then the 
plants spring up (SB.). 

181. A certain number of words having the nature of 
interjections occur in the Samhitas. They are of two kinds, 
being either exclamations or imitative sounds. 

a. The exclamations are : bat (RV.) truly, bata (RV.) 
alas! hanta come, used exhortatively with the subjunctive 
and hays' come before vocatives ; hiruk and hunik (RV.) 
away ! hai (AV.) ho ! 

1). Interjections of the onomatopoetic type are : kikira 
(RV.) used with kr = make the sound kikira = tear to tatters 
kikkita (TS.) used in invocations ; cisca (RV.) wliiz ! (of an 
arrow), used with kr make a whizzing sound ; phat (AV., VS.) 
crash! phal (AV.) splash! bal (AV.) dash! bhiik (AV.) 
l)ang ! sdl (AV.) clap ! 


A. Nominal Stems. 

182. Declinable stems, though they often consist of the 
bare root (either verbal or pronominal), are chiefly formed by 
means of suffixes added to roots. These suffixes are of two 
kinds : primary, or those added directly to roots (which 
may at the same time be compounded with verbal prefixes) ; 
and secondary, or those added to stems already ending in 
a suffix and to pronominal roots (which are thus treated as 
primary stems). 

1. Primary Derivatives as a rule show the root in its 
strong form ; e.g. v6d-a m. knowledge (vid know)', sar-ana 
n. running (v^r); kar-a making (\/kr); grabh-a m. seizer 
(A/grabh). In meaning they may be divided into the two 
classes of abstract action nouns (cognate in sense to infinitives) 
and concrete agent nouns (cognate in sense to participles) 
used as adjectives or substantives ; e. g. ma-ti f. thought 
(man think) ; yodh-a, m. fighter (yudh fight). Other meanings 
are only modifications of these two ; e. g. dana (= da^ana) 
n, act of giving, then gift. 

a. When the bare root is used as a declinable stem, it 
usually remains unchanged ; e. g. da m. giver, bhid f. 
destroyer, yuj m. companion, spas m. spy, vrdh adj. strengthen- 
ing. Roots ending in i or u take a determinative t ; e. g. 
mi-t f. pillar, stu-t f. praise. The root may appear in a 
reduplicated form ; e. g. cikit wise, j6-gu singing aloud. 

b. Several primary nominal suffixes connected with the 
verbal system have already been sufficiently dealt with, viz. 
those of the pres. and fut. participles : ant (85 ; 156), ana 


and mana (158) ; of the perf. act. part. : vams (89 ; 157) ; 
of the perf. pass. part. : ta and na (160) ; of the gerundive: 
ya, ayya, enya, tva, tavya l and aniya 2 (162). The forma- 
tion of stems to which the primary suffixes of the com- 
parative and superlative, lyams and istha, are added has 
also been explained (88 ; 103, 2). Of the rest the following 
in alphabetical order are the most usual and important : 

a : e. g. bhag-a m. share (v/bhaj) ; megh-a m. cloud (mih 
discharge water)', cod-a m. instigator (A/ cud) ; sarg-a m. 
emission (\/srj); nay-a m. leader (V'ni), priy-a pleasing 
(\/pri); hav-a m. invocation (\/hu); jar-a m. lover (\ 7 jr); 
ve-vij-a quick (vij dart), cara-car-a far-extending. The sub- 
stantives are almost exclusively m. ; but yug-a n. (G-k. 
vy-Q-v ; Lat. jug-u-m). 

an : m. agent nouns and about a dozen defective n. stems ; 

e. g. uks-an m. ox, murdh-an m. head, raj-an m. king ; 
as-an n. blood, ah-an n. day, ud-an n. ivater, udh-an 
n. udder. 

ana: n. action nouns: bh6j-ana n. enjoyment (-/bhuj), 
sad-ana n. seat (\ 7 sad); kar-ana n. deed (\/kr); hav-ana n. 
invocation (\/hu); bhuv-ana n. "being (\/bhu), vrj-ana n. 
enclosure ; also m. agent nouns : e. g. kar-ana active, mad- 
ana gladdening (V mad), sam-gam-ana assembling ; tur-ana 

ana : f. action nouns : jar-ana old age, yos-ana woman, 
vadh-ana slaughter. This is also the f. form of adjectives in 
ana ; e. g. tur-ana speeding. 

ani : f. action nouns, and m. f. agent nouns ; e. g. ar-ani 

f. fire-stick, vart-ani f. track ; cars-ani active ; ruruks-ani 
willing to destroy (from des. stem of ruj destroy). 

1 The second part, ya, of this suffix is secondary (182, 2), but the 
whole is employed as a primary suffix (162, 5). The first part, tav, is 
probably derived from the old infinitive ending tave (p. 192, 4). 

2 The second half of this suffix, lya, is secondary, but the whole is 
employed as a primary suffix (162, 6). 


as : n. action nouns (with accented root) and agent nouns 
(with accented suffix) ; e. g. ap-as n. work (Lat. op-us), ap-as 
active ; raks-as n. demon, raks-as m. id. 

a : f. action nouns (from roots and secondary conjugation 
stems) ; e. g. nind-a blame ; ji-gi-s-a desire to win ; gam-ay-a 
causing to go ; asva-y-a desire for horses. 

i : action nouns (nearly always f.) ; agent nouns (adj. and 
subst.) ; and a few neuters of obscure origin ; e. g. krs-i f. 
tillage, aj-i m. f. contest; cakr-i active (\/kr), suc-i bright ; 
pan-i m. Jiand ; aks-i n. eye, asth-i n. lone, dadh-i n. sour 

is : n. action nouns (mostly with concrete sense) ; e. g. 
arc-is flame, jy6t-is light, am-is raw flesh, barn-is straw. 

u: agent nouns, adj. and subst. (mostly m., but several 
f. and n.) ; e. g. tan-u thin (Lat. ten-u-i-s) ; bah-u m. arm 
(Gk. 7rfJX mV ~s)> pad-ii m. foot ; han-u f. jaw ; jan-u n. knee 
(Gk. yov-v). 

una : adj. and m. n. subst. ; e.g. tar-una young, dhar-una 
supporting, m. n. support, mith-una forming a pair, m. couple ; 
var-una m. a god, sak-una m. Urd. 

us : n. action nouns and m. agent nouns ; e. g. dhan-us 
n. bow ; jay -us victorious van-iis m. assailant. 

u : f., mostly corresponding to m. and n. in u ; e. g. tan-u 
body ; dhan-u sandbank (n. dhan-u) ; independently formed : 
cam-u dish, vadh-u bride. 

ka (rare as a primary, but very common as a secondary 
suffix) : adj. and m. subst. : iiis-ka dry ; at-ka m. garment, 
sld-ka m. call, sto-ka m. drop ; vfsc-i-ka m. scorpion. 

ta: besides ordinarily forming perf. pass, participles, 
appears, in a more general sense, as the suffix of a few 
adjectives and of substantives with concrete meaning ; e. g. 
trs-ta rough, si-ta cold ; du-ta m. messenger, gar-ta m. 
car-seat, mdr-ta m. mortal, hds-ta m. hand ; ghr-ta n. ghee, 
ndk-ta n. night ; with connecting i : as-i-ta black, pal-i-td 
grey t r6h-i-ta red. 


ti : chiefly f. action nouns ; e. g. is-ti desire, u-ti aid 
(\/av), kir-ti praise (kr commemorate), ra-ti gift', is-ti 
offering, ga-ti motion, da-ti l gift didhi-ti devotion (dhi 
think) ; amh-a-ti distress, am-a-ti indigence. It also forms 
some twenty agent nouns used either as adjectives or as 
m. substantives ; e. g. ra-ti willing to give, vas-ti eager ; 
jna-ti m. relative, df-ti m. sMn, dhu-ti m. shaker, miis-ti 
m. fist, sap-ti m. steed, abhi-sti m. helper (but abhi-sti 
f. help) ; am-a-ti poor, ar-a-ti m. servant, vrk-a-ti m. 

tu : chiefly forms the stem of dat., abl.-gen., and ace. 
infinitives ; e. g. da-tu : D. da-tave and datavai ; Ab.G. 
da-tos ; A. da-turn ; also a few independent action nouns 
and still fewer agent nouns : 6-tu m. iceft (va weave), tan-tu 
m. thread ; ak-tii m. ray (anj anoint), r-tii m. season, jan-tii 
m. creature-, vas-tu f. morning (vas shine)-, vas-tu n. abode 
(vas dwell : Gk. da--rv). 

tr : agent nouns, often used participially governing an ace. 
(when the root is generally accented) ; e. g. gan-tr going to 
(ace.), but kar-tr m. doer, yas-tr sacrificcr (\/yaj), us-tr 
ploughing bull ; less commonly with connecting vowel : 
cod-i-tr instigator, sav-i-tr stimulator ; a-mar-i-tr destroyer ; 
tar-u-tr winning, tar-u-tr m. conqueror var-u-tr protector-, 
man-6-tr and man-o-tr inventor. This suffix also forms 
several names of relationship ; e. g. pi-tf m. father, ma-tr 
f. mother (101). 

tnu forms more than a dozen agent nouns, mostly adj. ; 
e. g. kr-tnii active ; piy-a-tnii reviling ; maday-i-tnu intoxi- 
cating, stanay-i-tmi m. thunder. 

tra : agent nouns, a few of them adjectives, the rest nearly 
all n. substantives, expressing the instrument or means; 

1 This word when the final number of a compound is reduced by 
syncope to tti : bh&ga-tti f. (jiff of fortune, magha-tti f. receipt of boun/c, 
v&su-tti f. rrrt'tj)/ of n-eallh. 

1819 S 


e.g. jai-tra victorious, yaj-a-tra adorable; kse"-tra n. field, 
pa-tra n. cup, vas-tra n. garment; khan-i-tra n. shovel. 
There are also a few masculines, as dams-tra tusk (dams 
bite), man-tra prayer, mi-tra friend (but n. friendship). 

tra : occurs a few times as the f. form of the preceding : 
as-tra goad (as reach), ma-tra measure (Gk. pt-Tpo-v). 

tha : action nouns, more often m. than n.; e.g. ga-tha m. 
song, bhr-tha m. offering, ra-tha m. car, ha-tha, m. slaughter ; 
ar-tha l n. goal, uk-tha n. saying (\/vac), tir-tha n. ford 
(\/tf cross), rik-tha n. inheritance (\/ric); with connecting 
vowel : uc-a-tha n. praise, stav-a-tha m. praise. 

tha : occurs a few times as the f. form of tha : kas-tha 
course, ga-tha song, ni-tha trick. 

na: besides ordinarily forming perf. pass, participles 
(160, 1) appears as the suffix of a number of adjectives (f. na) 
and substantives, the latter mostly m., a few n. ; e. g. us-na 
hot, krs-na black, nag-na naked ; budh-na m. bottom, yaj-na 
m. sacrifice, var-na m. colour; par-na n. wing, vas-na n. price- 

na : as the f. form of na makes a few substantives : trs-na 
thirst, dh6-na co?r, se-na missile, sthu-na post. 

ni : m. and f. action and agent nouns (some of the latter 
adj.): y6-ni m. ^receptacle, jiir-ni f. heat; prs-ni speckled, 
pre-ni loving (\/pri), bhur-ni excited; ag-ni m. fire, vah-ni 
m. draught animal. 

nu : action and agent nouns (including some adjectives), 
nearly always m. ; e. g. ksep-nu m. jerk, bha-mi m. light, 
su-nu m. son ; dhe-nii f. coiv ; da-nu n. drop (m. f. demon). 

ma: adj. and (almost exclusively m.) substantives; e.g. 
jih-ma oblique, 6ag-ma mighty; idh-ma m. fuel, ghar-ma 
m. heat, sto-ma m. praise, hi-ma m. cold; bil-ma n. chip; 
hi-ma f. winter. 

man : action nouns (very numerous), most of which are n. 

1 drtha occurs often in the RV., but appears only three times (in 
Mandala X) as a m.; in the later language it is m. only. 


accented on the root, while a good many are m. accented on 
the suffix ; e. g. aj-man n. course (Lat. ag-men), na-man 
n. name (Lat. no-men), bhu-man n. ivorld, sas-man n. praise 
(Lat. car-men) ; jan-i-man n. birth ; var-i-man n. expanse ; 
bhu-man m. abundance, vid-man m. knowledge, prath-i-man 
m. breadth ; also a few rarely used m. agent nouns, mostly 
accented on the suffix ; e. g. vad-man m. speaker, sad-man 
m. sitter ; as-man m. stone (Gk. &K-JJLGDV) ; j6-man victorious ; 
some of these differ in accent only from corresponding n. 
action nouns (cp. as) : da-man m. giver : da-man n. gift ; 
dhar-man m. ordainer : dhar-man n. ordinance ; bran-man 
m. priest : brah-man n. worship ; sad-man m. sitter : sad- 
man n. seat. 

mi : adj. and m. (also one f.) subst. : ja-mi related ; ur- 
mi m. wave, ras-mi m. ray ; bhu-mi f. earth. 

mi : a few f. substantives : bhu-mi earth, laks-mf sign, 
sur-mi tube. 

yu : a few adjectives and m. substantives : yaj-yu piou-s, 
sundh-yii pure, sah-yu strong ; man-yu m. anger, mrt- 
yii m. death ; das-yu m. enemy, sim-yu m. enemy. 

ra : many adjectives, mostly accented on the suffix ; e. g. 
ug-ra mighty, pat-a-ra j%m#, aj-i-ra swift; grdh-ra greedy ; 
vip-ra inspired ; also several substantives of different genders 
(f. ra) ; e. g. ksu-ra m. rasor, vam-ra m. ant ; khad-i-ra m. 
a tree ; aj-ra m. field (Gk. ay-po-y), vaj-ra m. thunderbolt, 
su-ra m. hero ; abh-ra n. cloud, ksi-ra n. milk ; ag-ra n. 
point, randh-ra n. hollmv ; sar-i-ra n. body ; dha-ra f. stream, 
sii-ra f. intoxicating liquor. 

ri : adj. and m. f. subst. ; e. g. bhu-ri abundant, vadh-ri 
emasculated ; jas-u-ri exhausted ; angh-ri in. foot, su-ri m. 
patron ; as-ri f. edge, lis-ri f. dawn ; ang-u-ri f. finger. 

ru : adj. and a few n. substantives : ca-ru dear (Lat. 
ca-ru-s), bhi-ru tmiid ; pat-a-ru flying ; vand-a-ru praising ; 
san-6-ru obtaining ; as-ru n. tear, smas-ru n. beard. 

va: adj. and (mostly m.) substantives; e.g. urdh-va 



(Gk. 6pO-6-s), pak-va ripe, pur-va preceding, sar-va all (Lat. 
sal-vu-s); as-va m. horse (Lat. eq-uu-s), sru-va m. ladle; am-i- 
va f. disease. 

van: adj. and subst. (mostly m., few n.) ; e.g. rk-van 
praising, krt-van active, yaj-van sacrificing ; adh-van m. 
road, gra-van m. stone ; par-van n. joint. 

sa : adj. and subst. (all genders) ; e. g. grt-sa adroit, 
prk-sa dappled (\/prc) ; mah-i-sa mighty] rj-i-sa rushing] 
ar-u-sa red ] ut-sa m. fountain, drap-sa m. drop, puru-sa 
in. man ; pur-i-sa n. rubbish ; man-i-sa f. devotion. 

snu : adj. (from root or caus. stem) ; e. g. ji-snii victorious ; 
vadh-a-snu murderous ; car-i-snu wandering ; maday-i-snu 

2. Secondary nominal Suffixes. 

The great majority of these form adjectives with the 
general sense of relating to or connected with. 

a : forms a large number of adjectives expressing the 
sense of relation to or connexion with the primitive word ; 
many of them have in the m. become appellatives and in 
the n. abstract nouns. The first syllable in the great 
majority of instances is strengthened with Vrddhi (the f. 
then always takes I) ; e. g. marut-a relating to the Maruts 
(rnarut) ; daiva divine (deva god); parthiva earthly (prthiv-i 
earth) ; manav-a belonging to man (man-u), m. human being ; 
tanv-a belonging to the body (tanu) ; dasarajn-a n. battle of 
the ten Icings (dasa-rajan) ; maghon-a n. bountifulness (magha- 
van bountiful) ; without Vrddhi : bhesaj-a adj. healing, n. 
medicine; sakhy-a n. friendship (sakhi friend); hotr-a n. office 
of priest (hotr). 

a : forms the f. of adjectives which in m. and n. end in a ; 
e.g. nava f., nava m. n. new ; priy-a f., priy-a in. n. dear ; 
gata f., gata m. n. gone. 

am : forms the f. of names of male beings in a, or f. 
personifications ; e. g. indr-am wife of Indra, mudgal-ani 


wife of JIudgala ; arany-ani nymph of the Forest (aranya) ; 
urj-ani Strength (urj strength). 

ayana : forms m. patronymics with initial Vrddhi ; e. g. 
kanv-ayana descendant of Kanva. 

i : forms m. patronymics, with initial Vrddhi, from 
nouns in a ; e. g. paurukuts-i descendant of PuruJcutsa ; 
samvaran-i descendant of Sammram. Similarly formed is 
sarath-i m. charioteer (from sa-ratha driving on the same 

in : forms numerous adjectives, in the sense of possessing, 
almost exclusively from stems in a ; e. g. ark-in praising 
(ar-ka_pra/se); from other stems: arc-in radiant (arc-i&eaw), 
var-m-in clad in armour (var-man) ; irregularly formed : 
ret-in abounding in seed (r6t-as), hiran-in adorned with gold 

iya (= ya after conjunct consonants): forms adjectives of 
relation ; e. g. abhr-iya derived from the clouds (abhra), 
indr-iya belonging to Indra, samudr-iya oceanic. 

I : forms the f. of m. stems made with suffixes ending in 
consonants (95), or with tr (101 e), and often of stems in u 
(98 c) or in a (always when formed with Vrddhi) ; e. g. 
ad-at-I eating, av-i-tr-i protectress, prth.v-1 broad (prthu), 
dev-i goddess (dev-a). Cp. 107. 

ma : forms adjectives, chiefly expressive of direction, 
from the weak stem of derivatives in anc ; e. g. arvac-ma 
turned towards (arvanc hitherward) ; also others expressing 
the general sense of relation ; e. g. visvajan-ma (AV.) con- 
taining all kinds of people. 

iya : forms general adjectives, chiefly in the later Samhitas ; 
e.g. grhamedh-iya relating to the domestic sacrifice, parvat- 
lya mountainous ahavan-iya used for the oblation (a-havana), 
as a m. sacrificial fire (AV.). 

eya: forms m. patronymics as well as a few general 
adjectives; e.g. adit-eya m. son of Aditi ; paurus-eya 
relating to man (puriisa). 


ka : forms adjectives and diminutives ; e. g. anta-ka 
making an end (data), dura-ka distant, mama-ka my ; pada- 
ka m. little foot, raja-ka ni. Mnglet ; with Vrddhi and con- 
necting i : vasant-i-ka belonging to the spring (vasanta). The 
f. of some of the diminutives is formed with ika ; e. g. 
kumar-ika f. little girl (kumara-ka m. little boy}. 

tana and (its syncopated form) tna : form adjectives with 
a temporal sense from adverbs and prepositions ; e. g. 
nu-tana and nu-tna present (nu now) ; sana-tana and 
sana-tna eternal (sana from of old) ; pra-tna ancient (pra 

tama : forms superlatives (from nominal stems and the 
prep, lid) and ordinals ; e. g. puru-tama very many ; ut-tama 
Ugliest ; sata-tama hundredth. 

tara : forms comparatives from adjectives, substantives, 
and the prep, lid : tavas-tara stronger ; rathi-tara better 
charioteer ; ut-tara higher. 

ta : forms abstract f. substantives with the sense conveyed 
by the English suffixes -ship and -ness ; e. g. bandhu-ta 
relationship, vasii-ta ivealtliiness ; deva-ta divinity, purusa- 
ta human nature. 

tati and (less often) tat: form abstract f. substantives 
(like ta) ; e. g. jyestha-tati superiority, sarva-tati complete 
ivelfare (Lat. salu-tati-) ; deva-tat divine service, sarva-tat 
completeness (Lat. salu-tat-). 

tya : forms a few substantives and adjectives from adverbs 
and prepositions : ama-tya m. companion (ama at home) ; apa- 
tya n. of spring ; ni-tya constant, nis-tya foreign (nis out). 

tva : forms n. abstract substantives (like ta) ; e. g. amrta- 
tva n. immortality, maghavat-tva liberality. 

tvana (= tva-na) : forms n. abstract substantives (nearly 
all of them duplicates of others in tva) ; e. g. jani-tvana 
wifehood, sakhi-tvana friendship. 

tha : forms a few ordinals as well as adjectives (from 
pronominal stems) with a general numerical sense ; e. g. 


catur-tha fourth, sapta-tha seventh ; kati-tha the hoiv- 
manieth ? 

ni : forms the f. of pati lord and of parusa knotty, as well 
as of several adjectives in ta denoting colours ; thus pat-ni 
mistress (Gk. TroT-via), parus-ni a river ; 6-ni variegated (6-ta). 
In a few of the colour adjectives ni is substituted for the 
final a, while k takes the place of t ; e. g. asik-ni Hack 

bha : forms m. names of animals ; thus rsa-bha and 
vrsa-bha bull ; garda-bha and rasa-bha ass. 

ma: forms superlatives (partly from prepositions) and 
a few ordinals ; e. g. ava-ma lowest ; madhya-ma middle- 
most; nava-ma ninth (Lat. novi-mu-s), dasa-ma tenth (Lat. 

mant : forms adjectives in the sense of possessing from 
substantives (except stems in a) ; e. g. asani-mant possessing 
the thunderbolt, kratu-mant powerful ; go-mant rich in cows, 
caksus-mant possessed of eyes. 

maya : forms adjectives (f. I) in the sense of consisting of; 
e. g. manas-niaya spiritual, mrn-maya made of clay (mrd). 

mna : forms a few n. abstracts from nouns or particles : 
dyu-mna brightness, su-mna welfare. 

ya : forms adjectives of relation, m. patronymics and n. 
abstracts. Most of the latter two classes take Vrddhi of the 
first syllable, but only about one-fourth of the adjectives do 
so ; e. g. pasav-ya relating to cattle (pasii) ; aditya m. son of 
Aditi; taugrya m. son of Tugra, but also tiigr-ya ; adhipa- 
tya n. lordship (adhipati overlord). 

ra : forms comparatives (from prepositions) and ordinary 
nouns, mostly adjectives ; e. g. ava-ra lower ; dhum-ra grey 
(dhuma smoke) ; rath-i-ra riding in a car (ratha). 

la : forms adjectives and a few m. diminutives ; e. g. 
kapi-la (mon7^# '-colour -ed=) brotvn, bahu-la abundant; vraa-la 
m. little man, sisu-la m. little child. 

vat : forms a few f. abstract substantives, almost exclu- 


sively from prepositions, expressing local position ; e. g. 
ud-vat height, ni-vat depth. 

van : forms adjectives in the sense Q possessing and a few 
m. substantives ; e. g. magha-van bountiful, srusti-van 
obedient, samad-van warlike ; athar-van in. fire-priest. 

vant : forms adjectives, from every kind of nominal stem, 
in the sense of possessing ; e. g. as va- vant and asva-vant 
owning horses ; sakhi-vant having friends ; visnu-vant accom- 
panied by Vistiu ', roman-vant hairy ; payas-vant containing 
milk. Some of these derivatives, especially those formed from 
pronominal stems, have the sense of resembling ; e. g. 
ma- vant like me ; nr-vant manly. From this sense is derived 
the use of the n. ace. as an adv. of comparison ; e. g. manus- 
vat like Manus. 

vin : forms adjectives from stems ending in a (which is 
lengthened), a, and as ; e. g. ubhaya-vin partaldng of botli 
(ubhaya), astra-vin obedient to the goad, yasas-vin glorious. 
Exceptionally formed are dhrsad-vin bold (dhrsat) and 
vag-vin eloquent (vac). 

sa : forms adjectives and m. substantives, sometimes 
without change of meaning ; e. g. eta-sa variegated (eta id.), 
yuva-sa youthful (yiivan id.), roma-sa hairy (r6man hair) ; 
anku-sa m. hook, kala-sa m. jar. 

183. The above lists of suffixes practically supply the 
rules of gender for the Vedic noun. These may be 
summarized as follows : 

Speaking generally, bare roots as stems, if action nouns, 
are f., if agent nouns, m. 

Derivative stems in a, I, u are f. ; stems in a, t, n may be 
m. or n. ; stems in i and u may be of any gender. 

a. Feminine are all stems formed with the suffixes a, I, 1 
u ; ta, tat, tati, ti, 2 tra. 

1 Except seven m. stems in I ; see 100, I I. 

" But when stems in ti appear as agent nouns they are m., and 
m. f. as adjectives. 

183-184] GENDER. COMPOUNDS 265 

I. Neuter are all stems formed with is, tva, tvana, and, 
unless adjectives 1 or agent nouns,' 2 those formed with ana, 
as, us. 

c. Masculine are (in so far as not used adjectivally) all 
stems formed with the suffixes yu, va; ayana, i, s ka, 
bha, la. 

d. Masc. or fern, are stems formed with the suffixes ni, 
nu, mi, tr 4 ; also stems formed with the bare root/ 

c. Masc. or neut. are stems formed with the suffixes a, 
ta, tha, na, una, ma, ya, ra, tya, tra, tu, an, man, van ; 
also adjectives formed with in, vin, ma, lya, tana, tama, 
tara, maya, mant, vant. 

/. Masc., fern., neut. are stems formed with i or u. 

B. Compounds. 

184. I. Verbal Compounds are formed by combining 
roots with twenty prepositions and a few adverbs. The 
compound verb (which, however, in finite forms is actually 
compounded only in subordinate clauses when the preposition 
immediately precedes the verb) is conjugated like the simple 
verb. Thus gam go combines with sam together to sam-gam 
go together, unite-, 3. s. sam-gachati. The compound root 
can be used to form nominal stems by means of the primary 
suffixes enumerated above (182, 1) ; e. g. sam-gam-a m. 

a. The prepositions which are compounded with roots are 
the following: acha towards, ati beyond, adhi upon, anu 
after, antar between, apa away, api on, abhi against, ava 
down, a c near, ud up, ni down, into, nis out, para away, 

1 When they are of course m. as well as n. 

2 When they are m. 

3 In patronymics. 

4 Stems in tr are always m. when they are agent nouns. 
These when used as adj. are occasionally^ neuter. 

G The preposition a reverses the sense of verbs of going or giving ; 
e. g. a-gm come, a-da take. 


pari around, pra forth, prati towards, vi asunder, sam 

I). A few adverbs are also compounded with a limited 
number of verbs : 

aram at hand is combined with kr = serve (dat.), prepare 
(ace.) ; with gam = serve ; with bhu = serve, conduce to 

avis openly is combined with as, bhu and kr only ; with 
the two former it means become visible, appear ; e. g. avis 
santi being manifest ; avir agnir abhavat Agni became 
manifest] with kr it means make visible, e.g. avis karta 
make manifest. 

tiras aside is combined with bhu be and dha ! put only ; 
e. g. ma tir6 bhut may it not disappear. 

puras in front is combined with kr do and dha put only ; 
e. g. krnotu ratham purah. may lie place (our) car in the 

srad, an old word meaning heart (Gk. Kap8-(a and KpaS-irj. 
Lat. cord-), having acquired the character of an adverb, is 
once combined with kr and often with dha, put in the sense 
of put faith in, credit ( = Lat. credo for cred-do), but is nearly 
always separated from the verb by other words ; e. g. srad 
asmai dhatta believe in him ; srad visva varya krdhi entrust 
all boons (to us). 

pra-dur (before the door) begins to appear in the AV. in 
combination with bhu = become manifest, appear. 

c. A few substantives, after assuming an adverbial charac- 
ter, appear compounded, like verbal prefixes, with participial 
forms in the AV. These are: asta-m 2 home with i yo: 
astam-yant setting, astam-esyant about to set, astam-ita 
set ; namas obeisance with the gerund of kr make : namas- 
krtya doing homage. 

1 In the SB. and later tir&s is also combined with kr do. 

2 This word is still a substantive in the KV. 

184-185] VERBAL COMPOUNDS 267 

In the EV. a few substantives designating parts of the 
body are compounded with the gerund of graft seize : karna- 
grhya seizing by the ear, pada-grhya seising ly the foot, 
hasta-grhya grasping by the hand. 

d. The interjection hin is compounded with kr in the sense 
of utter the sound bin, murmur ; e. g. hm-krnvati lowing. 
There are also a few reduplicated interjectional words, 
mostly onomatopoetic and nearly always ending in a, that 
appear compounded with bhu and kr : alala-bhavant sound- 
ing merrily ; janjana-bhavant sparkling ; malmala-bhavant 
glittering] bharbhara-bhavat became confounded ; bibiba- 
bhavant crackling ; kikira krnu tear to tatters ; masmasa 
karam I have crushed; masmasa kuru and mrsmrsa kuru 
crush ; akhkhali-krtya croaJclng. 

a. The latter compound is the only example in the RV. of I 
appearing instead of a before kr or bhu. The AV. has vati-krta 
11. a disease (from vata ivind}. 

II. Nominal Compounds. 

185. From the Indo-European period the Vedic language 
has inherited the power of combining two or more words 
into one treated like a simple word as regards accent, 
inflexion, and construction. Both in the frequency and in 
the length of compounds the Vedic language resembles the 
Greek of Homer. In the KV. and the AV. no compounds 
of more than three independent members are met with, and 
those in which three occur are rare, such as purva-kama- 
krtvan fulfilling former wishes. 

The two characteristic features of a compound are unity 
of accent and employment of the uninflected stem in the 
first member (or members) ; but there are exceptions to 
both these rules. Occasionally tmesis of a compound occurs. 1 

1 Chiefly in dual compounds, as dyava ha ksama heaven and earth ; 
also in a few others, as n&ra va samsam, for nara-samsam. It takes 
place only when the compound is doubly accented. 


The Sandhi between the members is, moreover, sometimes 
different from that between words in a sentence. 

a. The gender of compounds, if they end in substantives, 
is with few exceptions that of the last member ; the gender 
of collectives is always neuter. The number in compounds 
depends on the sense ; that in collectives is always singular. 
When the word appearing as the first member has two 
stems, the weak stem is used ; when it has three, the middle 
stem (73 a). In substantive compounds the last member 
retains, as a rule, its gender, form, and inflexion ; while in 
adjectival compounds the gender and inflexion of the last 
member are of course variable. 

6. Classification. Vedic compounds may be divided into 
three main classes according to their syntactical relations : 
1. Co-ordinatives, or those in which the members are 
co-ordinated ; 2. Determinatives, or those in which the 
first member determines or limits the sense of the last ; 
3. Possessives, or adjectives the general meaning of which 
implies possession (as bahv-anna possessing much food). To 
these must be added, in order to classify Vedic compounds 
exhaustively, three lesser groups : 4. Governing com- 
pounds, or adjectives in which the first member governs the 
last in sense (as ksayad-vira ruling men) ; 5. Syntactical 
compounds, or irregular formations arising from the juxta- 
position of two words in a sentence ; 6. Iteratives, or 
repeated words treated as compounds in the Samhitas 
inasmuch as they have only one accent and a special meaning 
when thus combined. 

1. Co-ordinative (Dvandva) ! Compounds. 

186. These consist of two substantives, far less commonly 
adjectives, connected in sense with ' and '. 

1 This term applied to co-ordinatives by the later Hindu gram- 
marians, means pair or couple. 


A 1. The most numerous group (about three-fourths of all 
the Dvandvas) in the Rigveda comprises those compounds 
(nearly always names of deities) in which each member is 
dual in form and has a separate accent ; e. g. mitra-varuna 
Mitra and Vanma ; matara-pitara mother and father ; dyava- 
prthivi heaven and earth. In the RV. the two duals are often 
separated, as in the line a nakta barhih sadatam usasa 
let Night and Daivn seat themselves upon the litter. The proper 
genitive of such compounds is e. g. mitrayor varunayoh. 
But as these co-ordinate duals early came to be regarded as 
a unit, the commonest ending of the first member, that of 
the N. A., came to be retained unaltered in the other cases : 
G. mitra-varunayoh, I. mitra-varunabhyam. A further 
step towards unification is taken in a minority of cases in 
which the first member loses its accent and the last syllable 
of the final member (irrespectively of its original accent) 
receives the acute, as surya-candramas-a sun and moon 
(candra-mas). The last stage in the Rigveda appears in 
four examples in which the first member assumes the stem- 
form, e. g. indra-vayu Indra and Vayu. In the later Sam- 
hitas and in B. this is the prevailing type in new formations, 
e. g. daksa-kratu m. will and understanding (TB.). 

2. Another type is represented by the plural Dvandvas l 
which express pairs of groups. These show the stem-form 
in the first member and the accent on the final syllable of 
the last. The only examples in the RV. occur in Book X ; 
e.g. aho-ratrani 2 days and nights, ajavayas goats (aja) and 
sheep (avi) ; but in the later Samhitas this type becomes 
quite general, e. g. bhadra-papah (AV.), the good and the bad.* 

1 Cp. Latin su-ore-iaurilia, a later type representing three groups. 

2 This Dvandva shows a double irregularity : the gender of the first 
member has prevailed over that of the second, and the f. stem ratri 
has been changed to ratra. 

3 Several of the cardinal numerals are old Dvandvas, e. g. dva- 
dasa twelve (two and fen), dva being an old dual ; tr&yo-dasa thirteen 
(Iliree and /en). 


3. There occur in the Samhitas a few singular Dvandvas 
which express a collective sense and are always neuter, 1 and 
accent the final syllable ; e. g. ista-purtam 2 what lias been 
offered or given ; krta^akrtam (AV.) what has been done and 
not done; kesa-smasru n. hair and beard (AV.) ; bhadra- 
papam (AV.) good and evil ; samista-yajus (VS.) sacrifice and 
sacrificial formula. 

B. Dvandvas consisting of adjectives are rare. They are 
of three types : 

1. The adjectives designate colours, their combination 
expressing a mixture of the two, as nila-lohita dark blue 
and red = dark red. 

2. They express a contrast, as utkula-nikula (VS.) going 
uphill and doivnhill. 

3. They are used with dual substantives to express that 
each is an attribute of one unit of the kind, as pad-bhyam 
daksina-savyabhyam (AV.) with the two feet, the right and 
the left. 

a. The old dual Dvandvas (A 1) are frequently represented 
by elliptical duals which put one of a pair in the dual to 
express both, as dyava = heaven and earth ; mitra = Mitra 
and Varuna ; pitara = father and mother ; matara mother 
and father, parents. 

2. Determinatives. 

187. This numerous class of compounds comprises two 
groups. In the larger group (2 a) the first member has the 
value of a substantive dependent, in the sense of an oblique 
case, on the second, which may be either a verbal noun or 
an ordinary substantive. This may be called the dependent 
determinative group (named Tatpurusa by the later Hindu 
grammarians). In the other group (2 b) the final member, 

1 Cf. the Greek 

2 Originally doubtless istapurta, dual in both members. 


if an ordinary substantive, is described adjectivally, or, if 
a verbal noun, adverbially, by the first member. This may 
be called the descriptive determinative group (called Karma- 
dharaya by the later Hindu grammarians). 

2 a. Dependent (Tatpurusa) Determinatives. 

A. The first member (substantive or pronoun) may have 
the sense (and often even the form) of any oblique case. 
When it has an ace., inst., abl., or loc. sense, the final 
member is mostly a verbal noun; 1 when it has a dat. 2 or 
gen. 3 sense, it is always an ordinary noun. 4 The compound 
may be a substantive or an adjective, according as the last 
member is one or the other. 

1. In ace. dependents the final member is always a verbal 
noun ; e.g. havir-ad eating the oblation ; go-ghna cow-slaying, 
asva-haya 5 urging on steeds; deva-madana exhilarating 
the gods ; gara-girna (AY.) 6 having sivallowed poison ; bhuri- 
davan giving much ; bhadra-vadin uttering an auspicious cry ; 
vaja-sati f. act of winning booty; vrtra-hatya n. act of 
slaying Vrtra. 

2. Inst. : indra-patama most drunk by Indra ; agni- 
dagdha burnt with fire ; deva-tta 1 given by the gods ; aritra- 
parana, adj. crossing ivith oars ; tanu-subhra shining (with = ) 
in body ; bala-vijnaya to be recognized by his strength. 

1 The subdivision ending in verbal nouns may be called ' verbal 
dependents '. 

2 Examples of this sense are very rare. The final member is an 
ordinary adjective or substantive. 

3 The final member of genitive dependents is always an ordinary 

4 The subdivision ending in ordinary substantives may be called 
' nominal dependents '. 

6 Cf. Greek horse-taming. 

c An example of the rare use of a past pass. part, in a transitive 

7 tta for datta (1 00, 2 &). 


3. Dat. : vakmaraja-satya faithful to the ordainers of 
hymns ; visva-sambhu salutary for all. 

4. Abl. : go-ja produced from cows ; tivra-su-t pressed 
from the fermenting mass. 

5. Gen. (the commonest sense) : raja-putra king's son ; 
vis-pati lord of the clan-, deva-kilbisa m. of I nee against the 
gods ; 1 dru-pada n. post of wood. 2 

6. Loc. : ahar-jata (AV.) horn in the day ; uda-pluta (AY.) 
swimming in the water ; puru-bhu being in many places ; 
bandhu-ksit dwelling among relatives. 

a. In their first member many dependent compounds 
retain the case-ending, most commonly the ace.,, often the 
loc., biit the rest rarely. Sing, endings (ace. and inst.) may 
express a plur. sense. Plur. endings (ace. and loc.) some- 
times occur, but du. endings never in these compounds. 

The ace. generally expresses the object of a transitive 
verb. The form in am is, in the RY., the rule before the 
verbal nouns -kara making, -caya collecting, -jaya conquer- 
ing, -tara overcoming, -dara cleaving, -bhara hearing, -ruja 
hreaMng, -sani winning, -saha overwhelming ; e. g. abhayam- 
kara procuring security, dhanam-jaya winning booty, pur- 
am-dara, 3 destroying forts, sutam-bhara 4 receiving pressed 
Soma ; it also occurs before other verbal nouns, not infre- 
quently before such as begin with vowels ; e. g. dhiyam-dha 
devout, visvam-inva all-moving, asvam-isti 3 seeking horses. 
An example of a cognate ace. is subham-ya moving in 
brilliance, and of an adverbial ace., ugram-pasya (AY.) 
looking fiercely. Examples of an ace. pi. ending are ka-cit- 
kara doing all manner of things pasva-isti " J desiring kine. 

1 Ari example of an objective genitive. 

2 Here the genitive expresses the material. 

3 The singular ace. form with plural sense. 

4 Also im in pustim-bhara Iringing prosperity and harim-bhard 
bearing t?ie tawny (bolt). 


Inst. : gira-vrdh rejoicing in song ; siinesita driven by 
dogs l (siina) ; vidmanapas working (apas) with wisdom 
(vidmana) ; ksudha-mara (AV.) m. death by hunger ; vaca- 
stena 2 thief by speech, secretly injuring ~by words. 

Dat. : the only example seems to be found in the loose 
syntactical compound dasyave vrka wolf to the Dasyu, used 
as a proper name. 

Abl. : divo-ja produced from heaven ; divo-riic shining 
from the sky. 

Gen. : very common before pati husband or lord, as gna-s- 
pati husband of a divine woman-, ja-s-pati lord of a family; 
brahmanas-pati lord of prayer.'" It also occurs in the 
proper names divo-dasa servant of heaven and siinah-sepa 

Loc. : common in the EV. before agent nouns formed 
from the simple root ; e. g. divi-yaj worshipping in heaven ; 
rathe-stha standing on a car also before several formed 
with a ; e. g. divi-ksaya dwelling in heaven. There are also 
several examples of plurals, as apsu-sad dwelling in the 
waters; gosu-yudh fighting in (=for)kine; hrtsv-as piercing 
the heart. The singular also occurs a few times before an 
ordinary adj. or subst., as made-raghu quick in exhilaration ; 
svapne-duhsvapnya (AV.) n. evil dream in sleep. 

a. If a root forms the last member of a Tatpurusa, final long 
vowels (a,i,u) undergo no change, while short vowels 4 (i,u, r) usually 
add a determinative t ; e. g. agre-pa drinking first ; yajna-ni leading the 

1 Singular ending with plural sense. 

2 A rare example of an insfc. with an ordinary substantive as final 

8 By the false analogy of these words are also formed from a stems 
rta-s-pati lord of pious works and rtha-s-p&ti lord of the car. Dam-pati 
lord of the house probably = d&m-s-pati. 

4 Radical a, as a shortened form of a, often appears as a final, 
hciefly in the later Samhitas, as agre-g going in front, nama-dh& (AV.) 


sacrifice ; raja-su king-creating ; but divi-ksi-t divelling in heaven ; soma- 
su-t Soma-pressing ; jyotis-kf-t light -creating. There is, however, no t 
added in vanar-gu forest-roaming. 1 

2 b. Descriptive (Karmadharaya) 2 Compounds. 

188. This class of Determinatives is comparatively rare 
in the Samhitas. The last member is generally an ordinary 
substantive, but is sometimes a verbal or an ordinary 
adjective. The relation of the first member to the last is 
appositional, attributive, or adverbial. It is expressed in 
three ways : 

1. By a Substantive. If followed by a subst., it has an 
attributive sense equivalent to an adj. expressing sex or 
a compound nature; e.g. purusa-mrga (VS.) in. (man=) 
male antelope ; ultika-yatu m. owl demon, i. e. demon in 
form of an owl ; purusa-vyaghra (VS.) m. man-tiger, a kind 
of demon ; vrsa-kapi m. man-ape. 

If followed by a verbal adj., the preceding subst. is usually 
appositional in sense ; e. g. isana-krt acting as a ruler 
stoma-tasta fashioned as a liymn of praise. But sometimes 
it is adverbial ; e. g. rtv-ij sacrificing in season regularly ; 
sarga-takta speeding with a rush. 

a. Before a verbal noun a substantive sometimes implies a com- 
parison ; e. g. dhara-vakd sounding like a stream, syena-juta speeding like 
an eagle. Similarly before an ordinary adjective : suka-babhru (VS.) 
reddish like a parrot. 

2. By an Adjective. If followed by an ordinary subst., 
the adj. has the usual attributive sense ; e. g. candra-mas 
m. (bright) moon ; krsna-sakuni (AV.) m. raven (lit. Uack 

1 Final u sometimes appears as a shortened form of u in some 
Tatpurusas, as dhl-ju inspiring the mind; puru-bhii appearing in many 

2 This is the term applied to this class of compounds by the later 
Hindu grammarians. 


bird) ; nava-jvara m. new pain ; maha-grama ' m. great host ; 
yavayat-sakha m. protecting friend. 2 Sometimes the qualify- 
ing adj. indicates a part of what the last member expresses ; 
e. g. adhara-kantha (VS.) m. lower (part of the) neck ; 
ardha-deva m. demi-god ; purvahna 3 m. forenoon ; ma- 
dhyam-dina 4 m. midday. 

If followed by a verbal noun, the preceding adj. is adverbial 
in sense ; 5 e. g. asu-patvan 6 swift-flying, i. e. flying swiftly ; 
asu-h6man swiftly -speeding ; sana-ja born of old (= sana) ; 
satya-yaj sacrificing truly (= satyam), dvi-ja (AV.) born 
twice? Similarly before ordinary adjectives : visva-scandra 
all-glittering ; hari-scandra glittering yellow ; try-artisa 7 
(AV.) ruddy in three places. 

a. At the end of Karmadharayas the final n of an stems is dropped 8 
in eka-vrs& (AV.) m. only bull, maha-vrsfi, (AV.) m. great bull, bha- 
drah& 9 (AV.) n. auspicious day. 

3. By an Adverb (inclusive of particles and prepositions) : 
aksnaya-driih injuring ivrongly ; amutra-bhuya (AV.) n. 
state of being there evara quite (eva) ready (ara) ; piinar- 
nava renewing itself ; punar-bhu arising again', puro-yavan 
going before ; puro-hita placed in front ; sato-mahat equally 
(sa-tas) great-, satyam-ugra truly mighty, sayam-bhava 

1 As first member of Karmadharayas (and Bahuvrlhis) mahdt 
appears as maha ; but the AV. has mahat-kandd great section. 

2 Here sfXhi friend becomes sakha. Cf. 189, 4 d and 189 A. 2 a. 

. 3 Here dhan day is syncopated and extended with a ; also in apar- 
ahn& (AV.) afternoon, ny-dhn-a (AV.) decline of day. 

4 With case-ending retained in the first member. 

5 The sense is rather appositional in purva-pa drinking (as) first, 
vama'-jata born as one dear, i. e. dear by nature. 

6 Cf. Gk. ujKv-TreTijs swift-flying. 

7 Here the cardinals are used for the numeral adverbs dvf-s, 

8 This is much commoner in Bahuvrlhis (189, 4). 

9 Also in sad-ahd (AV.) m. period of six days (189, 4). 

T 2 


(AV.) m. becoming evening', pasca'-dosa (VS.) m. later part 
of the evening- ida-vatsara 1 (AV.)m. the present year puro- 
agni 1 (VS.) m. fire in front ; su-da giving willingly] duh- 
s^va unfavourable : a-mitra m. non-friend, enemy ; su-vasana 
n. fair garment ; ati-krsna excessively dark ; pra-napat m. 
great grandson ; adhi-raja m. supreme Jdng ; pra-vira m. 
great hero ; sam-vatsara m. full year. 

3. Possessive (Bahuvrihi) Compounds. 

189. These compounds are secondary adjectives. They 
are determinatives (generally Karmadharayas), ending in 
substantives, which have been transformed into adjectives 
agreeing in gender, number, and case with another substan- 
tive expressed or understood. The transformation is accom- 
panied by a shift of accent from the final member to the 
first. The term ' possessive ' is probably the most appropriate 
as applied to these compounds, for it expresses their general 
meaning in the vast majority of cases ; in a few instances 
the more comprehensive sense of * connected with ' is required 
to indicate the relation between the substantive and the 
Bahuvrlhi compound agreeing with it ; e. g. visva-nara 
belonging to all men. Possessives are of two kinds : 

1. Karmadharaya Possessives, in which the first member 
is an attributive adj. (including participles), an appositional 
subst., or an adverb (including particles and prepositions) : 
e. g. ugra-bahu powerful-armed ; hata-matr whose mother has 
been slain ; rusad-vatsa having a shining calf-, asva-parna 
horse-winged, i. e. whose wings are horses ; indra-satru having 
Indra as a foe ; raja-putra having kings as sons ; hiranya- 
nemi whose fellies are (made of), gold; asta-pad 2 eight-footed, 
dvi-pad 3 two-footed ; ittha-dhi having such thought, devout-, 
puro-ratha whose car is in front; vi-griva wry-necked ; 

1 Here the adverbs preceding ordinary substantives are = adjectives. 

2 Gk. oKTw-iroS-. 3 Lat. bi-ped-. 


an-udra l waterless ; a-pad footless ; ku-yava causing a bad 
harvest ; dus-pad ill-footed su-parna beautiful- winged. 

a. In some possessives based on appositional Karmadharayas a 
comparison of the first with the final member is implied ; e. g. varsajya 
(AV.) whose rain is (like) butter ; vrksa'-kesa whose trees are (like) hair, 
tree-haired = wooded (mountain). 

6. The superlatives jye'stha chief and srestha best, the comparative 
bhuyas more, and p&ra higher, are used substantively as final member 
of possessives : indra-jyestha having Indra as chief, yamd-srestha (AV.) 
of whom Yama is best, asthi-bhuyams (AV.) having bone as its chief 
part chiefly bone, avara-s-para 2 (V S.) in ivhich the lower is higher, topsy-turvy. 

2. In Tatpurusa Possessives the first member most 
commonly has a gen., not infrequently a loc., but rarely an 
inst. or ace. sense. The case-ending is in several instances 
retained. Examples are: rayas-kama having a desire for 
ivealtli ; divi-yoni having (his) origin in heaven ; bhasa-ketu 
recognizable ~by light ; tvam-kama having a desire for thee. 

a. In possessives based on gen. Tatpurusas, the first member often 
implies a comparison, but never with a case-ending ; as agni-tejas 
(AV.) having the brightness of fire, fire-bright ; fksa-griva bear-necked ; 
go-vapus cow-shaped ; mano-java having the swiftness of thought^ swift as 
thought ; mayura-roman having the plumes of peacocks. 

b. When a loc. sense is intended, parts of the body appear as the 
last member ; e. g. asru-mukha (AV.) having tears on her face, tear- 
faced ; ghrta"-prstha having butter on his back, butter-backed ; patra-hasta 

(AV.) having ci vessel in his hand ; mani-grivd having pearls on the neck ; 
ma"dhu-jihva having honey on his tongue ; v&jra-bahu having a bolt on 
his arm. 

3. Bahuvrlhis come to be used substantively, when the 
noun with which they agree is dropped: thus su-parna 
fair-tvinged, m. lird. Of this use there are three appli- 
cations : 

a. These compounds very frequently appear as m., some- 
times as f., proper names, the adjectival sense often not 

1 Gk. dv-v5po-s. 

2 Here the s of the nom. survives from the use of the two words in 
syntactical juxtaposition. Cp. the later para-s-para and anyo-'nya. 


occurring at all. Thus brhad-uktha adj. having great praise, 
m. a seer ; brhad-diva adj. dwelling in high heaven, m. a seer, 
f. brhad-diva a goddess ; m. as names only, Priya-medha 
(to whom sacrifice is dear) and Vama-deva (to whom the gods 
are dear). 

b. They appear not infrequently as n. substantives with 
an abstract (sometimes a collective) sense, especially when 
the first member is the privative particle a- or an-, or the 
adjective sarva all ; e. g. an-apatya, adj. childless (AY.), 
n. childlessness ; sarva- vedasa (AV.) n. whole property ; 
ni-kilbisa n. deliverance from sin] matr-bandhu (AV.) n. 
maternal kinship. 

c. With numerals, from dvi two upwards, as their first 
member, they form sing, neuters * (always ending in ac- 
cented a) with a collective sense ; e. g. tri-yuga n. period of 
three lives ; dvi-raja (AV.) n. battle of two kings ; dasangula 
n. length of ten fingers (4 d). 

4. The final member of Bahuvrihis is liable to various 
changes tending to make it end in a. 

a. The n of several words in an, k&rman, 2 dhaman, naman, p&rvan, 
vfsan, sakth&n, is frequently dropped in ordinary Bahuvrihis, and that 
of dhan in numeral collectives ; e. g. visvd-karma 3 performing all work, 
priyd-dhama occupying desirable places, chando-nam& (VS.) named metre, 
metrical, vi-parva 4 jointless, dvi-vrs& (VS.) having ttvo bulls, lomasa'- 
saktha (VS.) having hairy thighs ; sad-aha (AV.) m. period of six days. 

b. The suffixes a and ya are frequently added, and sometimes ka ; 
e. g. catur-aks-& four-eyed, su-gav-a having fine coics, anyodar-ya born 
from another womb (ud&ra), d&sa-mas-ya ten months old, madhu-hast-ya 

honey-handed, try-amba-ka having three mothers, vi-manyu-ka (AV.)/ree 
from anger, a-karn&-ka (TS.) earless. 

c. The suffix in (possessing) is sometimes pleonastically added : 
maha-hast-m having large hands, ku-nakh-fn (AV.) having bad nails, 

1 Except those formed with ahd day, which are m., as sad-ahd m. 
series of six days. 

2 But this word retains its n in seven compounds in the RV. 
8 But also viv&-karman. 

4 But a-parv&n and vfsa-parvan. 


yaso-bhag-in (VS.) rich in glory, sa-rath-in (VS.) riding in the same 

d. a is substituted for i in kava-sakhS, 1 having a niggard for a friend, 
and in dasangula" n. length of ten fingers (anguli). On the other hand, 
i is substituted for a in some compounds of gandha" smell, and in 
a few others: dhumd-gandhi smelling of smoke, krstd-radhi (AV.) 
attaining success (radha) in agriculture, pr&ty-ardhi to whom {he half 
(a"rdha) belongs. 

e. In the f. of Bahuvrihis pa"ti husband or lord, instead of remaining 
unchanged, takes the f. form of the subst. (palm wife) in das&-patnl 
having a demon as master, deva"-patni haring a god as a husband, vfsa- 
patnl ruled by a mighty one, sura-patni haring a hero as a husband. 

4. Governing Compounds. 

189 A. In this class, which embraces a considerable 
number of compounds, the first member, being either a 
preposition or a verbal noun, governs the last in sense. 
They resemble Bahuvrlhis in form 2 as well as in their 
adjectival character. 

1. In the prepositional group, in which about twenty 
examples occur in the RV., the first member is a preposition 
capable of governing a case ; e. g. ati-ratra 3 lasting overnight ; 
ami-kama according to ivish ; a-pathi and a-pathi being on 
the ivay ; paro-matra going beyond measure, excessive. 

a. Like Bahuvrlhis, compounds of this type mny become substan- 
tives ; e. g. upanas-a adj. being on a wagon, n. (AV.) space on a wagon. 

b. The final member, when it does not end in a, adds the suffix a, 
and ya sometimes even when it already ends in a; e.g. anu-path-a 
going along the road, adhas-pad-a being under the feet, paro-ks-a (AV.) 
away from the eye (&ks), puro-gav-a m. leader (going before the cows') ; 

1 Otherwise sakhi remains unchanged in both Bahuvrlhis and 
Karmadharayas (but 188, 2) in the RV. ; cp. 189, 2 a. 

2 But the meaning is entirely different ; for in the prepositional 
class the first member has the sense of a prep, (not an adj.), and in 
the verbal class, it has a transitive (not an intransitive) sense. In 
the latter class the final syllable of a part, is always accented (but 
in Bahuvrihis only when that is the natural accent). 

3 Here ratri night becomes ratra, as in the Dvandva ahoratra" n. 
day and night. 


adhi-gart-ya being on the car-seat (garta), antah-parsav-yd (VS.) briny 
between the ribs (pdrsu), upa-mas-ya (AV.) occurring every month (masa), 
tiro-ahn-ya (being beyond a day}, belonging to the day (dhan) before 

2. Ill the verbally governing class the first member is an 
agent noun or an action noun governing the last member as 
an object. With a single exception l they never add a suffix. 
Three types (in all of which examples of proper names 
occur) may be distinguished. 

a. In the commonest type, which is almost restricted to the RV., 
the first member is a participle ending in dt formed from transitive 
present stems in a, d, or dya ; e. g. rdhdd-vara 2 increasing goods, tarad- 
dvesas overcoming (tdrat) foes, dharaydt-kavi supporting the ivise, man- 
daydt-sakha 3 gladdening his friend. The following are used as proper 
names: rdhdd-ray 2 (increasing ivealth}, jamdd-agni 4 (going to Agni), 
bhardd-vaja (carrying off the prize}. 

b. Only three or four examples occur of a second type, in which the 
first member consists of a simple present stem (probably representing 
an imperative) : rada-vasu 5 dispensing w ealth, siksa-nar-d 6 helping men; 
as the name of a man : trasa-dasyu (terrify the foe}. 

c. Some half dozen examples occur in the EV. of a third type, in 
which the first member is an action-noun in ti : dati-vara giving 
treasures, vlti-radhas enjoying the oblation, vrsti-dyav earning the sky to 
rain ; as the name of a man : pti.sti-gu m. (rearing kine}. 

5. Syntactical Compounds. 

189 B. A certain number of irregular compounds are 
formed in a manner differing from that of any of the four 
classes described above. They may be treated as a class, 
since all of them have been produced by the same cause: 
frequent syntactical juxtaposition in a sentence. 

1 siksa-nar-d ; see below, note 6. 

2 rdhdt aor. part, of rdh. increase. 

3 sakhi friend becomes sakha in two other governing compounds: 
dravaydt-sakha speeding his friend and sravaydt- sakha making his 
friend famous. Cf. 188, 2, note 2. 

4 jamat is a palatalized form of an aor. part, of gam go. 

5 In this and the following example the a of rada and siksa is 
metrically lengthened. 

6 Here the stem of the final member is extended with a. 


a. The relative adverb yad (a nominally formed abl.) in so 
far as has come to be compounded with a superlative in the 
adj. yac-chrestha the best possible (lit. in so far as best), and 
with a gerundive in the adv. yad-radhyam as quickly as 
possible (lit. in so far as attainable). 

b. The initial words of a text begin to be compounded 
in the later Samhitas as a substantive to designate that text. 
Thus ye-yajamaha (VS.) m., used in the N. pi., means the 
text beginning with the words y6 yajamahe. 

c. Several subst. or adj. compounds have resulted from 
phrases consisting of two words in juxtaposition. Thus 
aham-uttara (AY.) n. dispute for precedence (from aham 
uttarah I am higher) ; mama-satya n. dispute as to owner- 
ship (from mama satyam it is certainly mine) ; mam-pasya 
(AV.) designation of an aphrodisiac plant (from mam pasya 
loo'k at me) ; kuvit-sa some one (from kuvit sa is it lie ?) ; 
aham-sana (voc.) rapacious (from aham sana I will obtain) ; 
aham-purva eager to be first (from aham purvah I should 
be first)-, kim-tva (VS.) asking garrulously (from kim tvam 
what are you doing?). 

6. Iterative Compounds. 

189 C. Substantives, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, 
adverbs, and prepositions are often repeated. They are then 
treated as compounds, the second member losing its accent 
and the two words being written in the Pada text with the 
Avagraha between them, as in other compounds. This class 
resembles other compounds in having a single accent, but 
differs from them in having not the stem but the fully 
inflected form of nominal words in the first member. 
In the KV. the iteratives number over 140, rather more 
than half of them being substantives. The sense conveyed 
by the repetition is frequency, or constant succession in 
time, or distribution in space. Examples of the various 
kinds of iteratives are the following : 


a. Substantives: ahar-ahar, 1 div6-dive, 2 dyavi-dyavi 
every day, masi-masi month after month ; grhe-grhe, dame- 
dame, vis6-vise 2 in every house ; angad-angat from every 
limb disd-disah. (AV.) from every quarter yajnasya-yajna- 
sya of every sacrifice ; parvani-parvani in every joint ; 
agnim-agnim (duvasyata), (ivorship) Agni again and again ; 
annam-annam (AV.)/ood in perpetuity. 

b. Adjectives : panyam-panyam . . somam Soma who is 
again and again to be praised ; pracim-pracim pradisam 
each eastern direction ; uttaram-uttaram samam (AV.) each 
following year. 

c. Pronouns : tvam-tvam aharyathah thou didst ever 
rejoice ; yad-yad yami whatever I ask ; tat- tad . . dadhe he 
always bestows that. 3 

d. Numerals : panca-panca five each time ; sapta-sapta 
(tredha three times) seven in each case (= 2 1). 4 

e. Adverbs: 5 yatha-yatha as in each case-, adyadya 
svah-svah on each to-day, on each to-morrow. 

f. Prepositions : the four which are found used thus are 
upa, para, pra, sam ; e. g. pra-pra . . sasyate it is ever 

g. The only example of a verbal form occurring as an 
iterative is piba-piba drink, drink. 6 Otherwise a repeated 
verb is treated independently ; e. g. stuhi stuhi praise, praise. 

1 dhar-divi day after day, is a kind of mixed iterative. 

2 For divi-divi and visi-visi, owing to the influence of the frequent 
loc. in e from a stems. 

3 In the SB. such words are repeated with va : yavad va yavad va 
and yatame" va yatame va. 

4 Such iteratives led to the formation of regular compounds in B. : 
<ka-ekah (AV.) : ekaikah (&B.) ; dva-dva (RV.): dvan-dvam (MS.) 
in twos, dvan-dv& pair (B.). 

6 In a few instances repeated adverbs are not treated as compounds, 
both words being accented : nu. mi now, now ; ibe'lid, (AV.) here, here, 
but always ihe"ha in KV: 

6 In the SB. also occurs yajasva-yajasva. 



190. Having in the preceding parts of the present 
grammar dealt with single words in their phonetic, their 
derivative, and their inflexional aspects, we now turn to 
their treatment in syntax, which regards their arrangement 
and mutual meaning when they are combined to form a 
sentence, which is the expression of a connected and definite 
unit of thought. The parts of which the sentence may 
consist are either inflected words : the noun (substantive 
and adjective) and the verb, the participle which shares the 
nature of both, and the pronoun ; or uninflected words : 
prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions. A comparison of 
the syntax of the RV. with that of classical Sanskrit shows 
(1) that the use of the middle voice, the tenses, the moods, 
the inflected participles, the infinitives, and the genuine 
prepositions is much fuller and more living in the former, 
while (2) that of the passive voice and of indeclinable par- 
ticiples is much less developed, that of absolute cases and of 
adverbial prepositions with case-endings is only incipient, 
and that of periphrastic verbal forms is non-existent. The 
later Samhitas and the Brahmanas exhibit a gradual transition 
by restriction or loss in the former group and by growth in 
the latter to the condition of things prevailing in classical 

The Order of Words. 

191. Since metrical considerations largely interfere with 
the ordinary position of words in the Samhitas, the normal 
order is best represented by the prose of the Brahmanas, 


and as it there appears is, moreover, doubtless the original 

The general rule is that the subject begins the sentence 
and the verb ends it, the remaining members coming 

a. The subject begins the sentence ; e. g. v.isah ksatriya- 
ya balim haranti the peasants pay tribute to the prince (SB.). 
It may, however, be preceded by a particle like uta or 
occasionally by any other member of the sentence intended 
to be strongly emphasized ; e. g. prayajair vai devah 
svargam lokam ay an by means of the Praydjas the gods went 
to the heavenly world (SB.). 

I). The verb occasionally moves to the beginning of the 
sentence when it is strongly emphasized ; e. g. yanti va apa, 
6ty aditya, 6ti candrama, yanti naksatrani the waters 
move, the sun moves, the moon moves, the stars move (SB.). 
A predicative noun with the copula (which may be omitted) 
"being equivalent to a verb, naturally occupies the same 
position ; e. g. sarve ha vai deva agre sadrsa asuh all the 
gods in the beginning ivere similar (SB.) ; mitro vai sivo 
devanam Mitra, indeed, is the kindly one among the gods (TS.). 
Nevertheless the predicative noun, being emphatic, is as a 
rule the first word in the sentence ; e. g. martya ha va agre 
deva asuh the gods were originally mortals (SB.) ; piiruso vai 
yajnah the sacrifice (is) a man (SB.). 

c. As regards the cases, the ace. is placed immediately 
before the verb ; e.g. chandamsi yuktani deve~bhyo yajnam 
yahanti the metres, when they are yoked, take the sacrifice to 
the gods (&B.). Adverbs and indeclinable participles occupy 
a similar position. Occasionally such words move to the 
beginning ; e. g. divi vai soma asid, atha^iha devah in 
heaven was Soma, but here the gods (SB.). 

d. The apposition, including patronymics and participles, 
follows the word which it explains or defines ; e. g. somo 
raja Soma, the King. A participle, in its proper sense, if 

191] ORDER OF WORDS 285 

emphatic may be placed at the beginning ; e. g. svapantam 
vai diksitam raksamsi jighamsanti it is when he sleeps that 
the Eaksases seek to slay the initiated man (TS.). 

e. The attribute, whether adjective or genitive, precedes 
its substantive ; e. g. hiranyayena rathena with golden car 
(i. 35 2 ) ; devanam hota the priest of the gods. Only when 
adjectives are used in apposition, especially as epithets of 
the gods, do they follow ; e. g. mitraya satyaya to Mitra, 
the true (TS.). Also adjectives designating the colours of 
certain animals, especially horses and cows, are found after 
the subst. The subst. belonging to a gen. is placed before 
the latter only when it is emphatic. 

/ The preposition belonging to a verb precedes it, always 
in B., generally in V., where, however, it also sometimes 
follows ; e. g. jayema sam yudhi spMhah. we would conquer 
our foes in battle (i. 8 3 ). The preposition as a rule imme- 
diately precedes the verb, but is often also separated from it 
by one or more words ; e. g. a sayakam maghava^adatta 
the Bounteous One seized his missile (i. 82 3 ) ; apa tamah 
papmanam hate she drives away darkness and sin (TS.). 
When a compound verb is emphatic, the preposition alone 
as a rule moves to the front occupying the position that the 
simple verb would occupy ; e. g. pra prajaya jayeya I ivould 
increase with progeny (TS.). 

When used with substantives the genuine prepositions as 
a rule follow their case, while the prepositional adverbs 
precede it. The reason of this doubtless is that the former 
supplement the sense of the case, while the latter modify 
the sense much more emphatically. 

(j. Multiplicative adverbs precede their genitive ; e. g. 
trih samvatsarasya three times a year. 

h. Enclitics cannot, of course, begin a sentence. If they 
belong to a particular word they follow it ; otherwise they 
tend to occupy the second position in the sentence. The 
enclitic particles that follow the word with which they are 


most closely connected are ca, va, iva, cid ; kam is 
restricted to following nii, sii, hi in V., and sma to follow- 
ing ha in B. The other unaccented particles, u, gha, 
ha, svid, which refer to the statement of the whole 
sentence, occupy the second (or third) position in the 

L Even accented particles for the most part cannot 
begin a sentence. They either follow the word they em- 
phasize in any position in the sentence : a, eva, kam ; or 
they occupy the second position in the sentence, as empha- 
sizing the whole statement : anga, aha, id, kila, khalu, tu, 
nii, vai, hi. 

The only particles that can begin the sentence are atha, 
api, uta ; also na if it negatives the whole sentence, but if 
it negatives the verb only, it follows that. 

j. Forms of the pronoun ta tend in B. to occupy the first 
position, especially sa when it anticipates a proper name in 
dialogues, or tad as an ace. when famous authorities are 
quoted ; e. g. sa hovaca gargyah (SB.) Gargya spoke (as 
follows) ; tad u hovaca^asurih with regard to this Asuri 
said (SB.). The order is similar when atha or api are used : 
api hovaca yajnavalkyah. (SB.). 

Jt. In relative and interrogative sentences there is nothing 
peculiar except that, as these two classes of words tend to 
begin the sentence, cases of them come to occupy the first 
position which in ordinary sentences do not occupy it ; e. g. 
kim hi sa tair grhaih kuryat what indeed should he do with 
this house? (SB.). 

a. The last position in the sentence is exceptionally occupied in the 
following ways : 1. very often by final datives as a supplement to 
the sentence ; e. g. tdt pasun eva" w asmai pdri dadati guptyai thus 
lie hands the cattle over to Mm for protection (SB.) ; 2. by the subject either 
when it is the name of an authority quoted or when it is equivalent 
to a relative clause; e. g. sa" ha^uvaca gargyah so said Gargya ; aindr&m 
cariam nir vapet pasukamah one (who is) desirous of cattle should assign 
a pap for Indra (TS.). 

192-193] ORDER OF WORDS 287 

192. There is neither an indefinite nor a definite article 
in the Vedic language. Their meaning is inherent in the 
substantive much as personal pronouns are in forms of 
the definite verb. Whether the one or the other is meant 
is made sufficiently clear by the context ; e. g. agnim lie 
purohitam I praise Agni the domestic priest (i. I 1 ); agnim 
manye pitaram Agni I deem a father (x. 7 3 ). In B. the 
anaphoric use of ta is sometimes very nearly equivalent to 
the definite article (cp. 195 B 36, p. 294). 


193. 1. Singular words with a plural or a collective sense 
are always treated strictly as singulars, being never con- 
strued with a plural form of the verb (cp. 194). 

2. The dual number is in regular use and, generally 
speaking, in strict application. But in certain parts of the 
RV. the plural is often used instead of the dual of natural 
pairs ; sometimes also otherwise ; e. g. sam anjantu visve 
devah, sam apo hrdayani nau let all the gods, let the waters 
unite the hearts of us two (x. 85 47 ). 

a. A m. or f. du. is sometimes used to express a male and 
female of the same class ; e. g. pitara = father and mother 
matara = mother and father. This type of the dual has its 
widest application in naming pairs of deities by means of 
one of them and is equivalent to dual compounds containing 
both names ; e. g. dyava heaven and earth (= dyava-prthivi) ; 
usasa Dawn and Night ( = usasa-nakta) ; mitra Mitra and 
Varuna (= mitra- varuna). Sometimes the other member 
of the pair is added in the N. sing. ; e. g. mitra tana na 
rathya varuno yds ca sukratuh Mitra (and Varuna) and 
the very wise Varuna, like two constant charioteers (viii. 25 2 ). 

3. a. The plural is sometimes used (analogously to the 
dual) so as to include the other two of a group of three; 
e. g. dyavah the (three) heavens heaven, air, and earth 

288 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [193-104 

prtkivih the (three) earths = earth, air, and heaven.* This 
inclusive plural is also found with the names of the two 
other members of the group added in the N. sing. ; thus 
abhi samrajo varuno grnanty, abhi mitraso aryama 
sajdsah. to it the universal sovereigns Varuna, to it the Mitras 
(= Mitra, Varuna, AryHman), and Aryaman, accordant, sing 
(til 38 4 ). 

6. The 1. pers. pi. is sometimes loosely used instead of 
the sing, or du. ; thus Yama in his dialogue with Yaml says 
na yat pura cakrma kad dha nunam rta vadanto anrtam 
rapema how pray can ive, what we have never done before, 
speaJdng of righteous things now talk of tvhat is unrighteous ? 
(x. 10 4 ). The plur. of personal pronouns is also occasionally 
used in a similar way ; thus in the dialogue of Yama and 
Yarn! (x. 10 4 ) nas alternates with the correct nau : sa no 
nabhih, paramam jami tan nau that is our bond of union, 
tfiat our highest kinship. This occasional looseness is probably 
due to the situation for the moment being regarded more 
generally so as to include others ; we would then mean I and 
those present, we ttvo and others in like circumstances. In B. 
the use of the pi. for the sing, of the first pers. of the 
personal pronoun is not infrequent both when the pronoun 
is expressed and when it is latent in the verb ; e. g. sa ha w 
uvaca : namo vayam brahmisthaya kurmah he replied : 
we (= I) slioiv reverence to the most learned man (SB.) ; varam 
bhavate gautamaya dadmah we (= /, Jaivali) offer a boon 
to his Honour Gautama (SB.). 


194. The rules of concord in case, person, gender, and 
number are in general the same as in other inflexional 

J To this use is probably due the conception of the three heavens 
and three earths in Vedic cosmology. 

194] CONCORD 289 

A. 1. To the rule that the verb agrees with its sub- 
stantive in person and number the exceptions are very rare. 
Thus the sing, of the word tva many, having a pi. sense, 
appears once with a pi. verb : jay an u tvo juhvati many a 
one sacrifices for victories (MS.). On the other hand, there 
are a few examples in the EV. of a neut. pi. taking a verb 
in the sing. ; e. g. dhrsnave dhiyate dhana to the bold man 
booty accrues (i. 81 3 ). 

2. a. When two sing, subjects have one verb, the latter in 
most cases is in the dual ; e. g. indras ca yad yuyudhate 
ahis c&.tvhen Indra and the dragon fought (i. 32 13 ) ; urjam 
no dyaus ca prthivi ca pinvatam may heaven and earth 
increase our strength (vi. 70) ; indras ca somam pibatam 
brhaspate do ye two, Indra and (thou), Brhaspati, drink Soma 
(iv. 50 10 ). 

When one only of two subjects is expressed, the other 
having to be supplied , the verb is also in the dual ; e. g. 
a yad indras ca dadvahe when (I) and Indra receive 
(viii. 34 l ) ; brhaspate yuvam indras ca vasvo divyasya^ 
isathe Brhaspati, ye two, (thou) and Indra, dispose of 
heavenly ivealth (vii. 97 10 ). In B. this usage seems to be 
found only when the verb is in the third person ; e. g. 
prajapatih praja asrjata : ta brhaspatis ca^anvavaitam 
Prajapati created beings: (he) and Brhaspati followed them (TS.). 

a. In a minority of cases two sing, subjects take a sing, verb when 
they are equivalent in sense to a dn. compound ; e. g. tok&m ca t&sya 
tdnayam ca vardhate his offspring and family prosper (ii. 25 2 ). 

/3. In B. when two sing, subjects are connected by ca the verb is 
in the du. ; but if a contrast is intended, in the sing. ; e.g. t&sya 
dhata ca w aryama ca^ajayetam from her Dhatr and Atyaman were born 
(MS.) ; but prthivya vai me'dhyam ca^amedhydm ca vyud akramat 
from the earth there issued on the one hand the pure and on the other the 
impure (MS.). 

I). When there are more than two subjects the verb is not 

necessarily in the pi., but may agree with only one of them. 

1. If each of the subjects is sing, the verb is sing. ; e. g. 

1819 U 


mitras tan no varuno rodasi ca dyiibhaktam indro 
aryama dadatu let Mitra, Varuna, Rodasi, Indra and 
Aryaman give us this divine wealth (vii. 40 2 ). 

2. If the subjects are of different numbers the verb may 
agree with either one or the other ; e. g. avad indram 
yamiina trtsavas ca Yamuna and the Trtsus helped Indra 
(vii. 18 19 ) ; indro vidur angirasas ca Indra and the Ahgirases 
know it (x. 108 10 ). 

The du. and pi. take the du. or the pi. ; e. g. girayas ca 
drlha dyava ca bhuma tujete the firm mountains and heaven 
and earth trembled (i. 6 1 14 ) ; dyava ca yatra pipayann aha 
ca where heaven and earth and the days have given abundance 
(vii. 65 2 ). 

a. In B. a sing, and a du. subject take a verb in the sing, or pi. ; 
e. g. vyamamatr&u paks&u ca piicham ca bhavati loth the wings and 
the tail are a fathom in length (TS.) ; tav asvinau ca s&rasvati ca^,apam 
phen&m v&jram asincan the Asvins and Sarasvatt moulded the foam of the 
tcaters into a bolt (SB.) ; a sing, and a pi. take the verb in the pi. ; e. g. 
devas ca v&i yamds ca^asmin loke 'spardhanta the gods and Yama 
fought for (the possession of) this world (TS.). 

j8. In B. anyo 'ny^, one another takes the verb in the sing., du., or 
pi. according as one. two, or several agents are intended ; e. g. 
tabhyah. s& nfr rchad yo nah prathamo *nyo 'nyfi,smai druhyat of these 
he shall be deprived ivho first of us may cheat another (TS.) ; ne"d anyo 'nydm 
hina'satah lest they injure each other (oB.) ; tani srstany anyo 'nye"na o 
aspardhanta being created they fought with one another (SB.). 

3. When two or more subjects of different persons take a 
verb in the du. or pi. the first person is preferred to the 
second or third, the second to the third ; e. g. aham ca 
tvam ca sam yujyava land thou will unite together (viii. 62 11 ) ; 
tarn yuyam vayam ca^asyama may you and we obtain him 
(ix. 98 12 ). Occasionally, however, the third person is pre- 
ferred to the first ; e. g. ami ca y6 maghavano vayam ca 
miham na suro ati nis tatanyuh may these patrons and we 
pierce through as the sun the mist (i. 141 13 ). 

B. 1. An attributive adjective agrees with its substantive 
in gender, number, and case. The exceptions are few 

194] CONCORD 291 

and unimportant, being chiefly due to the exigencies of 

a. The cardinals from five to nineteen, being adjectives, show some 
peculiarities of concord : in the oblique cases they appear in V. not 
only in their inflected form, but often also the uninflected form of 
the nom. and ace. ; e. g. saptdbhih putr&ih and sapta" hotrbhih, 
pancdsu j&nesu and p&nca krstisu. In B. only the inflected forms 
are used. 

b. The cardinals from 20 upwards being substantives in form may 
govern a G. ; e.g. sastim dsvanam sixty horses, sata"m gdnam a hundred 
kine, sah&srani gavam thousands of kine. They are, however, generally 
treated like adjectives ; but being collectives they take sing, endings 
in concord with pi. cases ; e. g. trims&d devah thirty gods, trimsa'tam 
yojanani thirty yojanas (ace.), trimsata haribhih with thirty bays, tra- 
yastrimsato devanam of thirty gods (AB.). s"ata"m hundred and saha"sram 
thousand are used as the nom. ace. form in agreement with plurals ; 
e. g. satain piirah a hundred forts, saha'sram h&rayah a thousand bays, 
sahasram pasun a thousand beasts (TS.) ; they also appear in the same 
sense in the plural ; e. g. sata purah a hundred forts, sah&srany a"dhi- 
rathani a thousand toagon loads (x. 98 9 ). sat&m and sahasram are also 
found (but not in B.) with an inst. pi., as sata"m purbhfh icith a 
hundred forts beside satena h^ribhih with a hundred bays, sahdsram rsibhih 
with a thousand seers. The noun accompanying sahdsra occasionally 
appears by a kind of attraction in the sing. : sunas cic che'pam 
m'ditam sahdsrad yupad amuncah thou didst deliver unahtepa, who was 
bound, from a thousand posts (v. 2 7 ) : this use does not seem to occur 
in B. 

2. A predicative adjective used with as or bhu (often to 
be supplied) agrees in gender and number with its subject. 

a. The nom. of Isvar& capable used thus in B. is equivalent to 
a verb = be able. The concord here is in the majority of cases normal ; 
e.g. isvaro va a"svo 'yato 'pratisthitah param parava"tam g&ntoh 
a horse if unbridled and unobstructed can go to an extreme distance (TS.) ; 
sa^enam isvara praddhah she can burn him (TS.) ; Isvara"u va eta"u 
nirddhah both of them can burn (&B. ) ; tany enam Isvarani pratiniidah 
they can drive him away (MS.). Sometimes, however, the concord of 
either number or gender, or of both, is neglected ; e. g. t&m Isvardm 
r&ksamsi hdntoh the demons can kill him (TS.) ; ta"sya w isvar&h praja 
papiyasi bhdvitoh his offspring can degenerate (^B.) ; Isvar6 ha^eta 
d,nagnicitam samtaptoh these (f. pi.) are liable to weigh heavily upon one 
who has not built a fire altar (SB.). In the last two examples quoted 

U 2 

292 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [194-195 

and in others the maso. sing, has become stereotyped as a nom. of all 
genders and numbers. 

6. The use of a predicative adjective referring to two or more 
substantives differing in gender is very rare ; it then seems to agree 
in gender with the subst. nearest it, or the masc. seems to have been 
preferred to the neut. ; e. g. traya vfii n&irrta aksah striyah svdpnab 
(MS.) dice, women, and sleep (are) the treble pernicious (things) ; eva by 
asya kamya stoma ukth&m ca sdmsya thus indeed his two favourites, 
stoma and uktha, are to be recited (i. 8 10 ). A predicative adj. dependent 
on kr agrees with its subst. ; if there are two, the du. is used ; e. g. 
ddivim ca vav w asma etdd viSam maiiusim ca w &nuvartmanau karoti 
so he makes the divine and the human folk obedient to him (MS.). 

3. As in Greek and Latin, a demonstrative pronoun 
agrees with a predicative noun in gender and number ; e. g. 
ye tusah. sa tvak what (are) the husks (that =) those (are) the 
skin (AB.); yad asm samksaritam asit tani vayamsi^ 
abhavan what was the concentrated tear (those =) that became 
the birds (SB.). 


195. A. Personal, a. Owing to its highly inflexional 
character the Vedic language, like Latin and Greek, uses 
the nominatives of personal pronouns far less frequently 
than modern European languages do. Being al ready inherent 
in the first and second persons of the finite verb such 
pronouns are expressed separately only when they require 

b. The unaccented forms of aham and tvam (109 a) being 
enclitic, can be used neither at the beginning of a sentence 
or metrical line (Pada), nor after vocatives, nor before em- 
phasizing, conjunctive or disjunctive particles. 

c. Bhavan Your Honour, the polite form of tvam, which 
first comes into use in B., properly takes a verb in the 
3. sing. But being practically equivalent to a personal 
pronoun of the 2. pers., it occasionally appears with a verb 
in that person ; e. g. iti vava kila no bhavan pura w 

195] PRONOUNS 293 

anusistan avocah (SB.) in this sense then you have formerly 
spoken of (us = ) me as instructed (cp. 194, 1). 

B. Demonstrative. 1. ayam this (here) is a deictic 
pronoun used adjectivally of what is in the neighbourhood, 
presence, or possession of the speaker, and may often be 
translated by here ; e.g. ayam ta emi tanva purastat here 
I come with my body before thee (viii. 100 1 ) ; iyam matir 
mama this my hymn ; ayam vatah the wind here (on earth) ; 
ayam janah the people here (vii. 55 5 ) ; idam bhuvanam this 
tvorld ; ayam agnih Agni here (present). In the RV. ayam is 
sometimes used even with div heaven and aditya sun as if 
they were included in the environment of the speaker. 

2. Opposed to ayam is asau that (there), applied to objects 
remote from the speaker, as heaven and its phenomena, 
immortals, persons who are not present or are at a distance ; 
e. g. ami y deva sthana trisii^a rocane" divah. ye, gods, 
who are there, in the three bright realms of heaven (i. 105 5 ) ; 
ami ca ye" maghavano vayam ca those (absent) patrons and- 
ive (i. 141 13 ) ; asau ya si virakah you who go there, a 
mannikin (viii. 9 1 2 ). 

a. In B. the usage is similar, only the contrast is more definite : 
it is typical in referring to the earth (iyam) and the heavenly world 
(as&u), and in the phrases yd 'yam pdvate he who blows here ( = Wind), 
and yo *sa"u tapati he who burns there ( =Sun), and asav adity&h the sun 
there. In B. as&u is besides used in a formulaic way ( = so and so) 
when the actual name is to be substituted ; e. g. asa"u nama^aya'm 
id&mrupah he here, having this form, is so and so by name (SB.). In 
addressing a person the voc. form a"sau is also used thus : ydtha va 
ida"m namagraham &sa asa iti"yati as one here ( = in ordinary life) 
by way of mentioning the name calls : i you there, you there ' (MS.). 

3. ta, like asau, can be translated by that, but in a different 
sense. It is not like asau essentially deictic and local, nor 
does it imply a contrast (that there as opposed to this here) ;. 
but it refers to something already known either as just 
mentioned or as generally familiar. 

a. A very frequent application of this meaning is its 


reference as a correlative to what is made known by an 
antecedent relative clause ; e. g. yam yajnam paribhur asi, 
sa id dev6su gachati the sacrifice that thou encompassest, that 
certainly goes to the gods (i. I 4 ). Often, however, an ante- 
cedent clause is lacking and must be mentally supplied in 
some such form as wliom we have in mind. Then ta is 
equivalent to the ivell Imoivn. This use conies out most 
clearly in the first verse of a hymn ; e. g. sa pratnatha 
sahasa jayamanah, sadyah kavyani bal adhatta visva 
(i. 96 1 ) lie (who is in our thoughts, the famous Agni) being 
engendered in the ancient way with strength, lo ! has straightivay 
assumed all wisdom ; ta vam visvasya gopa yajase (viii. 25 1 ) 
you two famous guardians of the universe I ivorship. 

b. ta has a very frequent anaphoric use, referring back 
to a noun or a pronoun of the third or second person (in B. 
also of the first), and may then be translated by as such, so ; 
e. g. tvam vajasya sriityasya raj asi : sa no mrla thou 
rulest over glorious spoil : as such le gracious to us (i. 36' 2 ) ; 
sa tatha^ity abravit : sa vai vo varam vrna iti she said, 
yes : I as such (= in the proposed circumstances) will choose 
a boon of you (AB.). This usage is a prominent and some- 
what monotonous feature of the narrative style in B. ; e. g. 
prajapates trayastrmsad duhitara asan, tah s6maya 
rajne 'dadat, tasam r6hinim lipait, ta irsyantlh piinar 
agachan Prajapati had thirty daughters ; he gave them to King 
Soma ; of them he visited Eohim (only) ; they (the others), 
being jealous, went back (TS.). When this ta is widely 
separated from the antecedent noun to which it refers 
(sometimes only indirectly) it may be translated by the 
definite article ; thus the opening of the story of Urvasl : 
urvasi ha^apsarah pururavasam aidam cakame an 
Apsaras Urva& loved Pururavas, the son of Ida is some 
sentences later referred to with : tad dha ta apsarasa 
atayo bhutva pari pupluvire then the Apsarases swam about 
in the form of ivater birds (SB.). 

195] PKONOUNS 295 

a. In its anaphoric use t& is frequently followed by personal pronouns 
of all persons (regularly in their enclitic form when they have one) ; 
e. g. tdm ma s&m srja varcasa unite me as such with glory (i. 23 23 ), mam 
yajnad antar agata : sa vo 'Mm eva" yajn&m amumuham ye have excluded 
me from the sacrifice ; so I have thrown your sacrifice into confusion (S"B.) ; 
havfsmanto vidhema te : sa" tv&m no adya" sum&na iha" w avita bhaVa 
bringing oblations we would serve thee : so do thou be for us to-day a benevolent 
Ldper (i. 36 2 ) ; ydi tva w etdt punar brdvatah, sa tv&m brutat (&B.) 
if they (two} shall say this to you again, then do you say (to them) ; asya" 
pitva ghano vrtranam abhavas . . . t&m tva vajayamah having drunk 
of this thou becamest a slayer of Vrtras : so we strengthen thee (i. 4). Similarly 
used are : sing. A. tarn tvam (here exceptionally not enclitic), 
D. t&smai te, G. t&sya te, t&syas te ; du. ta vam ; pi. A. tan vas, 
G. tesam vas. 

0. Four demonstrative pronouns are found following ta in this 
way : ida"m, adds, t& itself, and oftenest of all et&d ; e. g. sa^iy&m 
asme sanaja pitrya dhih this here is among us an ancient hymn of our 
forefather's (iii. 39 2 ) ; t&sya valo ny asaiaji : tdm amum vato dhunoti 
its tail hangs down: that the wind tosses to and fro (SB.) ; tarn ha w eva 
na^&ti dadaha : tam ha sma tarn pura brahmana nsl taranti that 
(river) he (Agni) did not burn across : that same one the Brdhmans used not 
formerly to cross (SB.), bhavaty asya w anucaro ya evam veda : sa va 
esa ekatithih, sa esa juhvatsu vasati he who knows this has a follower ; 
that (follower) is this one guest this same (follower, the Sun) abides 
among the sacrificers (AB.). 

7. The N. sing, sa" is sometimes used adverbially in B. (see 180, 
p. 249). 

4. eta this is used like ta but is more emphatic. It refers 
to something known to the listener as present either to his 
senses or his thoughts. 

a. The correlative use of eta seems to be limited to B., 
the relative clause here usually following; e.g. patho va 
esa praiti, yo yajne muhyati he diverges from the path who 
goes ivrong in the sacrifice (AB.). It is somewhat peculiar 
when the relative in the neuter sing, and without a verb is 
added solely for the purpose of emphasizing a particular 
word ; e. g. svargam va etena lokam upapra yanti yat 
prayaniy ah. people go to the heavenly world with that which (is) 
the preliminary sacrifice (AB.). In these circumstances eta 
when alone always agrees in gender with the noun in the 


relative clause ; but when it is accompanied by a substantive, 
with the latter ; e. g. pasavo va ete yad apah water is 
equivalent to cattle (AB.). In this usage yad often loses its 
inflexional character to such an extent that it becomes like 
an explanatory particle (= that is to say), the substantive 
that follows it agreeing in case with that which precedes ; 
e.g. etair atra^ubhayair artho bhavati yad devais ca 
brahmanais ca there is need here of both, that is, of the gods 
and the Brahmans (SB.). 

The use of eta without an antecedent, parallel to that of 
ta, is common both in V. and B. ; e. g. eso usa vy iichati 
this Dawn (whom we see before us) has shone forth (i. 46') ; 
t6 ha^asura asuyanta iva^ucur: yavad evaisa visnur 
abhis6te tavad vo dadma iti the Asuras said somewhat 
displeased : as much as this Visnu (here present) covers lying 
down, so much we give you (SB.) ; yuvam etam cakrathuh plavam ye tivo have made that boat (present to our 
thought) in the ocean (i. 182 5 ) ; t6na w etam uttaram girim 
ati dudrava therewith he passed over that (well known) 
northern mountain (SB.) ; ta et6 may6 asrjanta suparmm 
ca kadrum ca they created these tivo (well-known) miraculous 
beings, Suparnl and Kadru (SB.). In the last example ete 
requires the addition of the two following names to supple- 
ment its sense. 

a. Somewhat similarly this pronoun is sometimes followed in B. 
by words or a sentence explaining it ; e. g. sa etabhir dev&tabhih 
sayug bhutva marudbhir visa^agnma w dnikena w upaplayata he, united 
roith these deities, the Maruts as the fighting folk and Agni as the head, 
approached (MS.) ; sd ha^,etad evd dadarsa i^anasandtaya vdi ma 
prajah. parii bhavanti^iti he saw this : in consequence of hunger my 
creatures are perishing (SB.). 

&. In its anaphoric use eta expresses identity with that 
to which it refers back, more emphatically than ta does ; 
e. g. apeta vita vi ca sarpata^ato : asma etam pitaro 
lokam akran go away, disperse, depart from hence : this place 

193] PRONOUNS 297 

(on which you have been standing) the fathers have pre- 
pared for him (x. 14) ; in the final verse the expression esa 
stoma indra tiibhyam (i. 173 ] ) this praise is for thee, OIndra, 
refers to the whole preceding hymn ; tad ubhayam sam- 
bhrtya mrdam ca^apas ca^istakam akurvams : tasmad 
etad ubhayam istaka bhavati mrc ca^apas ca having 
brought both those together, clay and water, they made the brick : 
therefore a brick consists of both these, clay and water (SB.). 

5. tya occurs only in the sense of that (well known) ; e. g. 
kva tyani nau sakhya babhuvuh what has become of those 
friendships of us two ? (vii. 88 5 ). It often follows forms of 
the demonstrative pronouns eta and idam ; e. g. et6 tye 
bhanava usasa aguh here those (familiar) beams of Dawn 
have come (vii. 75 3 ) ; imam u tyam atharvavad agnim 
manthanti they, like Atharvan, rub forth that (famous) Agni 
here (vi. 15 17 ). The neuter tyad is sometimes used after the 
relative ya, and often after. the particle ha, in an adverbial 
sense ; e. g. yasya tyac chambaram made divodasaya 
randhayah in the exhilaration of which (Soma) thou didst at 
that time subject Sambara to Divodasa (vi. 43 l ). 

6. The pronoun a that in its substantive sense (= he, she, 
it, they), when it is unaccented, not infrequently appears as 
an unemphatic correlative (while the accented form is a 
deictic adjective) ; e. g. yasya devair asado barhir agne, 
ahani asmai sudina bhavanti on whose litter thou, Agni, 
hast sat down, fair days arise for him (vii. II 2 ) ; ya vam 
satam niyiitah sacante, abhir yatam arvak the hundred 
teams that accompany you, with them do ye two come hither 
(vii. 91); nakir esam nindita martyesu, y6 asmakam 
pitaro gosu yodhah there is among mortals no reproacher of 
them ivho, (being) our fathers, were fighters for cows (iii. 39 4 ). 



196. The nominative, as in other languages, is mainly 
used as the subject of a sentence. 

a. A second nominative is employed as a predicate 
with certain verbs beside the subject, that is, with verbs 
meaning be, become, seem or be accounted, think oneself; e. g. 
tvam hi ratnadha asi for thou art a bestower of treasure 
(i. 15 3 ) ; sivasah. santo asiva abhuvan being friendly they 
have become unfriendly (v. 12 5 ) ; 6kavimsatih sam padyante 
they become twenty -one (TS.); 1 gokama me achadayan they 
seemed to me desirous of cows (x. 108 10 ) ; rsih ko vipra ohate 
ivho counts as a seer, as a singer ? (viii. 3 14 j ; apratir manya- 
manah thinking himself irresistible (v. 32 3 ) ; s6mam manyate 
papivan he believes he has drunk Soma (x. 85 3 ) ; parabhavis- 
yanto manamahe we think we are about to perish (TS.). 

a. In B. the predicative nom. also appears with verbs meaning tu 
call oneself (bru, vac, vad in the middle) ; e. g. fndro brahmano 
bruvan&h Indra calling himself a Brahman (TB.) ; h&ntavoeathah thoit 
hast described thyself as a slayer (TS.). 

. With verbs of naming the predicative ace. may also be expressed 
in B. by the nom. with iti ; e. g. rasabha iti hy etdm fsayo 'vadan 
for the seers called him l ass' (TS.). 

b. With passive verbs the predicative nom. takes the 
place of the ace. object of the active verb ; e. g. tvam . . 
ucyase pita thou art called a father (i. 31 14 ). 

c. Instead of the predicative nom. the voc. is sometimes 
used ; e. g. yuyam hi stha, sudanavah for ye are liberal 
(i. 15 2 ) ; abhtir 6ko, rayipate raymam thou alone hast been 

1 In B. the phrase rupdm kr to assume a form, because it is equiva- 
lent to bhu become, takes a predicative nom. ; e. g. visnu rup&m krtva 
assuming the form of Visnu (TS.). 

196-197] ACCUSATIVE CASE 299 

the lord of riches (vi. 3 1 1 ) ; gautama bruvana tkou who callest 
thyself Gautama (SB.). (Cp. 180 under na, 2 a.) 

a. Since apparently two vocatives cannot be connected with ca, the 
nom. often appears instead of the first or the second vocative ; e. g. 
vayav indras ca cetathah Vayu and Indra, ye know (i. 2 5 ) ; indras ca 
somam pibatam brhaspate Indra and Brhaspati, drink the Soma(iv. 50 10 ). 
Cp. 180 under ca, 1 a, I. 


197. A. This case is usually employed in connexion 
with verbs in various ways. Besides its ordinary use of 
denoting the object of transitive verbs, the ace. is employed 
to express : 

1. the goal with verbs of motion, chiefly gam, also i, 
much less often ya, car, and sr and some others. The ace. 
may be a person, a place, an activity or a condition ; e. g. 
yamam ha yajno gachati to Yama goes the sacrifice (x. 14 13 ) ; 
devam id esi pathibhih sugdbhih to the gods thou goest by 
paths easy to traverse (i. 162 2V ) ; indram stomas caranti 
to Indra fare the songs of praise (x. 47 7 ) ; saraj jaro na 
yosanain he sped like a lover to a maiden (ix. 101 14 ) ; ma tvat 
ks^trany aranani ganma may we not go from thee to strange 
fields (vi. 61 u ) ; sabham eti kitavah the gambler goes to the 
assembly (x. 34) ; jaritur gachatho havam ye two go to the call 
of the singer (viii. 35 13 ) ; tava kratubhir amrtatvam ayan ~by 
thy mental powers they (went to =) attained immortality (vi. 7 4 ). 

a. The usage in B. is similar ; e. g. pra^apatih praja asrjata, la 
vdrunam agachan Prajdpati created creatures ; they went to Varuna (TS.) ; 
s& n^, divam apatat he did not fly to heaven (SB.); sriyara gacheyam 
may I (go to =) attain prosperity (SB.). 

2. duration of time (in origin only a special form of the 
cognate ace.) ; e. g. satam jiva sarado vardhamanah live 
prospering a hundred autumns (x. 161 4 ) ; so asvatth6 sam- 
vatsaram atisthat he remained in the Asvattha tree for a year 


(TB.) ; tasmat sarvan rtun varsati therefore it rains during 
all the seasons (TS.) ; samvatsaratamim ratrim a gachatat 
(SB.) for the night a year hence thou shalt come (to me). 

3. extension of distance (in origin only a special form 
of the cognate ace.), a use rare in both V. and B. ; e. g. yad 
asubhih patasi yojana puru when with the swift ones thou 
fliest many leagues (ii. 16 :! ) ; sa bhumim visvato vrtva^aty 
atisthad dasangulam lie covering the earth on all sides 
extended beyond (it) a distance of ten fingers (x. 90 1 ) ; sapta- 
dasa pravyadhan ajim dhavanti they run a race (a distance 
of) seventeen arrow-flights (TB.). 

4. the cognate object of intransitive verbs, which may 
be allied to the latter etymologically or only in sense; e. g. 
samanam anji^anjate they deck themselves with like adorn- 
ment (vii. 57 3 ) ; yad agne yasi dutyam when, Agni, thou 
yoest on a message (i. 12 4 ); tvaya^adhyaksena prtana 
jayema with thee as witness tve would conquer in battles 
(x. 128 1 ) ; tasmad raja samgramam jitva^udajam lid ajate 
tlierefore a king, having won a battle, chooses booty for himself 
(MS.) ; tisr6 ratrir vratam caret he should perform a fast for 
three nights (TS.). 

a. Verbs meaning to stream or to shine in V. take a cognate ace. with 
a concrete sense ; e. g. rtdsya jihva pavate mddhu the tongue of the rite 
(Soma) streams mead (ix. 75 2 ), t&sma apo ghrt&m arsanti for him the 
waters stream ghee (i. 125 5 ), vf ydt suryo nd rocate brhdd bh&h when, 
like the sun, he beams forth lofty light (vii. 8 4 ). 

5. an adverbial sense. Adverbs of this form all originated 
in various uses of the ace. which have acquired an indepen- 
dent character. They are formed from : 

a. substantives ; e. g. naktam by night (not during the 
night like the ace. of time) ; kamam at will (still rare in the 
BV.), e.g. kamam tad dhota samsed yad dhotrakah 
purvedyuh samseyuh the Hotr may, as he likes, recite tvhat 
the assistants of the Hotr may recite the day before (AB.) ; 
nama by name ; e.g. mam dhur indram nama devata 

197] ACCUSATIVE 301 

(x. 49 2 ) me they have placed as Indra % name (or verily) among 
the gods. 

b. various kinds of adjectives. They have an attributive 
origin when they express the senses of quickly or slowly 
(ksipram, ciram), much or greatly (bahu, balavat), ivell or 
badly, boldly (dhrsnii), or direction (as nyak downward, &c.) ; 
e. g. balavad vati it blows hard (SB.) ; bhadram jivantah 
living happily (x. 37 6 ). 

a. The ace. adverbs from ordinals seem to have been appositional 
in origin ; e. g. tan va etan sampatan visvamitrah prathamam 
apasyat (AB.) these same Sampdta hymns Visvamitra invented first ( = as the 
first thing). 

/3. Several ace. adverbs are from comparatives and superlatives in 
tara and tama formed from prepositions and adverbs ; e. g. draghiya 
ayuh pratardm d&dhanah obtaining longer life furthermore (i. 53 U ). 
A good many such have a fern. ace. form in later use, but there is only 
one found in the RV. : samtaram padukdu hara put your two little feet 
closer together (viii. 33 19 ). 

7. A special class is formed by adverbs in vat expressing that. an 
action takes place like that performed by the noun preceding the 
suffix ; e. g. tvadutaso manuvd vadema (ii. 10 6 ) having thee as our 
messenger we, would speak like men ( = as men should speak : properly some- 
thing that belongs to wen). 

8. Another class of ace. adverbs is formed from various adjectival 
compounds. A number of these are formed with the privative particle 
a, being of the nature of cognate accusatives ; e. g. devas ch&ndobhir 
imal lokan anapajayydm abhy djayan the gods (unconquerably =) 
irrevocably conquered these icorlds by means of the metres (TS.). 

e. Another group comparatively rare in V., but very common in 
B., are those formed from prepositionally governing adjectival com- 
pounds ; e. g. anukamdm tarpayetham satisfy yourselves according to 
desire (i. 17 3 ), adhidevatdm with reference to the deity (SB.). Probably 
following the analogy of some of these were formed others in which 
the first member of the compound is not a preposition, but an adverb 
derived from the relative y& ; e. g. yatha-kam&m nf padyate she turns 
in according to her desire (x. 146 5 ), yavaj-jlv&m (as long as =}for life (!B.). 
Some other adverbial compounds are used like gerunds in am ; e.g. 
stuka-sargam srsta bhavati it is plaited like a braid of hair (&B.). 

197. B. The ace. is largely used with verbal nouns. 
Besides being governed by all participles, active and middle. 


and by genuine infinitives, in V. it is used with agent 
nouns formed from the root or other verbal stems by means 
of about ten primary suffixes. Such nouns are made from 
the simple root (when compounded with a preposition), and 
with the suffixes a (when the stem is compounded with a 
preposition), ani (from the aor. or desid. stem), i (generally 
from the reduplicated root), lyas and istha (comparatives 
and superlatives), u (from desiderative stems), uka (very 
rare in V.) ; tar (when the root is accented), van (when com- 
pounded), snu (from causative stems) ; and a few with the 
secondary suffix in. Examples of the ace. with such agent 
nouns are : devams tvam paribhur asi thou encompassest 
the gods (v. 13); drlha cid arujah breaking even what is 
firm (iii. 45 2 ) ; tvam no visva abhimatih saksanih thou 
overcomest all our adversaries (viii. 24 2G ) ; satam puro ruruk- 
sanih. ready to destroy a hundred forts (ix. 48 2 ) ; indra ha 
ratnam vamna dh^stha Indra and Varuna bestow treasure 
most abundantly (iv. 4 1 3 ) ; vatsams ca ghatuko vrkah (AV. 
xii. 4 7 ) and the ^volf slays the calves ; data radhamsi sum- 
bhati giving riehes he shines (i. 22 8 ) ; prataryavano adhvaram 
coming early to the sacrifice (i. 44 13 ) ; sthira cin namayis- 
navah. ye who desire to bend even wJiat is rigid (viii. 20 1 ) ; 
kami hi virah sadam asya pitim for the hero always desires 
a draught of it (ii, 14 1 ). 

a. Some adjectives formed with anc from prepositions governing 
the ace. are also used with that case. Such are praty&nc facing, 
anv&nc following ; e. g. pratyaim us&sam urviya vi bhati facing the 
Dawn (the fire) shines forth far and wide (v. 28 l ), tasmad anuci patnl 
garhapatyam aste hence the wife sits behind the Gdrhapatya fire (AB.). 
The ace. is found even with samydnc united ; e. g. osadhir ev& w enam 
samydncam dadhati he puts him into contact ivith the plants (MS.) ; but 
this adj. also takes the inst., the natural case with a compound 
of sam. 

. In B. the only nouns taking the ace. seem to be the des. adjec- 
tives in u and the ordinary adjectives in uka (which are very 
common) and those in in ; e. g. papmanam apajighamsuh wishing 
to drive away sin (AB.), sarpa enam ghatukah syuh the snakes might bite 

197-198] ACCUSATIVE 303 

him (MS.) ; aprativady eiiam bhratrvyo bhavati his enemy does not 
contradict him (PB.). 

c. The ace. is governed by more prepositions than any 
other case. The genuine prepositions with which it is 
exclusively connected in both V. and B. are ati beyond, ami 
after, abhi towards, prati against, tiras across; and in V. 
only acha towards. It is also taken secondarily by others 
which primarily govern other cases (cp. 176. 1. 2). The ace. 
is further taken exclusively by the ad nominal prepositions 
antara between, abhitas around, upari above, sanitur apart 
from ; and secondarily by some others (cp. 177. 1-3). 

a. The preposition vina without, except, which first occurs in B. (and 
there has only been noted once), takes the ace. ; and rte" without, 
which in the RV. governs the abl. only, in B. begins to take the ace. 
also (as it often does in post-Vedic Sanskrit). 

/3. In B. a number of adverbs (inst. of adjectives and substantives 
or formed with tas from pronouns expressive of some relation in 
space) take the ace. ; such are dgrena in front of, totarena ivithin, 
between, uttarena north of, daksinena to the right or the south of, parena 
beyond ubhaya-tas on both sides of. 

7. In B. the ace. is taken by two interjections. One of them, e"d 
lo ! behold ! (cp. Lat. en), is always preceded by a verb of motion, 
which, however, has sometimes to be supplied ; e. g. e"yaya vayiir : 
e"d dhat&m vrtram Vdyu came (to see) : behold, Vrtra (was) dead (&B.) ; 
punar 6ma iti deva : d agnim tirobhutam 'we are coming back', said 
the gods', (they came back, and) behold! Agni (had) disappeared! (SB.). 
The other interjection dhik fie /, used with the ace. of the person 
only, is still very rare in B. ; e. g. dhik tva jalma^astu fie on you, 
rogue! (KB.). 

Double Accusative. 

198. A second ace. appears in apposition with various 
verbs; e.g. purusam ha vai deva agre pasum a lebhire 
the gods in the beginning sacrificed a man as a victim (SB.). 
It is further used : 

1. predicatively with verbs of saying (bru, vac), thinking 
(man), knowing (vid), hearing (sru), making (kr), ordaining 
(vi-dha), choosing (vr), appointing (ni-dha) in both V. 


and B. ; e. g. svanam basto bodhayitaram abravit the 
he-goat said (that) the dog (was) the wakener (i. 161 13 ) ; yad 
anyo 'nyam papam avadan that the one called the other 
wicked (SB.) ; agnim manye pitaram Agni I think a father 
(x. 7 3 ) ; marisyantam c6d yajamanam many eta if lie thinks 
the sacrificer (is) going to die (SB.) ; ciram tan mene he thought 
that too long (SB.) ; vidma hi tva puruvasum we know thee 
(to be) possessed of much wealth (i. 8 1 8 ) ; na vai hatam vrtram 
vidma na jivam we know not (whether) Vrtra (is) dead nor 
(whether he is) alive (SB.) ; revantam hi tva srnomi I hear 
(about) thee (that thou art) rich (viii. 2 11 ) ; srnvanty enam 
agnim cikyanam (TS.) they hear (about) him having piled the 
fire (altar) ; asman su jigyiisah krdhi make us thoroughly 
victorious (viii. 80 G ) ; t6sam pusanam adhipam akarot he 
made Pusan their lord (MS.) ; tasma ahutir yajnam vy 
adadhuh they made (= ordained) the oblations (to be) the 
sacrifice for him (MS.) ; agnim hotaram pra vrne I choose 
Agni priest (iii. 19 1 ) ; ni tvam agne manur dadhe jyotir 
janaya sasvate Manu has appointed thee, Agni, as a light 
for every man (i. 86 19 j. 

2. to express the person as a direct object beside the 
thing with verbs of addressing (vac), asking (prach), begging 
(yac), approaching with prayer (I, ya), milking (dun), shaking 
(dhu), sacrificing to (yaj), doing to (kr) ; e. g. agnim maham 
avocama suvrktim to Agni we have addressed a great hymn 
(x. 80 7 ) ; prchami tva param antam prthivyah I ask thee 
about the farthest limit of the earth (i. 164 34 ) ; yajnavalkyam 
dvau prasnau praksyami / will ask Yajnavalkya two questions 
(SB.) ; ap6 yacami bhesajam I leg healing from the waters 
(x. 9 5 ) ; tad agnihotry agnim yacet that the Agnihotr should 
beg of Agni (MS.); vasuni dasmam imahe we approach, the 
wondrous one for riches (i. 42 10 ) ; tat tva yami I approach 
thee for this (i. 24 11 ) ; duhanty udhar divyani they milk 
celestial gifts from the udder (i. 64 5 ) ; imam eva sarvan 
kaman duhe from her he (milks =) obtains all desires (SB.) ; 


vrksam phalam dhunuhi shake down fruit from the tree 
(iii. 45 4 ) ; yaja devam rtam brhat sacrifice to the gods the 
lofty rite (i. 75 5 ) ; kim ma karann abala asya s6nah ivhat 
can his feeble hosts do to me ? (v. 3(T). 

a. Of the above verbs vac, i and ya, dhu, yaj and kr do not seem 
to be found with two ace. in B. ; on the other hand a-gam approach, 
dha milk, ji win, jya wrest from are so used there ; e. g. agnir v&i 
varunam brahmac&ryam a gachat Agni (approached = ) asked Varuna for 
the position of a religious student (MS.) ; imal lokan adhayad yam- yam 
kamam akamayata/row these worlds he extracted whatever he desired (AB.) ; 
devan &sura yajndm ajayan the Asuras won the sacrifice from the gods 
(MS.) ; indro marutah. sahasram ajinat Indra wrested a thousand from 
the Maruts (PB.). 

3. to express the agent l with causative verbs beside the 
ace. which would be taken by the simple verb also ; e. g. 
usan devam usatah payaya havih eager thyself cause the 
eager gods to drink the libation (ii. 37) ; ta yajamanam 
vacayati he makes the sacrificer name them (TS.). With 
verbs of motion the other ace. expresses the goal (which is, 
however, never a person) 2 ; e. g. param eva paravatam 
sapatnim gamayamasi to the extreme distance we cause the 
rival wife to go (x. 145 4 ) ; yajamanam suvargam lokam 
gamayati he causes the sacrificer to reach the celestial 
ivorld (TS.). 

a. In B. the agent is frequently put in the inst. instead of the ace. 
with various causatives, especially that of grab seize ; e. g. ta v&ru- 
nena^agrahayat (MS.) he caused Varuna to seize them ( = he caused them 
to be seized by Varuna). 

&. In B. a second ace. expresses the goal (with ni lead} or duration 
of time beside the ace. of the object ; e.g. ev&m eva\_,enam kurm&h 
suvarg&m lok&m nayati thus the tortoise leads him to the celestial world 
(TS.), tisro ratrir vrat&m caret he should observe a fast for three nights 

1 Which would be expressed by the nom. with the simple verb ; 
e. g. deva havih pibanti the gods drink the libation. 

2 When the goal is a person it is expressed by the loc. or a loc. 
adverb ; e. g. agnav agnim gamayet he icould send Agni to Agni (SB.) ; 
devatra\_,evd enad gamayati he sends it to the gods (SB.). 



199. A. The fundamental sense of this case is con- 
comitance, which may variously be rendered by with, ~by, 
through, according as it expresses accompaniment, instru- 
mentality or agency, causality, motion through space or 
duration of time. 

1. In its sociative sense the instrumental expresses the 
companion or accompaniment of the subject in any activity ; 
e. g. dev6 dev^bhir a gam at may the god come with the gods 
(i. I 6 ) ; indrena yuja nir apam aubjo arnavam with Indra 
as thy companion thou didst release the flood of waters (ii. 23 18 ) ; 
indro no radhasa^a gamat may Indra come to us with wealth 
(iv. 55 10 ). 

o. Similarly in B. : agnir vasubhir ud akramat Indra departed with 
the Vasus (AB.) ; yna m&ntrena juhdti t&d yajuh the spell to the accom- 
paniment of which he offers the oblation is the Yajus (&B.); tad asya 
sahasa w aditsanta they tried to take it from him by force (TS.). 

2. In its instrumental sense it expresses the means 
(person or thing) by which an action is accomplished ; e. g. 
vayam indrena sanuyama vajam we would win booty through 
Indra (i. 101 11 ) ; ahan vrtram indro vajrena Indra smote 
Vrtra with his lolt (i. 32 5 ). 

a. Similarly in B. : k6na vlr^na by whom as champion (&B.) ; Slrsna 
btjam haranti they carry corn (ivith =) on the head (SB.); t&smad 
daksinena hd,stena^,dnnam adyate therefore food is eaten ivith the right 
hand (MS.). 

3. In its causal sense it expresses the reason or motive 
of an action = ~by reason of, on account of, for the sake of-, 
e. g. somasya pitya ... a gatam come hither for the sake of 
the Soma draught (i. 46 13 ) ; asatrur janusa sanad asi thou 
art by thy nature without foes from of old (i. 102 8 ). 

. Similarly in B. : s^, bhisa ni lilye he concealed himself through fear 
(&B.). ; so namna by name. 

4. In its local sense of through or over it is used with 


verbs of motion to express the space through or over which 
an action extends ; e. g. diva yanti maruto bhumya^agnir 
ayam vato antariksena yati the Maruts go along Hie sJcy, 
Agni over tlie earth, the Wind here goes through the air (i. 161 14 ) ; 
antarikse pathibhih patantam flying along the paths in the 
air (x. 87). 

a. In B. the inst. is constantly used in the local sense with words 
meaning path or door, but rarely with others ; e. g. y&tha w ksetrajno 
'nye"na patha n&yet as if one who does not know the district were to lead ly a 
wrong road (SB.) ; s&rasvatya yanti fhey go along the Scirasvafl (TS.). 

5. In its temporal sense the inst. expresses the time 
throughout which an action extends ; e. g. purvibhir dadas- 
ima saradbhih we have worshipped throughout many autumns 
(L 86 6 ). Sometimes, however, the sense of duration is not 
apparent, the inst. being then used like the loc. of time ; 
thus rtuna and rtiibhih mean in due season. 

a. In B. the temporal meaning is rare ; e.g. sa va isumatr&m evahna 
tirydnh avardhata he grew in the course of a day quite an arrow's length in 
width (MS.). 

6. Many instrumentals (chiefly of the sociative and local 
classes) have come to be used in a purely adverbial sense. 
Such are formed from either substantives or adjectives (of 
which sometimes no other form occurs) ; e. g. anjasa straight- 
way, mahobhih mightily, sahasa and sahobhis suddenly ; 
antarena within, littarena to the north ; uccais above, nicais 
below, paracais sideways, pr&c&is forwards, sanais and sanais, 

a. In a number of these instrumentals the adverbial use is indicated, 
not only by the sense, but by a shift of accent ; e. g. diva by day ; dak- 
sina to the right ; madhya between ; naktaya by night ; svapnaya in a 
dream ; aksnaya across (B.) ; anomalously formed from u stems : asuya 
quickly, dhrsnuya boldly, raghuya swiftly, sadhuya straightivay, mithuya 
falsely (mithya SB.), anusthuya immediately (anusthya B.); and from a 
pronoun, amuya in that way. 

199. B. Besides having the above general and indepen- 
dent uses the inst. also appears, in special connexion with 



different classes of words by which it may be said to be 
' governed ' : 

1. with verbs expressing : 

a. association or contention with ; in RV. : yat marshal, 
yad combine, yuj join (mid.), sac accompany ; yudh fight, 
sprdh strive, has race, krid^/a/; in B. : yudh fight, vi-ji 
contend victoriously (with). 

b. separation from (compounds with vi) ; in RV. : vi-yu 
dissever from, vi-vrt turn away from, vy-a-vrt separate (intr.) 
from ; in B. : vy-a-vrt id., vi-rdh be deprived of, vi-stha be 
removed from, visvann i go away from = lose. 

c. enjoyment ; in RV. : kan find pleasure in, mad be 
exhilarated with, uc be fond of, tus be satisfied with, mah 
delight in, hrs rejoice in, bhuj enjoy ; in B. : trp be pleased 
with, nand be glad of, bhuj enjoy. 

d. repletion ; in RV. : pr fill (ace.) with, 1 pi swell with ; 
in B. : cans, of pr : piiraya fill, pass, piirya be filled with. 

e. purchase for (a price) ; in V. : vi-kri bargain away for ; 
in B. : nis-kri ransom for. 

f. adoration or sacrifice (the victim or object offered). With 
yaj sacrifice to the deity is in the ace. in both V. and B. ; 
in B. the sacrificial date also is put in the (cognate) ace. ; 
e. g. amavasyam yajate he celebrates the feast of new moon. 

g. procedure : the verb car in both V. and B. ; e. g. 
adhenva carati mayaya he acts with barren craft (x. 71 fi ) ; 
upamsu vaca carati he proceeds in a low tone with his voice 

h. ability to do : the verb kr in both V. and B. ; e. g. kim 
rca karisyati what will he do with a hymn ? (i. 164 39 ) ; kim 
sa tair grhaih kuryat what could he do with that house? 
(SB.). In B. the phrase artho bhavati there is business with 
there is need o/(Lat. opus est aliqua re) is similarly used : 

1 Sometimes also with the gen.: the past part. pass, purnfi, with the 
gen. full of, but with the inst. filled with. 


e. g. yarhi vava vo mayartho bhavita // you (gen.) shall 
have need of me (AB.). 

. dominion: only (in V.) the verb patya be lord o/(lit. 
by means of) ; e. g. visvair viryaih patyamanah 
Indra who is lord of all heroic powers (iii. 54 15 ). 

j. subsistence : only (in B.) the verb jiv live on, subsist by ; 
e. g. yaya manusya jivanti (the cow) on which men subsist 

a. With passive forms of the verb (including participles) the inst. 
expresses either the means (as with the active verb) or the agent (the 
nom. of the active verb) ; e. g. ghrt6na^,agnih sam ajyate Agni is 
anointed ivith ghee (x. 118 4 ) ; usa uchlnti ribhyate vasisthaih Usas when 
she dawns is praised ly the Vasisthas (vii. 76 7 ). Similarly, in B. : prajapa- 
tina srjyante they are created by Prajapati (MS.) ; patrair annani adyate 
food is eaten with the aid of dishes (MS.). 

0. Nominal forms connected with the verb, when they have a passive 
sense, as gerundives and infinitives, take the same construction ; e. g. 
nfbhir havyah to be invoked by men (vii. 22 7 ) ; ripuna na^avacakse not to 
be observed by the enemy (iv. 58 5 ) . 

2. with nouns : 

a. substantives and adjectives (especially those com- 
pounded with sa-) expressive of association or equality ; e. g. 
nasunvata sakhyam vasti surah the hero desires not friend- 
ship with him who does not press Soma (x. 42 4 ) ; asi samo 
devaih thou art equal to the gods (vi. 48 l!) ) ; indro vai sadrn 
devatabhir asit Indra was equal to the (other) deities (TS.) ; 
ajyena misrah mixed with butter (SB.). 

b. other adjectives, to express that by which the quality 
in question is produced ; e. g. liso vajena vajini Dawn 
rich in booty (iii. 61 J ) ; bahuh prajaya bhavisyasi thou wilt 
be rich in offspring (SB.). 

c. numerals accompanied by na, to express deficiency ; 
e. g. ekaya na vimsatih not twenty by (lack of) one = 

o. with prepositions : genuine prepositions are virtually 
not used with the instrumental. The only exceptions in 

310 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [199-200 

the RV. are the employment of atihi with the inst. of snii 
height ; of lipa in three passages with dyiibhis and dharma- 
bhis ; and possibly of sam -with in a few passages with the 
inst. But prepositional adverbs are found thus used ; in 
the KV. only avas beloiv and paras above ; and in both V. 
and B. saha and sakam iviih. Cp. 177, 2. 


200. The dative expresses the notion with which an 
action is concerned. It is either connected with individual 
words or is used more generally as a complement to the 
whole statement. 

A. Dative in a special sense with : 

1. verbs (mostly as affecting persons) having the sense of 
a. give ; in V. B. da give, yam extend, dha bestoiv, bhaj 
apportion ; e. g. dadhati ratnam vidhat^ he bestows treasure 
on the worshipper (iv. 12 3 ) ; in V. also many other verbs 
expressing a modification of the sense of giving : dis assign, 
ava-duh milk down on, f>r bestow fully, pro bestow abundantly, 
rnamh give liberally, ma measure out, ra procure (for), ni-yu 
bestow permanently, vid find (for), san obtain (for), su set in 
motion (for), srj shed (for), and others. 

&. sacrifice ; in V. a-yaj offer to (while yaj takes the ace.) ; 
and in V. B. kr when = maJce an offering to ; in B. a-labh 
(catch and tie up = ) offer ; e. g. agnibhyah pasun a labhate 
he sacrifices the animals to the Agnis (TS.). 

c. say = announce, explain (but with ace. of person if = 
address) : in V. B. ah, bru, vac, vad (in B. also a-caks) ; in 
V. also arc and ga sing to, stu utter praise to, gir, rap, 
sams praise anything (ace.) to. In B. also : ni-hnu apologize 
to -, e. g. tad u devebhyo ni hnute thereby lie craves pardon of 
the gods (SB.). 

d. hear : in RV. a few times sru = listen to ; also ram 
linger for = listen to. 

200] DATIVE 311 

c. lelicve, have confidence in : srad dha ; e. g. srad asmai 
dhatta believe in him (ii. 12 5 ) ; in B. also slagh trust in. 

f. help, be gracious to, pay homage to : in V. sak aid, sidh 
avail; sam-nam be complaisant to; dasasya pay honour to, 
saparya do anything (ace.) in honour of (a god) ; das, vidh, 
sac pay homage to (a god), sam serve (a god) ; in V. and B. : 
mrd be gracious to. 

g. bring : ni, bhr, vah, hi, hr ; e. g. ama sat6 vahasi 
bhuri vamam for him ivho is at home thou bringest much 
ivealth (i. 124 12 ) ; dev^bhyo havyam vahanti they take the 
oblation to the gods (TS.) ; tarn harami pitryajnaya devam 
that god I bring to the sacrifice for the Manes (x. 16 10 ) ; visah. 
ksatriyaya balim haranti the peasants bring the taxes to the 
nobility (SB.). In V. only there are many other verbs, with 
this general sense, that take the dative, such as r, inv, cud 
set in motion for, and figurative expressions such as abhi-ksar 
stream to, di and sue shine on, prus sprinkle on, abhi-va 
waft to : in V. also the verb i go is used with the dat. ; e. g. 
pra visnave susam etu manma let my strong hymn go forth 
in honour of Visnu (i. 154 3 ). 

h. please : svad be sweet to and chand be pleasing to ; e. g. 
svadasva^indraya pitaye be sweet to Indra as a draught 
(ix. 74) ; uto tad asmai madhv ic cachadyat and may that 
mead be pleasing to him (x. 73). 

i. succeed : in B. rdh and kip ; e. g. na ha^eva^asmai tat 
sam anrdhe he did not succeed in that (SB.) ; kalpate 'smai 
he succeeds (TS.). 

j. subject to : radh ; e. g. asmabhyam vrtra randhi subject 
our foes to us (iv. 22). 

k. yield to-, radh succumb f nam and ni-ha bow before, 
stha obey, mrad and ksam (B.) yield to, a-vrase fall a victim 
to ; e. g. m6 aham dvisat^ radham may I not succumb to 
my enemy (i. 50 13 ) ; tasthuh savaya te they obey thy command 
(iv. 54 5 ). 

1. be angry wiih : in V. hr (hrnite) ; in V. and B. : asuya 


and krudh; in B. also aratiya be hostile and gla l>e 
averse to. 

m. seek to injure : in V. and B. druh ; e. g. yad dudr6hitha 
striyai pums6 ivhat mischief thou hast done to woman or man 


n. cast at : V. srj discharge ; V. B. as thtmv ; B. pra-hr 
hurl at; e.g. srjad asta didyum asmai the archer shot a 
lightning shaft at him (i. 71 5 ) ; tasmai tarn isum asyati he 
shoots the arrow at him (MS.) ; vajram bhratrvyaya pra 
harati he hurls the bolt at the foe (TS.). 

o. exist or be intended for, accrue to : as be, bhu become ; 
e.g. gambhire" cid bhavati gadham asmai even in deep 
water there is a ford for him (vi. 24 8 ) ; indra tubhyam id 
abhuma we have become thine own, Indra (TS.) ; atha ko 
mahyam bhago bhavisyati then ivhat share will accrue to 
me (SB.). 

a. The dative is used with gerundives and infinitives to express the 
agent, and with the latter also the object by attraction instead of the 
ace. ; e. g. yah stotfbhyo haVyo asti who is to be invoked by singers (i. 33 2 ) ; 
vi srayantam pray&i deve"bhyah let (the doors) open wide for the gods to 
enter (i. 142 6 ); indram arkair avardhayann dhaye hantava u they 
strengthened Indra with hymns to slay the serpent (v. 31 4 ). 

2. The dative is used with a certain number of sub- 

a. Such are words that invoke blessings, especially namas 
homage (with the verbs kr do or as be, which are often to be 
supplied) ; e. g. namo mahadbhyah. homage to the great 
(i. 27 13 ) ; namo 'stu brahmisthaya adoration to the greatest 
Brahman (SB.). Similarly used are the sacrificial formulas 
svaha, svadha, vasat hail ! blessing ! e. g. t^bhyah svaha 
blessing on them (AY.). 

a. The indeclinables sam in V. and kam in B. meaning welfare are 
used as nom. or ace. with the dat. ; e. g. ydtha sam dsad dvipade 
catuspade in order that there may be welfare for biped and quadruped 
(i. 114 1 ) ; ahutayo hy agnaye kdm/or the oblations are a joy to Agni (SB.) ; 
na^asma d-kam bhavati it does not fare ill with him (TS.). 

200] v DATIVE 318 

. In V. the substantives kama desire and gatii path may perhaps be 
regarded as taking a dative without a verb to be supplied ; e.g. krnva- 
naso amrtatvaya gatum procuring for themselves a path to immortality 
(i. 72 9 ). 

7. In the name D&syave vfkah WolJtotheDasyu (RV.) the dat. is to be 
explained as due to its use in the sentence he is a very wolf to the Dasyu. 

3. The dative is used with adjectives meaning dear, kind, 
agreeable, beneficial, ivilling, obedient, ill-disposed, hostile ; e. g. 
siva sakhibhya uta mahyam asit she was kind to friends 
and also to me (x. 34 2 ) ; atithis carur ayave a guest dear to 
man (ii. 2 8 ) ; yad vava jiv^bhyo hitam tat pitrbhyah ivhat 
is good for the living is good for the Manes (SB.) ; sa ratamana 
vrascanaya bhavati (SB.) he is ready for felling (the tree) ; 
pratyudyaminim ha ksatraya visam kuryat lie would 
make the peasantry hostile to the nobility (SB.). 

a. The adj. anagas sinless often seems to take the dative of the name 
of a deity, but it is somewhat uncertain whether the case should not 
be connected with the verb ; e.'g. anagaso aditaye syama may we be 

sinless (to =) in the eyes of Aditi (i. 24 15 ) may perhaps mean may we, a,s 
sinless, belong to Aditi. 

4. The dative is used with a few adverbs. 

a. aram often takes the dat. ; e. g. ye dram vahanti 
manyave who drive in accordance with (thy) seal (vi. 16 43 ). 
This use of aram is common in combination with the verbs 
kr, gam, and bhu. When used with the dat. dram is not 
infrequently equivalent to an adj. ; e. g. sasma aram lie is 
ready for him (ii. 18 2 ) ; ayam somo astu aram manase 
yuvabhyam let this Soma be agreeable to your heart (i. 108 2 ). 
In B. alam appears in the place of dram and is often 
similarly used ; e. g. nalam ahutya asa, nalam bhaksaya 
lie was not suitable for sacrifice, nor suitable for food (SB.). 

&. The adverb avis visibly is used with the dat. in V. and 
B., but only when accompanied by the verbs kr, bhu or as 
(the latter sometimes to be supplied) ; e. g. avir ebhyo 
abhavat suryahi the sun appeared tO f them (i. 146 4 ) ; tasmai va 
avir asama we mil appear to him (SB.). 


B. The dative also in a general sense complements the 
statement of the whole sentence. 

1. It expresses the person for whose advantage or 
disadvantage the action of the sentence takes place ; e. g. 
devan devayate yaja worship the gods for the benefit of the 
pious man (i. 15 12 ) ; tasma etam vajram akurvan for him 
they made this bolt (SB.) ; tasma upakrtaya niyoktaram na 
vividuh (AB.) for him ivhen he had been brought near they could 
find no binder (i.e. they could find no one willing to bind him). 

2. It expresses the purpose for which an action is done 
(final dative) ; e. g. urdhvas tistha na utaye stand up for 
our help = in order to help us (i. 30 6 ) ; na susvim indro avase 
mrdhati Indra will not leave the pious man in the lurch for 
help (vi. 23 9 ) ; svargaya lokaya visniikramah kramyante 
the Visnu steps are taken for the sake of (= in order to gain) 
heaven (TS.) ; agnim hotraya pravrnata they chose Agnifor 
the priesthood = in order that he should be priest (SB.). The 
final sense is commonly expressed by abstract substantives 
(including in V. many infinitives) ; e. g. adhi sriy6 duhita 
suryasya ratham tasthau the daughter of the sun has mounted 
the car for beauty = so as to produce a beautiful effect (vi. 63 5 ) ; 
t^na^eva^enam sam srjati santyai ivith him (Mitra) he unites 
him (Agni)/or appeasement (TS.). 

a. This final dat. is particularly used with as and bhu ; 
e. g. asti hi sma maday a vah. there is (something) for your 
intoxication, i. e. to intoxicate you (i. 37 15 ) ; madaya somah 
(sc. &,sti)*Soma (is for = ) produces intoxication (SB.). 

3. The dative is used, though rarely, in expressions 
of time like the English for ; e. g. nunam na indra^ 
aparaya ca syah now and for the future mayst thou be ours, 
Indra (vi. 33 5 ) ; samvatsaraya sam amyate for a year an 
alliance is made (MS.). 

a. The iterative compound dive-dive day by day, though apparently 
dat. of div, is probably in reality meant for the loc. of the transfer 
stem div&. 

200-201] DATIVE 315 

4. Two datives connected in sense often appear together. 
This occurs in V. when an ace. is attracted by a dative 
infinitive ; e. g. vrtraya hantave = vrtram hantave to slay 
Vrtra (cp. 200. A. 1 o a). 

a. There is an analogous use in B M where, however, an abstract 
substantive takes the place of the infinitive; e.g. y&tha^iddm paru- 
bhyani avanejanaya^ah&ranty evam just as they bring it for washing the 
hands (SB.). Two datives are here often found with the verb stha, one 
expressing the purpose, the other the person affected by the action ; 
e.g. devebhyah pasavo 'nnadyayalambaya na^atisthanta the animals 
did not present themselves to the gods for food, for sacrifice (AB.). 

5. The adverbial use of the dative is very rare : kamaya 
and arthaya for the sake of may be regarded as such ; 
kamacarasya kamaya for the sake of unrestrained motion 
(SB.) ; asmakarthaya jajnise thou hast been lorn for our 
sake (AV.). 


201. The ablative, expressing the starting-point from 
which the action of the verb proceeds, may as a rule be 
translated by from. It is chiefly connected with various 
classes of words, but is also used independently. 
A. In its dependent use the ablative appears with : 
1. verbs a. expressing a local action, as go, proceed, drive, 
lead, take, receive ; pour, drink ; call, loosen, ward off, exclude ; 
e. g. lyiir gavo na yavasad agopah they went like unherded 
kine from the pasture (vii. 18 10 ) ; vrtrasya svasathad isa- 
manah fleeing from the snorting of Vrtra (viii. 96 7 ) ; asatah. 
sad ajayata/rom non-leing arose being (x. 72 3 ) ; abhrad iva 
pra stanayanti vrstayah. from the cloud as it were thunder the 
rains (x. 75 :} ) ; tvarn dasyuinr okasa ajah thou drovest the 
enemies from the house (vii. 5 G ) ; bhujyiim sanmdrad uha- 
thuh ye two have borne Blmjyu from the sea (vi. 62 6 ) ; daso 
hiranyapindan divodasad asanisam ten lumps of gold I 


have received from Divodasa (vi. 47 23 ) : apad dhotrad uta 
potrad amatta he has drunk from the Hotfs vessel and has 
intoxicated himself from the Potr's vessel (ii. 37 4 ) ; maruto yad 
vo divah. havamahe Maruts, when tve call you from heaven 
(viii. 7 11 ) ; siinas cic ch6pam yupad amuncah. thou didst 
release Sunahsepa from the post (v. 2 7 ) ; yuyutam asmad 
aniram amivam ivard off from us sickness and calamity 
(vii. 71 2 ). 

a. Examples from B. are : yad dhaved annadyad dhavet if he were to 
run, he mould run away from his food (TS.); s& rathat papata he fell from 
his car (&B.) ; div6 vrstir irte rain comes from the sky (TS.) ; rsayab. kavasam 
ailusam somad anayan the seers led Kavasa Ailiisa away from Soma, i.e. 
excluded him from it (AB.) ; enan asmal lokad anudanta they drove them 
away from this world (AB.) ; tasmad anasa evd grhniyat therefore he should 
take it from the cart (&B. ) ; kesavat purusat sisena parisriitam krinati 
he buys the Parisrut from a long-haired man for lead (SB.) ; s& eva w eiiam 
varunapasan muncati he releases him from the fetter of Varuna (TS.); , 
suvargal lokad yajamano hiyeta the sacrificer would fall short of heaven 
(TS.). The two verbs antar dha hide and m-li conceal' oneself sire used 
with the abl. in B. only : vajrena^enam suvargal lokad antar dadhyat 
he would exclude him from heaven with the bolt (TS.); agnir dev^bhyo ni- 
layata Agni concealed himself from the gods (TS.). 

1). expressing rescue, protect ; fear, dislike ; transcend, prefer : 
verbs with the latter two senses as well as urusya protect, 
raks guard, and rej tremble take this construction in V. only ; 
pa and tra protect and bhi fear in both V. and B. ; gopaya 
protect, bibhatsa be disgusted with in B. only ; e. g. amhaso 
no mitra urusyet may Mitra rescue us from distress (iv. 55 5 ) ; 
sa nas trasate duritat he shall protect us from misfortune 
(i. 128 5 ) ; indrasya vajrad abibhet she was afraid oflndra's 
bolt (x. 138 6 ) ; pra sindhubhyo ririce, pra ksitibhyah he 
reaches beyond rivers and beyond lands (x. 89 11 ) ; somat sutad 
indro avrnlta vasisthan Indra preferred the Vasisthas to 
(Pasadyumna's) pressed Soma (vii. 33 2 ). 

a. With bhi two ablatives are found, the one being the 
object feared, the other the action proceeding from it ; e. g. 
indrasya vajrad abibhed abhisnathah she was afraid of 

201] ABLATIVE 317 

Indra' s bolt, of its crushing (x. 138"), i. e. that it would crush 
her; asuraraksas6bhya asangad bibhayam cakmh. they 
were afraid of the Asuras and Raksasas, of their attachment = 
that they would attach themselves to them (SB.). 

2. substantives when derived from, or equivalent to, 
verbs used with the ablative ; e. g. sarma no yamsan triva- 
rutham amhasah. they shall grant us thrice-protecting shelter 
from distress (x. 66 5 ) ; upa chayam iva ghrner aganma 
sarma te vayam we have entered thy shelter like shade (that 
protects) from heat (vi. 16 38 ) ; raksobhyo vai tarn bhisa 
vacam ayachan they restrained their speech from fear of the 
demons (SB.). 

3. adjectives : in V. and B. comparatives and adjectives 
of cognate sense, when it means than e. g. ghrtat svadiyah. 
sweeter than butter (viii. 24 20 ) ; visvasmad indra tittarah. 
Indra is greater than every one (x. 86 1 ) ; jatany avarany asmat 
born later than he (viii. 96) ; purva visvasmad bhuvanad 
abodhi she has awakened earlier than every being (i. 123 2 ) ; 
papiyan asvad gardabhah the ass is worse than the horse 
(TS.) ; brahma hi purvam ksatrat the priesthood is superior 
to the warrior class (PB.) ; anyo va ay am asmad bhavati 
he becomes other than we (AB.). 

a. In B. several local and temporal adjectives : arvacina below, 
urdhv& above, jihm& aslant ; arvauc before, paranc after; e.g. y&t kim 
ca^,arvacinam adityat whatever is below the sun (SB.); etdsmac catvalad 
urdhvah svargam lokam upod akraman upward from that pit they 
ascended to heaven (&B.) ; yajnaj jihma iyuh they (would go obliquely 
from =) lose the sacrifice (AB.); dasa va etasmad arvancas trivrto, dasa 
parancah ten Trivrts occur before it and ten after it (AB.). 

6. iu B. adjectives in uka, which with bhu are equivalent to 
a verb ; e. g. yajamanat pasavo 'nutkramuka bhavanti the animals are 
not inclined to run away from the sacrificer (AB.). 

c. in B. numerals, both ordinals and cardinals : with the former 
the abl. expresses the point from which the reckoning is made ; 
e.g. Tsvaro ha^asmad dvitiyo va trtiyo va brahmanatam abhyupaitoh 
the second or third (in descent)/rom him can obtain Brahminhood (AB.) ; with 
the latter it expresses the figure by which the complete number is 
defective ; e. g. 6kan na satam not a hundred by one = ninety-nine. 

318 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [201-202 

Analogously with words meaning incomplete the abl. expresses the 
amount of the deficiency ; e. g. elcasmad aksdrad &naptam (a verso) 
incomplete by one syllable (TS.); tesam alpakad eva^agnir asamcita asa 
their fire (altar) ivas not completely piled up by a little only, i.e. was almost 
completely piled up (5B.\ 

4. adverbs meaning before, beyond, outside, belotv, far from, 
without are used prepositionally with the abl. Those 
occurring in V. only are : adhas below, avas down from, are* 
without, puras before ; in V. and B. : rte" without, tiras apart 
from, paras outside, pura before ; in B. only : abhyardhas 
far from-, bahis outside. Cp. 177, 3. 

a. In B. some other adverbs with a local or temporal 
sense ; e. g, duram ha va asman mrtyiir bhavati death is 
far from him (SB.) ; tasman madhyamac chankor daksina 
pan cadasa vikraman pra kramati he strides forward fifteen 
steps to the right of this middle peg (SB.) ; prag ghomat before 
(making) the oblation (AB.). 

B. The abl. is used independently of any particular class 
of word to express the reason of an action in the sense of 
on account of-, e. g. ma nas tasmad 6naso deva ririsah 
let us suffer no harm, god, on account of this sin (vii. 89 r ') ; 
anrtad vai tah praja varuno 'grhnat by reason of their guilt 
Varuna seised creatures (MS.). Similarly in B. : tasmad 
therefore ; kasmat wherefore ? 


202. The genitive is a dependent case, being in its main 
uses connected with verbs and substantives, but also appear- 
ing with adjectives and adverbs. 

A. With verbs the gen. has a sense analogous to that of 
the ace., but differs here from the latter in expressing that 
the action affects the object not as a whole, but only in part. 
It is used with verbs having the following senses: 

a. rule over, dispose of: always with ksi and raj, nearly 
always with irajya and is (rarely ace.). In B. the only verb 

202] GENITIVE 319 

with this sense taking the gen. is is have power over e. g. 
atha^esam sarva Tse then every one lias power over them (MS.). 
&. rejoice in : always with trp, pri, vrdh ; optionally with 
kan and mad (also inst. and loc.), and with the caus. of pan 
(also ace.). 

a. In B. the only verb of this group taking the gen. is trp in a 
partitive sense ; e. g. dnnasya trpyati he refreshes himself with (some} food 


c. take note of: always with 2. kr speaJc highly of and 
a-dhi think about, care for ; alternatively with ace. : cit 
observe, attend to, budh take note of; adhi-i, -gani, -ga 
attend to, care for ; vid Jcnoiv about (with ace. know fully) 
sru hear (gen. of person, ace. of thing, heard). In AY. 
kirtaya mention and smr remember take the gen. 

a. In B. only three verbs of this class are thus construed : vid and 
sru as in EV., and kirtaya mention. 

d. partitiveness (while the ace. with the same verbs 
expresses full extent) : 

1. eat, drink : as cat of, ad eat (almost exclusively with 
ace.) ; pa drink ; H-vrsfill oneself full of, vi and jus enjoy. 

a. In B. only as and pa besides bhaks eat (in KV. with ace. only) 
take the partitive gen. 

2. give, present, sacrifice: da give of, a-dasasya and sak 
present with; prc give abundantly of-, yaj sacrifice (ace. of 
person, gen. of offering), e. g. s6masya tva yaksi I will 
worship tliee (with a libation) of Soma (iii. 53 2 ). 

a. In B. yaj may be used without ace. of the person ; e. g. t&smad 
ajyasya^eva" yajet therefore he should sacrifice some butter (S"B.). 

13. In B. several verbs having the general sense of giving and taking, 
not so used in V., come to be used with the gen. of the object in 
a partitive sense : vap strew, hu offer, abhi-ghar pour u$on, ava-da cut off 
some of, a-sout drip, upa-str spread over, ni-han (AV.) and pra-han strike, 
vi-khan dig up some of; grabh take of and in the passive be seized 
= suffer in (a part of the body) ; e. g. ii& c&ksuso grhe he does not suffer 
in his eye (MS.) : yd vaco grhlt&h who suffers in his voice (MS.). 


7. In B. anu-bru invite is used with the dat. of the god and the gen. 
of that to which he is invited ; e. g. agni-somabhyam me'daso 'nu 
bruhi invite Agni and Soma to the fat (&B.). 

e.' obtain, ask for: bhaj participate in (with ace. obtain)] 
bhiks beg for: I and id implore for (generally ace. of thing as 
well as person) ; e. g. tarn imahe indram asya rayah we 
implore Indira for some of that wealth (vi. 22 3 ) ; iyate vasu- 
nam he is implored for some of his riches (vii. 32'') ; also a-yu 
take possession of. 

a. Of these verbs bhaj remains in use in B. : with gen. = have a share 
in (with ace. receive as a share}. 

f. belong to : as and bhu, with the gen. of the possessor in 
both V, and B. ; e.g. asmakam astu ke>alah let him 
exclusively be ours (i. 7 10 ) ; atha^abhavat keValah somo 
asya then Soma became exclusively his (vii. 98 5 ); manor ha 
va rsabha asa Manu had a bull (SB.) ; tasya satam jay a 
babhuvuh he had a hundred wives (AB.). 

B. The genitive is used with two classes of substantives. 

1. It depends on verbal substantives and is then allied to 

the gen. with verbs (especially those expressing possession). 

a. The subjective gen., which is equivalent to the agent 
of the action expressed by the cognate verb ; e. g. usaso 
vyustau at the break of dawn = when the dawn breaks ; 
apakramad u ha^eva^esam etad bibhayam cakara he 
was afraid of their departure (oB.) = thai they would run away. 
It very often occurs with datives ; e. g. yajnasya samrd- 
dhyai/or the success of the sacrifice (TS.) = that the sacrifice 
might succeed. 

b. The objective gen., which is equivalent to the object 
expressed by the cognate verb ; e. g. yogo vajinah the yoking 
of the steed = he yokes the steed ; pur a vrtrasya vadhat 
before the slaughter of Vrtra (SB.) = before he slew Vrtra. 
It often occurs with datives ; e. g. yajamanasya^ahimsayai 
for the non-injury of the sacrificer (MS.) = in order not to 
injure the sacrificer. 

202] GENITIVE 321 

a. This genitive is common with agent nouns, especially those in 
tf ; e.g. rayo data giver of wealth (vi. 23 10 ) ; pusa pasunam prajanayita 
Pusan is the propagator of cattle (MS.). But in V. the agent nouns in tr 
with few exceptions take the ace. when the root is accented ; e. g. 
data vasu one who gives ivealth (vi. 23 3 ). 

2. The gen. commonly depends on non-verbal substantives. 
It may then have two senses : 

a. The possessive gen. ; e. g. ve"h. parnam the iving oftlie 
bird = wing belonging to the bird ; devanam dutah. the 
messenger of the gods. It also appears with abstract nouns 
derived from such words ; e. g. ad id devanam upa 
sakhyam ayan then they came to friendship with the gods 
(iv. S3' 2 ) = then they became friends of the gods. 

a. The gen. used with the perf. pass, part., felt to be the agent, is a 
variety of the possessive gen. Already appearing a few times in the 
RV. it is common in B. ; e. g. p&tyuh krlta (MS.) the bought (wife) of 
ihe husband (the wife) bought by the husband, 

/3. The gen. is similarly used with the gerundive; e.g. anyasya 
balikrd anyasya w adyah paying taxes to another, to be devoured by another 

7. The gen. is frequently used possessively where we would use a 
dative ; e. g. tasya ha putro jajne a son of his was born a son teas born 
to him (AB.). 

5. The gen. is occasionally used for the dative with srad dha beliere 
and da give in the AB. This use may have started from the possessive 

I. The partitive gen. expresses a part of the whole ; e. g. 
mitro vai sivo devanam Mitra is the kindly one among the 
gods (TS.). If the gen. is a plural of the same word as that 
on which it depends it is equivalent to a superlative ; e. g. 
sakhe sakhinam friend among friends = lest of friends 
(i. 30 11 ) ; mantrakrtam mantrakrt best of composers of 
hymns (B.). 

a. This gen. is in particular used with comparatives and superla- 
tives (including prathamfi first, caram& last, &c.) ; e. g. n& para jigye 
katar&s canainoh not either of the two of (hem conquered (vi. 69 8 ) ; gardabhah 
pasunam bharabharitaniah the ass is the best bearer of burdens among 
animals (TS.). 

1819 Y 


/3. It is used with numbers above twenty (in B. only with sahasram) 
and words expressive of a division or a measure ; e. g. sastim asvanam 
(an aggregate of) sixty horses', gonam ardham half of the cows; g&vam 
yuthani herds ofcoivs. Sometimes this gen. is used by transference to 
express not a part, but the whole ; as in marutam gan&h the host (con- 
sisting) of the Maruts. 

7. The gen. sometimes expresses the material ; e. g. krsnanam 
vrihinam carum srapayati he cooks a mess of Hack rice (SB. ) ; ete"sam 
vrksanam bhavanti they (the fences) are (made of the wood) of these 
trees (SB.). It is used in this sense with the verb kr ; e.g. yd ev kas 
ca vrksdh phalagrahis tasya karyk whatever tree bears fruit, of (a part of) 
that it is to be made (MS.). 

C. The gen. is used with a few adjectives meaning 
attached to, like, capable of, know-ing, offering, abounding in : 
priya dear, anuvrata obedient-, pratyardhi standing at the 
side of-, anurupa similar ; isvara able to, navedas cognisant 
f> papri bestotving abundantly (partitive gen. of the thing- 
offered, e. g. andhasah of the juice (i. 52 3 ) ; and with the 
participles, used like adjectives, purna full of, prpivams 
abounding in. 

D. The gen. is used with certain adverbs having 1. a local 
sense : in V. agratas before (AV.) ; in V. and B. : daksinatas 
to the right of; avastad below, parastad above, purastad before ; 
in B. : uparistad behind, pascad behind, puras before ; 
antikam near, n^diyas nearer, n^distham nearest. 

a. In the RV. ai6 far from takes the gen. (also the abl.). 
/?. In B. the local adjective (like the local adverbs) ridane northward 
of takes the gen. 

2. a temporal sense : ida and idanim now are used in V. 
with the genitives ahnas and ahnam = at the present time of 
day, pratar early with the gen. ahnas in V. and with 
ratryas in B. ; e. g. yasya ratryah pratar yaksyamanah 
syat in the morning of which night he may be about to sacrifice 

3. a multiplicative sense: in V. sakrt once with ahnas 
one e a day tris thrice in trir ahnas, trir a divah thrice 

202-203] GENITIVE 323 

a day and trir aktds three times a night ; in B. : dvis twice 
and tris thrice with samvatsarasya, twice, thrice a year. 

a. The adverbial use in V. of the gen. in a temporal sense is perhaps 
derived from that with multiplicatives : aktos, ksapas and ksapds 
of a night; vastos and usasas of a morning. 


203. This case expresses the sphere in which an action 
takes place, or with verhs of motion the sphere which is 
reached by the action. Its sense includes not only locality 
(both concrete and abstract) but persons and time. It may 
therefore be variously translated by in, on, at ; beside, among, 
in the presence of; to, into. 

A. The loc. appears in a general and independent way in 
the following senses : 

1. Place : a. concrete ; e. g. divi in heaven, parvate in or 
on the mountain (i. 32 2 ) ; sarasvatyam at the Sarasvati 
(iii. 23 4 ) ; yudhi in battle (i. 8 3 ), samgram< id. (SB.). 

b. abstract : asya sumatau syama may ^ve be in his good 
graces (viii. 48 12 ) ; tad indra te vase that, Indra, is in 
thy power (viii. 93 4 ) ; ya adityanam bhavati pranitau who 
is in the guidance of the Adityas (ii. 27 13 ) ; vajrasya yat 
patane padi susnah when upon the flight of the bolt Susna 
fell (vi. 20 5 ) ; ghrtakirtau at the mention of (the word) 
ghee (SB.). 

2. Persons : e. g. yat kim ca duritam mayi whatever sin 
there is in me (i. 23 22 ) ; pipaya sa sravasa martyesu he 
abounds in fame among mortals (vi. 10 3 ) ; yat sth.6 druhyavy 
anavi turvase yadau, huv6 vam whether ye two are beside 
(with) Druhyu, Anu, Turvasa (or) Yadu, I call you (viii. 10 5 ) ; 
vayam syama varune anagah may we be guiltless in the eyes 
of Varuna (vii. 87 7 ) ; asniin pusyantu gdpatau let them 
prosper under this herdsman (x. 19 3 ). 

3. Time : here the loc. expresses that an action takes 
place within the limits of the time mentioned ; e. g. usaso 


324 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [203-204 

vyustau at the fiush of dawn', usasi in the morning (in B. 
pratar is used instead) ; dyavi-dyavi every day (not used in 
B.) ; trir ahan three times in the day (in B. gen. only) ; jay ate 
masi-masi lie is born (once) in every (successive) month 
(x. 523). 

a. This temporal use sometimes comes to mean that something 
happens at the end of the period ; e. g. samvatsara iddm adya vy 
akhyata ye have opened your eyes now to-day (for the first time) in a year 
(i. 161 13 ) = at the end of a year ; tatah. samvatsare" piirusah sam abhavat 
thence arose in (= at the end of) a year a man (SB.). 

4. Adverbially. A few substantives and adjectives are 
thus used ; e. g. agre often occurs in the sense of in front 
and at first, appearing even in compounds (e. g. agre-ga 
going before, agre-pa drinking first) ; in SB. the loc. of 
ksipra quick is several times thus employed, e. g. ksipre" 
ha yajamano 'mum lokam iyat the sacrificer would speedily 
go to yonder world. 

204. B. The loc. is connected with different classes of 
words by which it may be said to be governed. 

1. It is specially connected with verbs expressing : 
a. in V. : rejoice in ; grow, prosper ; Uess, injure in respect 
of] implore, invoke for (I, hu) ; receive from] e.g. visve deva 
havisi madayadhvam do ye, all-gods, rejoice in the oblation 
(vi. 52 17 ) ; tavisisu vavrdhe he gretv in strengtli (i. 52 2 ) ; 
ya esam bhrtyam rnadhat sa jivat lie who will succeed in 
their support, shall live (i. 84 16 ) ; prava nas tok6 Uess us in 
children (viii. 23 12 ) ; ma nas tok6 ririsah. injure us not in our 
children (i. 114 8 ); agnim tok6 tanaye sasvad imahe Agni 
we constantly implore for children and for grandchildren 
(viii. 71 13 ) ; adha hi tva havamahe tanaye g6su^apsu for 
we invoke thee for offspring, cows, water (vi. 19 12 ) ; dev^su^ 
amrtatvam anasa ye received immortality (among = ) from the 
gods (iv. 36 4 ) ; 

in V. and B. : let share in (a-bhaj) and struggle for (sprdh, 
rarely in V.); e. g. yan abhajo mariita indra s6me the 

204] LOCATIVE 325 

Maruts ivhom thou, Indra, didst allow to share in Soma 
(iii. 35 9 ) ; anu no 'syam prthivyam a bhajata let us have 
a share in this earth (SB.); adityas ca ha va arigirasas ca 
svarge loke 'spardhanta the Adityas and the Angirases 
struggled for (the possession of) the heavenly world (AB.) ; 

in B. : request (is), ask (prach), call in question (mimams) ; 
e. g. sa ha^iyam dev^su sutyayam apitvam ise she re- 
quested from the gods a share in the Soma feast (SB.) ; te devesv 
aprchanta they inquired of the gods (PB.). 

b. in V. and B. : motion, to indicate the place that is 
reached. The case may here be translated by to, into, upon. 
Such verbs in V. are : go (gam), enter (a- vis), ascend (a-ruh), 
descend (ava-vyadh), flow (ars, dhav), pour (sic, hu), put 
(dha, kr) ; e. g. sa id dev^su gachati (i. I 4 ) that goes to 
(= reaches) the gods (while devan gachati would mean goes 
in the direction of the gods) ; yo martyesv it krn6ti devan 
who brings the gods to mortals (i. 77'); viryam yajamane 
dadhati he puts energy into the sacrificer (TS.) ; na va esa 
gramy^su pasusu hitah he (is not placed among =) does not 
belong to the tame animals (TS.). In B. verbs meaning to 
thro'W at are especially common with the loc. 

c. desire, to indicate the goal or object aimed at : grdh be 
eager, yat strive, a-sams hope ; e.g. annesu jagrdhur they are 
eager for food (ii. 23 16 ) ; divi svano yatate the sound soars to 
heaven (x. 75 3 ) ; a tu na indra samsaya gosv asvesu pray 
give us hope, Indra, of cows and horses (i. 29 1 ) ; agnihotrini 
devata a samsante the gods place their hope in the maintainer 
of the sacrificial fire (MS.). 

2. The loc. is also used to some extent connected with 
nouns : 

a. verbal nouns (substantives and adjectives) derived from 
verbs taking that case ; e. g. na tasya vacy api bhago asti 
he has no share in speech (x. 71) ; somo bhutv avapanesv 
abhaga^i let Soma be a participator in drinking bouts (i. 136 4 ) ; 
suta it tvam nimisla indra s6me thoit, art attached, Indra, 

326 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [204-205 

to the pressed Soma (vi. 23 1 ) ; tasminn eva^eta nimislatama 
iva to kirn these (women) are most devoted (SB.). 

I. ordinary adjectives : in V. priya and caru dear ; e. g. 
priyah surye priy6 agna bhavati he will lie dear to Surya, 
dear to Agni (v. 37 5 ) ; carur mitr6 varune ca dear to Mitra 
and Varuna(ix. 61) ; in B. dhruva firm ; e. g. rastram eva w 
asmin dhruvam akah lie has made the sovereignty established 
in him (TS.). 

3. The loc. is used with a few prepositions : in V. a in, 
at, on, and (rarely) dpi near, in, and upa near to, at, upon, as 
well as the prepositional adverb saca beside, ivitli ; in V. and 
B. adhi on and antar ivithin (cp. 176, 2 ; 177, 5). 

Locative and Genitive Absolute. 

205. 1. The absolute construction of the loc., in which 
the case is always accompanied by a participle, started from 
the ordinary use of the loc. Combined with a participle it 
came to be regarded as a temporal or qualifying clause 
where the case alone could not be employed. Thus beside 
usasi at daivn could appear uchantyam usasi at daivn as it 
shines forth, which then acquired the independent sense 
when daivn shines forth (i. 184 1 ). As regards the participles 
used in this construction, the future never occurs ; the perf. 
act. is quite isolated ; the perf. pass. part, is somewhat 
doubtful in V., but undoubted in B. ; while the pres. part, 
is in fully developed use in V. as well as B. 

a. An example of the perf. part. act. in vant used 
absolutely is : asitavaty atithav asniyat (AV. ix. 6 38 ) the 
guest having eaten, he may eat (cp. 161). 

fc. The perf. part. pass, appears in the BV. in several 
expressions, such as jat6 agnau, stirne" barhisi, sute" some, 
in which the loc. probably still has its ordinary sense ; e. g. 
visvam adhag ayudham iddhe" agnau lie burnt every weapon 
in the kindled fire (ii. 15 4 ); yo asvasya dadhikravno akarit 


samiddhe agna usaso vyustau who has honoured the steed 
Dadhikravan beside the kindled fire at the flush of Dawn (iv. 39 s ), 
possibly ivhen the fire is kindled. In other examples the 
absolute sense seems more likely : yad im enam usat6 abhy 
avarsit trsyavatah pravrsy agatayam ivhen it has rained 
upon the eager thirsty ones, the rainy season having come 
(vii. 103 3 ) ; especially in yan marutah surya udite madatha 
when ye, Maruts, are exhilarated at the rising of the sun 
(v. 54 10 ). Here surye could not be used alone, 1 while the 
loc. of time would be expressed by udita suryasya at 

a. In B. the absolute use with the perf. part. pass, is much more 
pronounced ; e. g. uditesu ndksatresu vacam vf srjati ivhen We stars 
have risen he sets free his voice (TS.) ; s& enah svo bhut^ yajate fie sacrifices 
to them when the morning has appeared (TS.) ; krite" some maitravarunaya 
dandam prd yachati ichen the Soma has been bought he hands the staff to the 
Maitrdvaruna priest (TS.); t&smad gardabhe" pura^ayusah prdmlte 
bibhyati therefore one is frightened when a donkey has died before its time 
(TS.). The substantive has sometimes to be supplied ; e.g. sa hovaca : 
hato vrtro ; y&d dhate kuryata tfi,t kuruta^iti he said : Vrtra is dead ; 
what you would do, if he icere dead, that do (SB.). 

c. Of the pres. part, with the loc. in the absolute sense 
there are many examples in V. ; e. g. indram pratar hava- 
maha indram prayati^adhvare' Indra we invoke early, 
Indra ivhen the sacrifice proceeds (i. 16 3 ) ; sarasvatim deva- 
yanto havante sarasvatim adhvar6 tayamane men devoted 
to the gods invoke Sarasvati, Sarasvatl tvhile the sacrifice is 
extended (x. 17 7 ) ; ta vam adya tav aparam huvema w 
uchantyam usasi so you two to-day, so you two in future we 
would invoke when Dawn shines forth (i. 184 1 ). 

a. Similarly in B : yajnamukhe-yajnamukhe v&i kriy&mane yaj- 
ndm rdksamsi jighamsanti always when the commencement of the sacrifice 
is being made, the RaJcsases seek to destroy the sacrifice (TS.) ; some hanya"- 
mane yajno hanyate when Soma is destroyed, the sacrifice is destroyed (TS.) ; 

1 Because the sense rejoice in the sun would be unnatural, though the 
construction of mad with the loc. is normal (cp. 204, 1 a). 

328 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [205-206 

tasmad agnicid varsati nd dhavet therefore the fire-piler should not ran 
when it rains (TS.) ; tdm et&t pratyayatyam ratrau say&m lipatisthanta 
so they approached him in the evening when night returned (SB.). 

2. The genitive absolute is unknown in V., but has 
already come into use in B. It arose from the possessive 
genitive which acquired an independent syntactical value 
when accompanied by a (pres. or perf. pass.) participle much 
in the same way as the loc. The substantive is sometimes 
omitted. Examples are : tasya^alabdhasya^ sa vag apa 
cakrama he being sacrificed, this voice departed (SB.) ; tasmad 
apam taptanam ph6no jayate therefore, tvhen water is heated, 
foam arises (SB.) ; sa eta vipriiso 'janayata ya imah 
skuyamanasya vipravante he (Agni) produced those sparks 
ivhich dart about when (the fire) is stirred (MS.); tesam ha^ 
uttisthatam uvaca while these stood up he said (AB.). In 
the first three of the . above examples the close relationship 
of the absolute to the possessive case is still apparent. 


206. Participles are of a twofold nature inasmuch as 
they share the characteristics of both noun and verb. 
In form they are adjectives both in inflexion and concord. 
On the other hand they not only govern cases like the verb, 
but also indicate differences of voice and generally speaking 
retain the distinctions of time expressed by the tenses to 
which they belong. They are as a rule used appositionally 
with substantives, qualifying the main action and equiva- 
lent to subordinate clauses. They may thus express a rela- 
tive, temporal, causal, concessive, final, or hypothetical 
sense. The verbal character of participles formed directly 
from the root (and not from tense stems) is restricted (with 
certain exceptions) to the passive voice in sense, and to past 
and future time ; while owing to their passive nature they 
are not construed with an ace. of the object, but only with 
the inst. of the agent or means. 

207-208] PARTICIPLES _ 329 

207. The pres. part, is occasionally used in V. by anaco- 
luthon as a finite verb ; e.g. asmad aham tavisad isamana 
indrad bhiya maruto rejamanah I (am) fleeing from this 
mighty one, trembling with fearoflndra, ye Maruts (i. 17 1 4 ). 
This use does not seem to be found in B. 

a. The pres. part, is used with the verbs i go, car move, 
as remain, stha stand as auxiliaries to express continued 
duration in V. and B. ; e. g. visvam anyo abhicaksana eti 
the other (Pusan) goes on watching the universe (ii. 4Q 5 ) j 
vicakasac candrama naktam eti the moon goes on shining 
brightly at night (i. 24 10 ) ; te 'sya grhah pasava upanmrya- 
mana lyuh his house and cattle would go on being destroyed 
(SB.) ; tvam hi ... 6ko vrtra carasi jighnamanah /or thou 
alone goest on killing the Vrtras (iii. 30 4 ) ; t6 'rcantah sram- 
yantas ceruh they went on praying and fasting (SB.) ; ream 
tvah p6sam aste pupusvan the one keeps producing abundance 
of verses (x. 7 1 11 ) ; somam eva^etat pibanta asate they thus 
keep on drinking Soma (TS.) ; ucchvancamana prthivi sii 
tisthatu let the earth keep on yawning wide (x. 18 12 ) ; vitrmha- 
nas tisthanti they keep conflicting (TS.). 

208. The past passive participle in ta is very frequently 
used as a finite verb ; e. g. tatam me apas tad u tayate 
piinah. my work is done and it is being done again (i. 110 1 ) ; 
na tvavarn indra kas cana na jato na janisyate no one is 
like thee, Indra, he has not been born, and he will not be born 
(i.81 5 ) ; used impersonally : sraddhitam te mahata indriyaya 
confidence has been placed in thy great might (i. 104). 

Similarly in B. : ista dev&ta dtha katamd et6 the gods have been wor- 
ahipped, but which are these gods? (TS.); also in subordinate clauses: 
tasmin yad apannam, grasitam eva w asya t^,t what has got into' him, that 
has been devoured by him (TS.). 

a. The perf. pass. part, is not infrequently used with 
forms of as and bhu as auxiliaries constituting a periphrastic 
mood or tense in V. ; e. g. yuktas te astu daksinari let thy 
right (steed) be yoked (i. 82 5 ) ; dhumas te ketiir abhavad 

330 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [208-209 

divi sritah. the smoke, thy banner, (ivas raised = ) arose to 
heaven (v. II 3 ). 

b. Such forms (pres. and aor. ind. of bhu, impf. and perf. 
ind. and opt. of as) make regular past and present tenses and 
the opt. mood in B. ; e. g. bhuyasibhir ha^asya w ahutibhir 
istam bhavati "by him sacrifice has been made with several 
offerings (AB.) ; devasurah samyatta asan the gods and 
Asuras were engaged in conflict (TS.) ; tad va fsmam anu- 
srutam asa that teas heard by the seers (SB.) ; tasmad vidhrta 
adhvano 'bhuvan therefore the roads have been divided (TS.). 

209. Future Participles Passive. There are six of 
these : one, that in ayya occurs in the KV. only ; three, 
those in enya, ya, and tva, in V. and in B. ; two, those in 
tavya and aniya in V. (but not in the RV.) and in B. 
The commonest sense expressed by these verbal nouns is 
necessity ; but various allied meanings, such as obligation, 
fitness, certain futurity, and possibility, are also frequent. 
Four of them are construed with the inst. of the agent (the 
gen. and dat. sometimes appearing instead), while the forms 
in tva and aniya are never found connected with a case. 

1. The commonest of these gerundives is that in ya ; 
sadyo jajnan6 havyo babhuva as soon as born he became 
one to be invoked (viii. 96 21 ). It often appears without a 
verb ; e. g. visva hi vo namasyani vandya namani deva 
uta yajniyani vah all your names, ye gods, are adorable, 
worthy of praise, and worshipful (x. 63 2 ). The agent may be 
expressed by the inst., dat., or gen. ; e. g. tvam nrbhir 
havyo visvadha^asi thou art always to be invoiced by men 
(vii. 22 7 ) ; asmabhir u nu praticaksya^abhut she has 
become visible (by=) to us(i. 113 11 ) ; sakha sakhibhya idyah. 
a friend to be praised by friends (i. 75 4 ) ; ya 6ka id dhavyah. 
carsaninam who alone is to be invoiced of men (vi. 22 1 ). 

a. In B. the agent may be in the inst. or gen., but not in the dat. ; 
thus t&smai de"yam means to him gifts should be given (SB.). This 
example also illustrates the impersonal use of this gerundive in B., 

209] GERUNDIVE 331 

a use unknown to the RV. This gerundive is always without a verb, 
being unaccompanied by forms of as or bhu in B. ; e. g. bahu d6yam 

much (is) to be given (MS.). 

2. The gerundive in tva in the RV. implies necessity or 
possibility and is often used in contrast with the past ; but 
it is not found accompanied by a verb (as or bhu) or a noun 
expressing the agent ; e. g. ripavo hantvasah. the enemy are 
to be 'killed (iii. 30 15 ) ; yo nantvany anaman ny ojasa ^vho 
~by his might lent what could ~be "bent (ii. 24 2 ) ; tad visvam 
abhibhur asi yaj jatam yae ca jantvam thou surpassest all 
that has. been born and that is to be born (viii. 89 6 ). 

a. The only meaning that seems to be expressed by this gerundive 
in B. is possibility; e.g. snatvam udakam water that can be bathed in 
(!B.) ; no asya^anyad dhotvam asit pranat and he had nothing else that 
could be offered but breath (MS.). 

3. The gerundive in ayya, found in the RV. only, some- 
times appears accompanied by an agent in the inst. or the 
dat. ; e. g. daksayyo nrbhih to be propitiated by men (i. 129 2 ) ; 
daksayyo dasvate dama a who is to be propitiated by the 
pious man in his house (ii. 4 3 ). 

4. The form in enya, almost restricted to the RV., may 
be accompanied by an agent in the inst. ; e. g. agnir ildnyo 
gira Agni to be praised with song (i. 79 5 ) ; abhyayams^nya 
bhavatam mamsibhih be willing to be drawn near by the 
devout (i. 34 1 ). 

a. It is once or twice also found in B. ; thus vacam udyasam susru- 
se"nyam I would utter a speech worthy to be heard (TS.). 

5. The gerundive in tavya, which is not found in the 
RV. at all, occurs only twice in the AV. ; thus na brahman6 
himsitavyah a Brahmin is not to be injured (AV. v. 18 6 ). 

a. In B. it is frequent and used much in the same way as the form 
in ya ; here it is also used impersonally and with the agent in the 
inst. ; e. g. putro yajayayitavyah a son must be made to sacrifice (MS.) ; 
agnicita paksino nd^asitavyam anAgnicit should not eat (any part) of a 
bird (MS.); pasuvratena bhavitavyam (MS.) he should act after the manner of 

332 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [209-210 

cattle (more literally : action should be taken by him as one following the 
manner of cattle). 

6. The form in aniya, which is rare in both V. and B., 
does not occur at all in the KV., and only twice in the prose 
of the AV. Expressing only suitability or possibility, and 
never used either with an inst. or impersonally, it has 
hardly attained the full value of a gerundive even in B. ; 
e. g. upajivaniyo bhavati he is one ivlio may be subsisted on 
(AV.) ; abhicaraniya liable to ~be bewitched (SB.) ; ahavanlya 
suitable to be offered to (AB.). 

Gerund or Indeclinable Participle. 

210. The forms of the gerund, ending in tvi$ tva, tvaya 
(cp. 163) and in ya or tya (164) are synonymous, expressing 
an action that is past before that of the finite verb begins. 
It regularly refers to what is regarded as the subject of the 
sentence ; e. g. gudhvi tamo jyotisa^usa abodhi having 
hidden away the darkness, Dawn has aivakened with light 
(vii. 80 2 ) ; yuktva haribhyam lipa yasad arvak having 
yoJced (them) may he come hither with his two bays (v. 40 4 ) ; 
striyam drstvaya kitavam tatapa having seen a woman it 
pains the gambler (x. 34 11 ) = the gambler, having seen a woman, 
is pained ; piba nisadya drink, after having sat down (i. 177 4 ) ; 
y6 hanti satrum abhitya who slays the foe after having 
attacked him (ix. 55 4 ). 

a. The usage in B. is similar ; e. g. t&smat suptva prajah pra budh- 
yante therefore creatures awake after having slept (TS.); t6m ha^enam 
drstva blur viveda having seen him fear seised him = having seen him he 
became afraid (SB.). The gerund is, however, here found loosely con- 
strued in various ways not occurring in V. Thus it refers in sense to 
the agent implied by the future part. pass, in tavya or ya used predi- 
catively as a finite verb; e.g. agnihotrahaVanim prat&pya hdsto 
'vadheyah his hand (is) to be put into it (by the holder) after having heated 
the fire-sacrifice ladle (MS.). Still looser is the connexion in such sen- 
tences as the following : t6" pas&va osadhlr jagdhva^apah pitva tdta 
es& r&sah s&m bhavati the beasts having eaten the plants and drunk water 

210-211] GERUND 333 

then this rital sap arises (JB.) = then acquire this vital sap. The past sense 
of the gerund is often emphasized by the particle atha then being 
placed immediately after it. The gerund is here sometimes equiva- 
lent to the finite verb of a subordinate clause ; e. g. atithyna vai 
deva istva taiit samad avindat after the gods had sacrificed ivith the rite of 
hospitable reception, discord came upon them (SB.); similarly with the verb 
man think : etdd vai devah prapya raddhva w iva w amanyanta the gods, 
having obtained this, thought that they had as good as won (SB.). 

b. The gerund in am, which is always a compound, and 
the first member of which is nearly always a preposition, 
expresses a simultaneous action performed by the subject of 
the finite verb of the sentence. Being a cognate ace. used 
adverbially it is only beginning to be used as a gerund in 
late V. ; e. g. tantram yuvati abhyakramam vayatah the 
tivo maidens iveavc the web while going up to it (AY.). 

a. In B. it has become common ; e. g. abhikramam juhoti (TS.) 
he sacrifices while approaching (the fire). This gerund is sometimes used 
with as, i, or car to express continued action ; e. g. te" parapatam 

asata they kept flying away (MS.). 


211. The normal use of this form is to supplement the 
general statement of the sentence in a final (in order to) or 
a consequential (.so as to) sense. The infinitive is, however, 
sometimes dependent on a particular word in the sentence, 
usually a verb, occasionally a noun : it then loses some of its 
full meaning, as in other languages after an auxiliary. The 
object when it is expressed is generally in the accusative. 

1. Dative Infinitive. 

a. The various forms of this infinitive govern either an 
ace. or (by attraction) a dat., sometimes (according to the 
nature of the verb) another case ; e. g. indraya^arkam 
juhva sam anje, viram danaukasam vandadhyai for 
Indra I with my tongue adorn a song, to praise the bountiful 
hero (i. 6 1 5 ) ; tvam akrnor dustaritu saho visvasmai sahase 
sahadhyai thou didst display irresistible poiver to overcome 


every poiver (vi. I 1 ) ; ava sya stira^adhvano na^ante 'smin 
no adya savane mandadhyai unyoke, hero, as at the end 
of a journey, to delight in this our Soma pressing to-day (iv. 16 2 ) ; 
abhud u param 6tave pantha the path has appeared, to 
(enable us to) go to the farther shore (i. 46 11 ) ; a no nava 
matmam yatam par ay a gantave do ye two come to us with 
the boat of our hymns, to go to the farther shore (i. 46 7 ) ; indram 
codaya datave magham urge Indra to give bounty (ix. 75 5 ) ; 
indram avardhayann ahaye hantava u they strengthened 
Indra to slay the dragon (v. 3 1 4 ) ; a ta etu manah punah 
jivase jy6k ca suryam drs6 let thy spirit return (to live =) 
that thou mayest live and long see the sun (x. 57 4 ) ; siSite srnge 
raksase vinikse he sharpens his horns in order to pierce the 
demon (v. 2 9 ) ; sadyas cin mahi davane to give much at 
once (viii. 46 25 ) ; pra yad bharadhve suvitaya davane 
when ye proceed to give ivelfare (v. 59 4 ) ; amitran prtsu 
turvane to overcome foes in battle (vi. 46 s ) ; atha^upa pra w 
aid yudhaye dasyum then he advanced to fight the demon 
(v. 30 9 ) ; tav asmabhyam drsaye suryaya piinar datam 
asum may these two give us back our breath that we may see 
the sun (x. 14 12 ) ; devo no atra savita nu^artham prasavid 
dvipat pra catuspad ityai here god Savitr has now urged on 
our bipeds, on our quadrupeds to go to their work (i. 124 1 ) ; 
abodhi h6ta yajathaya devan the priest has awaJcened to 
worship the gods (v. I 2 ). 

b. The dat. inf. not infrequently depends on a particular 
word in the sentence ; e. g. ta vam vastuni^usmasi ga- 
madhyai we desire to go to those abodes of you two (i. 154 6 ) ; 
dadhrvir bharadhyai strong to carry (vi. 66 3 ) ; cikid nasaya- 
dhyai understanding to destroy (viii. 97 14 ) ; agnim dv6so 
ydtavai no grmmasi we implore Agni to ward off hostility 
from us (viii. 71 15 ) ; t6 hi putraso aditer vidur dv^samsi 
y6tave/or those sons ofAditi know how to ward off hostilities 
(viii. 18 5 ) ; tvam indra sravitava apas kah thou, Indra, 
hast made the waters to flow (vii. 21 3 ) ; vidyama tasya te 

211] INFINITIVE 335 

vayam akuparasya davane may we know this oftlm who art 
inexhaustible to give (v. 39 2 ) ; bhiyase mrgam kali he has 
made the monster to fear (v. 29 4 ) ; jajamis ca rajase and they 
created (him) to rule (viii. 97 10 ) ; kavimr ichami samdrse 
I wish to see the poets (iii. 38 1 ). 

a. The dat. inf. has sometimes a passive force ; e. g. a vo vahistho 
vahatu stavadhyai r&thah may your most swift car bring you hither to be 
praised (vii. 37 1 ); glrbhih sakhayam gam na" dohdse huve with songs I 
caJ.l my friend like a cow to be milked (vi. 45 7 ) ; esa purut&ma drse" km 
she here that constantly returns (so as) to be seen (i. 124 6 ). This sense is 
especially noticeable in the infinitives in tavai, tave, and e, which 
when used predicatively (as a rule with the negative na") are equiva- 
lent to a future part, pass. 1 with the copula ; e. g. stuse" sa vam ratih 2 
that bounty of yours is to be praised (i. 122 7 ) ; na"isa gaVyutir a"pabhartava u 
this pasture (is) not to be taken away (x. 14 2 ); ya"sya na" radhah p&ryetave 
whose treasure is not to be surpassed (viii. 24 21 ) ; nd^asmakam asti t&t 
t&ra adityaso atisk&de this our zeal, Adityas, is not to be overlooked 
(viii. 67 11 ') ; n& pramiye savitur d&ivyasya t&t this (work) of the divine 
Savitr (is) indestructible (iv. 54 4 ). 

/3. The agent (or instrument) of the action expressed by the inf. is 
put in the inst. or gen. when there is a passive sense ; e. g. na'^anye'na 
stomo vasistha dnvetave vab. your laudation, Vasisthas, is not to be 
equalled by another (vii. 33 8 ) ; dbhud agnih samidhe manusanam Agni 
has appeared to be kindled of men (vii. 77 1 ). When there is no passive 
sense the agent is expressed by the dat. ; e. g. vi srayantam prayal 
dev^bhyo mahih. may the great (gates') open (for the gods to =) that the gods 
may enter (i. 142 6 ); dabhra"m p&syadbhya urviya vic&ksa usa ajigar 
bnuvanani visva (i. 1I3 5 ) Dawn has wakened all creatures (for those who 
now see little to = ) that those who see little now may look far and wide ; 
ah&m radraya db.a'nur a tanomi brahmadvise sarave hdntava u 
I stretch the bow for Rudra (for the arrow to =) that the arrow may strike the 
hater of prayer (x. 125 6 ). 

7. The infinitive in dhyai is not infrequently employed elliptically 
to express an intention, the subject being either expressed or requir- 
ing to be supplied in the first or third person 3 ; e. g. pr&ti vam r&tham 

1 In Latin the gerundive actually appears to have taken the place 
of the IE. predicative infinitive : see Brugmann, Grundriss, 4, 2, 
pp. 461 and 488. 

2 Which in Latin would be : laudanda (esf) vestra benignitas. 

3 The inf. is similarly used in Greek in the sense of a 2. pers. impv. ; 
e. g. iravra raff a-yyci\ai ftrjSe if/ev8dyye\os fivat tett all this and be not a false 
messenger (Homer, Od) ; tM^fval pot, Tpwtj tell me, ye Trojans (ibid.}. 


jar&dhyai the chariot of you tivo (I purpose) to invoke (vii. 67 1 ) ; a va 
ausijo huvddhyai samsam the son ofUs'ij (intends) to proclaim your praise 
(i. 122 5 ). 

5. In B. the inf. in tavai has three uses : 1. with a final sense ; 
e. g. tarn pra harati yo 'sya strtyas tasmai startavai he hurls it in order 
to strike down him who is to be struck down by it (AB.). 2. predicatively 
with n&, often with a passive sense, sometimes impersonally ; e.g. n& 
v&i yajnd iva m&ntavai it is not to be regarded like a sacrifice (SB.) ; na 
pura suryasya udetor m&nthitav&i one should not rub fire before sunrise 
(MS.) ; tasmad ete'na^dsru na kartavai therefore tears should not be shed 
by him (MS.). 3. with a pass, sense after an ace. governed by aha, 
uvaca and bruyat ; e. g. agnim p&ristaritava aha he says that the fire is 
to be enclosed (MS.) ; gopalan sdmhvayitava uvaca he said that the cow- 
herds should be called together (SB.) ; t&d asvam aiietavai bruyat then he 
should order the horse to be brought (SB.). Perhaps, however, the ace. here 
depends on the inf. alone : he should give orders to bring the horse. 

2. Accusative Infinitive. 

a. The form in am is used to supplement statements con- 
taining a verb of going or in dependence on verbs meaning 
be able (arh, as, sak), wish (vas), or Jcnotv (vid) ; e. g. upo 
emi cikituso viprcham I go to the ivise to inquire (vii. 86 3 ) ; 
iy6tha barhir asadam thou hast gone to seat thyself on the 
straw (iv. 9 1 ) ; sake"ma tva samidham we ivould be able to 
kindle thee (i. 94 3 ) ; sa veda deva anamam devan he, the god, 
knows (how) to guide hither the gods (iv. 8 3 ). 

ct. In B. this form of the inf. appears only in dependance on the 
verbs arh, vid, and sak when they are combined with the negative n&; 
e. g. avarundham na\^,aSaknot he was not able to keep back (MS.). 

b. The inf. in turn in the EV. expresses the purpose with 
verbs of motion 1 and also appears in dependence on the 
verbs arh be able and ci intend ; e. g. k6 vidvamsam upa 
gat prastum etat who has gone to the wise man to ask him 
this? (i. 164 4 ) ; bhuyo va datum arhasi or thou canst give 
more (v. 79 10 ). 

* The use of this inf. is restricted to dependence on such verbs in 
the Latin supine in turn. 

211] INFINITIVE 337 

a. In B. the use is similar, this inf. expressing the purpose 
with verbs of motion, or in dependence on the verbs dhr 
intend and (generally accompanied by the negative na) arh 
and sak be able, kam desire, dhrs dare, a-dr trouble, a-sams 
expect ; e. g. hotum eti he goes to sacrifice (TS.), drastum a 
gachati he comes in order to see (SB.) ; any ad eva kartum 
dadhrire 'nyad vai kurvanti they have purposed to do one 
thing, but do another (SB.) ; katham asakata mad rte" jivitum 
how have you been able to live without me ? (SB.) ; na cakame 
hantum he did not wish to Ml (SB.). 

3. Ablative- Genitive Infinitive. 

a. The form in as (which is always compounded with 
prepositions) is almost exclusively abl. as is shown by its 
being used with words governing that case, viz. the pre- 
positions rt6 ivithout, pura before, and the verbs pa protect, 
tra rescue, bhi/ear ; e. g. rt6 cid abhisrisah pura jatrubhya 
atrdah without binding, before the cartilages being pierced 
(viii. I 12 ) ; tradhvam kartad avapadah (ii. 29 6 ) save us 
from falling into the pit (lit. from the pit, from falling doivri). 

There is one example of its being a gen., as it is governed 
by the verb is : nahi tvad ar6 nimisas canalise for without 
thee I am not able even to blinJc (ii. 28 6 ). 

a. In B. it appears only as a gen. governed by isvara" ; e. g. sdisvaro 
yajamanasya pasiin nird6,hah he is able to burn the cattle of the sacrificer 


b. The form in tos is abl. when it is governed by the 
prepositions pura before and a till or by verbs of saving and 
preventing ; e. g. pura hantor bhayamano vy lira fearing 
he withdrew, before being struck (iii. 30 l ) ; yuydta no anapa- 
tyani gantoh. save us from coming to childlessness (iii. 54T 8 ). 

The gen. form is found only in dependence on the verb 
is be able (with the object by attraction in the gen.) or on 
the adverb madhya in the midst of', e. g. i&e ray ah suvir- 
yasya datoh he can give wealth and heroic offspring (vii. 4) ; 


ma no madhya ririsata^ayur gantoh. injure us not (in the 

midst of = ) before our reaching old age (i. 89 9 ). 

a. In B. the abl. inf. is found with prepositional words only. It 
usually occurs with a till and pura before, both the subject and the 
object being in the gen. The object may, however, by attraction be 
in the abl., and a predicate is in the abl. ; e. g. a suryasya udetoh 
(MS.) till the sun's rising = till the sun rises ; a tisrnam dogdhoh (&B.) 
till the milking of three (cows) = till three (cows) are milked ; a medhyad 
bhaVitoh till becoming pure ; pura suryasya^,udetoh before the sun's rising 
(MS.)= before tl\e sun rises] pura vagbhyah sampravaditoh before the 
voices' uttering (PB.) = before the voices are uttered. The abl. form is also 
sometimes used with the prepositional adverbs purdstad and arvacf- 
nam before; e.g. purdstad dhotoh before sacrificing (MS.); arvacmam 
j&nitoh. before being born (MS.). 

The gen. form occurs only in dependence on isvar able, the object 
being in the ace. (sometimes by attraction in the gen.), and the predi- 
cate in the nom. ; e.g. sfi, isvard artim artoh he can fall into misfortune 
(TS.) ; ta isvara yajamanam himsitoh. these two can injure the sacrificer 
(MS.). Occasionally isvar& is omitted ; e. g. tato diksitdh pamano 
bh&vitoh hence the initiated man (can) become scabby (JB.). 

4. Locative Infinitive. 

The only loc. forms to which a genuine inf. use (cp. 167, 4) 
can be attributed are the few in sani. These supplement 
the general statement of the sentence or depend on a 
particular word in it, and (like the form in dhyai) express 
an intention or exhortation (with the ellipse of a verb in 
the 1., 2., or 3. pers.) ; e. g. vi nah pathas citana yastave, 
asmabhyam visva asas tarisani do ye open up for us the 
paths to sacrifice, (for us to =) that we may conquer all regions 
(iv. 37 7 ) ; nayistha u no nesani, parsistha u nah parsany 
ati dvisah the best guides to guide us, the best leaders to lead 
us through our foes (x. 126 3 ) ; tad va ukthasya barhana^ 
indraya^npastrnisani this song of praise (I will) spread out 
with power for your Indra (vi. 44) ; priyam vo atithim 
grnisani (do ye) extol your dear guest (vi. 15) ; ijanam 
bhumir abhi prabhusani (let) Earth assist the sacrificer 
(x. 132 1 ). 



212. Two or more roots of cognate meaning sometimes 
supplement each other in such a way as to be used for 
different tenses of what is practically one verb. Such are : 

1. as and bhu ~be : the pres., impf., and perf. are formed by 
as ; the fut. and aor. by bhu alone. In its proper sense 
bhu means to become (originally to grow), but unless opposed 
to as l)e, it has the same sense as the latter, the pres. and 
perf. of both being used promiscuously. The contrast 
appears clearly when the pres. is opposed to the aor. ; e. g. 
yamo va idam abhud yad vayam smah. Yama lias become 
that wliicli ice are (TS.). It also appears in the impf. : ya 
vipriisa asams tab. sarkara abhavan wliat were sparks 
became gravel (MS.). 

2. dhav and sr run : in the RV. occur the plup. adadhavat 
and the pres. sisarti ; in B. the pres. dhavati, the impf. 
asarat, and the perf. sasara. 

3. pas and drs see : the former appears in the pres. only, 
the latter in the aor., fut., and perf. only ; khya see is used 
in the same tenses as drs, but as opposed to the latter means 

4. bru and vac speak : the former is used in the pres. 
stem only ; the latter in the aor., fut., perf. (V. has also the 
pres. vivakti). 

5. ban and vadh slay: the former has the pres., impf., 
fut., perf. only, the latter the aor. only. 

a. In B. a few additional pairs of roots supplement each other to 
some extent. Such are ad and ghas eat ; aj and vi drive i and ga 
(aor.) go pra-yam and pra- da present ; sad and si fall. 


A. In V. a number of verbs form two or more present 
stems, in which, however, no differences of meaning are 
traceable. In B. this multiplicity is for the most part lost. 



The only type here showing any development is that in ya, 
which tends to have an intransitive sense. Such present 
stems are formed in B. from more than a dozen roots 
that do not form it in the RV. ; e. g. tapyati grows hot 
(RV. tapati). 

1. As in other languages, the present is used to indicate 
an action that is taking place when the speaker makes his 

2. In the RV. the simple pres. is sometimes employed of 
past actions in narration to add a new statement in a vivid 
manner ; e. g. purutra vrtr6 asayad vyastah : anmya 
sayanam ati yanti^apah Vrtra lay scattered in many places : 
over Mm as he thus lies the waters flow (i. 32 7 ). 

This use does not seem to occur in B. 

a. pura formerly is used with the pres. to indicate an- 
action which has extended through the past down to the 
present ; e. g. kva tani nau sakhya babhuvuh, sacavahe 
yad avrkam pura cit where has that friendship of us two 
gone, inasmuch as tve have hitherto associated inoffensively 
(vii. 88 5 ) ; sa ha^agnir uvaca^atha yan mam pur a pra- 
thamam yajatha kva^aham bhavani^iti so Agni said: 
now that you have hitherto honoured me at the sacrifice as the 
first where shall I le? (SB.). 

a. In B. pura is also used without reference to the actual present 
from the speaker's point of view, to express a previous stage in typical 
conditions ; e. g. ahota va es& pura bhavati yada w eva\_,enam pravr- 
nite" 'tha h6ta he is previously a non-Hotr ; as soon as he chooses him, then 
he is a Hotr (&B.) ; dnaddha^iva va asya^dtah pura janam bhavati 
previously his origin is as it were uncertain (SB.). 

1). sma pura with the pres. ind. expresses that something 
used to happen in the past ; e. g. samhotram sma pura 
nari samanam va w ava gachati formerly the woman used to 
go down to the common sacrifice or the assenibly (x. 86 10 ). 

a. The same usage is common in B. with ha sma pura ; e.g. n& ha 
sma v&i pura^agnir aparasuvrknam dahati formerly Agni used not to 
burn what teas not cut off with the axe (TS.). Here, however, the pura fs 

212-213] PRESENT 341 

much more usually omitted, ha sma alone expressing the same sense, 
especially often with the pres. perf. aha ; e. g. et&d dha sma va aha 
narad&h (MS.) with regard to this Ndrada used to say, (The AB. uses the 
perf. and the impf. with ha sma in the same sense.) The particles ha 
sma, which originally only accompanied it, have thus acquired, when 
used alone, the sense which is inherent in pura only. 

c. The pres. ind. is also sometimes used for the fut. or 
the subj. ; e. g. aham api hanmi^iti ha^uvaca he said : 
I too will slay him (SB.) ; indras ca rusamas ca^amsam 
prasyetam : yataro nau purvo bhumim paryeti sa jay- 
ati^iti Indra and Rumania proposed a wager : ivhichever of us 
shall go. round the earth first shall win (PB.). 

Past Tenses. 

213. Each of the past tenses (except the pluperfect) has 
a distinctive meaning of its own, though occasional examples 
of aor. and perf. forms occur that are almost indistinguish- 
able in sense from the impf. 

A. The perfect characteristically expresses the condition 
attained by the subject as the result of a preceding action. 
If that action (often a repeated or continuous one) is con- 
tinued into the present so as to include the latter, it may be 
translated by the present ; if it is regarded as concluded 
before the present, by the present perfect. It can express 
both these senses when accompanied by the adverbs pura 
formerly and nunam now ; e. g. pura nunam ca stutaya 
rsinam pasprdhre the praises of the seers have vied together 
in past times and (do so) now (vi. 34 1 ) ; sasvad dhl va utibhir 
vayam pura nunam bubhujmahe we have constantly enjoyed 
your aids and (do so) noiv (viii. 67 16 ) ; the same sense appears 
with the adverb satra always ; e. g. tubhyam brahmani 
gira indra tubhyam satra dadhire : jusasva to thee 
prayers, Indra, to thee songs have always been offered (and 
still are): accept them kindly (iii. 51 6 ). But even without 
a particle this double sense is not infrequently apparent: 


na soina indram asuto mamada (vii. 26 l ) impressed Soma 
has not (in the past) intoxicated Indra (and does not now) ; 
na bhoja mamrur na nyartham lyur : na risyanti na- 
vy athante ha bhojah the liberal have not died (and die not), 
the)/ have not fallen into calamity (and do not now) : the liberal 
are not injured and waver not (x. 107 8 ) ; indra . . . ubhe' a 
paprau rodasi niahitva Indra has ivith his greatness filled 
(and still fills) the two worlds (in. 54 10 ). 

a. Thus a number of perfects (since their action includes 
the present) can be translated by the present, as is indicated 
by their often occurring by the side of actual present forms. 
Such perfects are formed from verbs meaning to Imow ; 
be pleased, sad, or afraid ; stand, sit, lie; rest upon, holdfast; 
have, possess ; encompass ; surpass ; prosper ; become ; show 
oneself; e. g. kva^idanim suryah : kas ciketa where is now 
the sun : ivho Imoivs ? (i. 35 7 ) ; yan na indro jujuse yac ca 
vasti what Indra likes from us and what he desires (iv. 22 1 ) ; 
ka isate, tujyate, k6 bibhaya who flees (and) speeds, who is 
afraid ? (i. 84 17 ) ; na methete na tasthatuh. they (night and 
morning) clash not and stand not still (i. 113 :3 ) ; vane-vane 
sisriye takvavir iva on every tree he sits like a bird (x. 91 2 ) ; 
yatha^iyam prthivi mahi dadhara^iman vanaspatin eva 
dadhara te manah as this great earth holds these trees, so he 
holds thy spirit (x. 60 9 ) ; na te purve na^aparaso na viryam 
nutanah. kas cana^apa not earlier men, not future men, no 
man of the present (has attained =) equals thy heroism (v. 42 G ) ; 
pra hi ririksa 6jasa divo antebhyas pari, na tva vivyaca 
raja indra parthivam thou extendest beyond the ends of 
hewen loitli thy might, the terrestrial space does not contain thee 
(viii. 88 5 ) ; indrena susuve nrbhir yas te sunoti through 
Indra he ivho presses (Soma) for thee prospers in men (vii. 32) ; 
s6d u raja ksayati carsanmam, aran na nemih pari ta 
babhuva he rules as king over men, he encompasses the worlds 
(ta) as the felly the spokes (i. 32 16 ) ; bhadra dadrksa urviya 
vi bhasi, lit te socir bhanavo dyam apaptan brilliant 

213] PEKFECT 348 

tJwu appearest, thou skinest afar, thy light, thy learns, have shot 
up to heaven (vi. 64 2 ). 

b. Other perfects, which sum up past action but exclude 
the present, may be translated by the present perfect ; e. g. 
yat sim agas cakrma tat su mrlatu whatever sin ive have 
committed, let him forgive that (i. 179 3 ) ; ya vrtraha paravati 
sana nava ca cucyuv6, ta samsatsu pra vocata ivhat old 
and new deeds the Trim-slayer has set going in the distance, 
those proclaim in the assemblies (viii. 45 25 ) ; uvasa^usa uchac 
ca nu Dawn has flushed (in the past) and she shall flush now 
(i. 48 a ) ; kim aga asa varuna jy^stnam, yat stotaram 
jighamsasi sakhayam what has that chief sin been (in my 
past life) that thou desirest to slay the praiser, thy friend? 
(vii. 86 4 ) ; lyiis t6 ye purvataram apasyan vyuchantim 
usasam martyasah ; 6 [ = a u] t6 yanti y6 aparisu pasyan 
those mortals have gone who saw flushing the earlier dawn; 
those are coming who shall see her in the future (i. 113 11 ). 

c. The perf. often expresses a single action that has been 
completed in the recent past, when it can be translated by 
the pres. perf. ; e.g. a no yatam divas pari : putrah 
kanvasya vam iha susava somyam madhu come to us from 
heaven : the son of Kativa has here pressed for you, the Soma 
mead (viii. 8 4 ). This use of the perf. comes very near that 
of the aor. The distinction seems to be this : in the above 
passage the perfect means come because the Soma has been 
pressed, i. e. is ready for you ; the aor. would mean come 
because of the fact that the Soma has just been pressed for you. 

d. The perf. is not infrequently used of a single action in 
the remoter past, when it cannot be translated by the perf. 
pres. It occurs thus beside the impf. of narration, when 
the story is interrupted by a reflexion which often expresses 
the result of the action previously related. Thus in the 
story of the Vrtra fight the poet says : ajayo ga ajayah 
sura somam ; avasrjah sartave sapta sindhun thou didst 
win the kine, thou didst ivin the Soma, hero, thou didst let 


loose the seven streams to flow (i. 32 12 );^he then adds indras 
ca yad yuyudhate ahis ca^uta^aparibhyo maghava vi 
jigye when Indra and the serpent fought, the bounteous god 
conquered ( remained conqueror) for the future. This use 
of the perF. is hardly distinguishable from the impf. 

a. In B. the perf. ind. appears in three different uses : 

1. in a present sense based on the pres. perf., chiefly in forms that 
have a strengthened reduplicative vowel and thus seem to have an 
intensive meaning. It is the pres. perf. that includes the present, 
expressing that an action takes place in the present as a result of its 
repetition in the past ; e. g. dadhara (he has constantly held and now} 
holds ; e. g. y&t say&m juhoti ratryai te"na dadhara if he offers in the 
evening, he thereby holds (Agni^for the night (MS.). Other perfects of this 
kind are: didaya shines', upa dodrava rushes at; yoyava wards off', 
lelaya quivers ; bibhaya (beside bibhaya) fears (while the periphrastic 
bibhayam cakara has always a preterite sense). Besides these verbs 
veda knows and aha says always have a present sense. 

Several other perfects with ordinary reduplication often have the 
present sense: anase" (has obtained = ) has (MS., TS.) ; p&riyaya (has 
acquired =) possesses (TS.); babhuva (has become =) is (MS.); vivyasa 
(has encompassed =) contains; dadrs6 (has been seen =) appears (while 
dad&rsa, always has a past sense) ; also the perfect of grab and pra-ap : 
ye" hi pa6avo loma jagrhus t6 me'dham prapuh the cattle ivhich have hair 
have also fat (MS.). 

2. in a preterite sense, expressing that an action once occurred in 
the past (but not in the narrative sense of the impf.). This use most 
often appears in the form uvaca, which may be translated by once 
said or has said ; e. g. ete"na va upakeru raradha : rdhnoti y& ete"na 
yajate by this sacrifice Upakeru once prospered; he who sacrifices with it 
prospers (MS.). It often occurs in the AB. at the conclusion of a story 
related in the impf., in the phrase tad etad rsih pasyann abhyanu- 
vaca seeing this a seer has uttered with reference to it (the following verse). 
A somewhat different connexion with the narrative impf. appears in 
the following example : etam ha v&iyajn&senas citim vid,m cakara : 
tdya v&i s& pasdn dvarunddha this method of piling Yajnasena once in- 
vented : by means of it he acquired cattle (TS.). This perfect is found con- 
trasting what is past with the present and future in the following 
successive sentences : y&d va asyam kirn c-rcanti y&d anrcur ; yad 
ev& kim ca vaca^anrcur y&d dto 'dhi w arcitarah whatever prayers they 
offer on it (the earth) or have offered ; whatever prayers they have offered with 
the voice or will offer in future (TS.). 

3. in an historical sense, equivalent to that of the impf. in narrative, 


in certain parts of the AB. (vi-viii) and the SB. (i-v ; xi, xii, xiv), 
while the impf. is used else where in B. (MS., TS., K.,TB., PB., AB. i-v ; 
SB. vi-x, xiii). Thus in the former uvaca said and devas caesuras 
ca pasprdhire the gods and the Asuras were in conflict, in the latter abravlt 
and aspardhanta would be used. There are, of course, exceptions in 
both groups. 

B. The imperfect is the past tense of narration, never 
having any relation to the present as the perf. and the aor. 
have ; e. g. ahann ahim . . . pra vaksana abhinat parva- 
tanam lie sleiv the serpent; he pierced the bellies of the mountains 
(i. 32 1 ) ; na vai tvam tad akaror yad aham abravam you 
did not do wliat I said (SB.). The impf. has also to do duty 
for the pluperfect, as in the relative clause of the preceding 
example, which is equivalent to what I had told you. 

C. The aorist ind. expresses that an action has occurred 
in the past with reference to the present. It neither 
describes nor indicates duration, but simply states a fact. 
It may nearly always be translated by the English present 

The aor. usually expresses the immediate past ; e. g. prati 
divo adarsi duhita the daughter of heaven has appeared 
(iv. 52 l ) ; yasmad duvapnyad abhaisma^apa tad uchatu 
let her (Dawn) drive away with her light the evil dream that we 
have feared (viii. 47 18 ). 

a. In B. three uses of the aor. ind. may be distinguished : 1. it 
expresses what has occurred in the speaker's experience, very 
commonly in the statement made by the witness of an action ; e. g. 
tato ha gandharvah. sdm udire : jyok va iy&m urv&si manusyesv 
avatsit then the Gandharvas spoke together : this Urvadl has dwelt long among 
men (SB.). As compared with the impf. it never narrates ; e.g. yajno 
vai devebhya ud akramat; te deva abruvan : yajno vai na ud 
akramit the sacrifice went away from the gods ; the gods then said : the sacri- 
fice has gone away from us (AB.) ; tam y&d dprchant s&bravld: adya^ 
amrta^iti when they asked her, she said : he has died to-day (MS.) ; t&m. 
aprchan : k&smai tvam ahausir iti they asked him : to whom have you 
sacrificed? (MS.); tdm deva abruvan: mahan va ay&m abhud yo 
vrtr&m aVadhid iti the gods said of him : he has shown himself great ivho has 
slain Vrtra (TS.) ; te~ ha^ucur : agnaye tistha^iti tdtas tasthav, agndye 
va asthad iti tam agnav ajuhavuh they said : stand still for Agni ; then 

346 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [213-214 

it stood still; thinking it has stood still for Agni, they sacrificed it in Agni 

2. it is employed by the author with regard to what from his own 
point of view has either just happened or has occurred in the more 
remote past ; e. g. sa b&ndhur sunaslryasya ya"m purva"m dvocama 
this is the import of the Sunasirya oblation which we have explained above 
(SB.) ; puro va etan deva akrata yat purolasams tat purolasanam 
purolasatvam because the gods have made these cakes their castles, the cakes 
are so called (AB.). The adverb pura is not infrequently used with 
these aorists ; e. g. na va et&sya brahmanah. pura^dnnam aksan 
Brahmins have never hitherto eaten his food (TS.). 

3. it expresses what results from a ritual act or is antecedent to it ; 
e. g. putr&sya nama grhnati : prajam eva^anu s&m atanit he gives his 
son a name : he has thus extended his race (MS.); et&d v&i trtiyam yajnam 
apad ydc chdndamsi^apnoti thereby he has obtained the third sacrifice when 
he obtains the metres (TS.) ; y&d dM w asya w amedhya'm &bhut t&d dhi w 
asya w eta"d avadhunoti what has been impure in it, that in it he shakes off in 
this way (SB.). 

D. The pluperfect, as an augmented perfect, is equivalent 
to the corresponding Greek tense in form only. It cannot 
be distinguished in syntactical use from the impf. in some 
examples and from the aor. in others ; e.g. atra samudra 
a gulham a suryam ajabhartana then ye brought the sun 
hidden in the sea (x. 72 7 ) ; ud u sya devah savita yayama 
hiranyayim amatim yam asisret that god Savitr noiv has 
raised up the golden sheen which he has spread out (vii. 38 1 ). 


214. A. 1. The simple future is in comparatively rare 
use in V., being formed from only fifteen roots in the RV. 
and from rather more than twenty others in the AY. This 
limited employment is accounted for by its sense being 
partly expressed by the subjunctive and to some extent by 
the present. It means that, according to the opinion, 
expectation, intention, hope or fear of the speaker, an action 
is to take place in the near or the remote future. The 
sphere of the future includes that of the will, the specific 
meaning of the subjunctive, but the stress is here laid on 

214] FUTURE 347 

the futurity rather than the purpose j e. g. atha^atah pasor 
vibhaktis : tasya vibhagam vaksyamah next (comes) the 
division of the (sacrificial) animal: (now) we will (shall) state 
its division (AB.). 

Examples from the RV. are : stavisyami tvam aham I shall praise 
tltee (i. 44 5 j ; kim svid vaksyami kim u nu manisye what pray shall 
I say, what shall I now think ? (vi. 9 6 ) ; yady eva karisy&tha sakam 
devair yajniyaso bhavisyatha if ye will do so, you will be partakers of the 
sacrifice with the gods (i. 161 2 ) ; n& tvavarn indra kas cand na jato na 
janisyate no one equal to thee, Indra, has been born or will be born. 

2. In B. the simple future is frequently used after verbs of speakiiig, 
knowing, thinking, hoping, fearing, which are sometimes also to be 
supplied ; e.g. so 'bravid : id&m m&yi vlryam, t&t te prd dasyami w 
iti he said : here is heroism in me, that I will give thee (TS.) ; te ha^ucuh 
kena rajna, kena^&nikena yotsyama iti they said : with whom as king, 
with whom as leader shall we fight ? (SB.) ; t&tra vidyad : varsisyati^iti 
in regard to that he should know : it will rain (SB.) ; indro ha va Iksam 
cakre : mahdd va ito 'bhvdm janisyate Indra reflected : a great abuse 
iv ill arise from this (SB.) ; sarva devata asamsanta : mam abhi prati 
patsyati^iti all the gods hoped : he idll begin with me (AB.) ; yddi bibhiyad 
duscarma bhavisyami^,iti if he should fear, l l shall suffer from skin disease' 
(TS.); dsura va istaka aeinvata : divam a roksyama iti the Asuras 
built up the bricks (thinking) : we shall scale heaven (MS.). 

a. After an impv., the fut. is often used with dtha; e.g. p&tim nu 
me punar yuvanam kurutam : atha vam vaksyami (SB.) make my 
husband young again : then I shall tell you (two). 

/3. After the iinpv. of a-i or pra-i the 1. pers. fut. is equivalent to 
an exhortation ; e. g. pra^ita, tad esyamah come, WQ will go there (SB.). 

7. With the negative n&, the 2. and even the 3. pers. may have the 
value of a prohibition ; e. g. devan raksamsi . . ajighamsan : n& yaks- 
yadhva iti the Eaksases wished to slay the gods (saying) : you shall not sacri- 
fice (SB.); tan visve deva anonudyanta neha pasyanti neha w iti all 
the gods drove them back (saying) : they shall not drink here, not here 

B. The periphrastic future though not occurring in V., is frequent 
in B. It expresses that something will take place at a definite point 
of time in the future. It is therefore often accompanied by such 
words as pratar early in the morning, sv&s to-morrotv (but never by adya 
to-day). The point of time, however, need not be expressed by an 
adverb ; it may be defined by a clause. Examples are : samvatsara- 
tamlm ratrim a gachatat, tan ma 6kam ratrim ante sayitase, jat u 
te 'yam tarhi putro bhavita come for the night of this day year, then you 


will lie beside me for one night, then too this son of thine will be born (SB.) ; 
y&di pura samsthanad diryeta^ady& varsisyati^iti bruyad ; y&di 
s&msthite svo vrasta w iti bruyat if it (the vessel) should be broken before 
the completion (of the sacrifice) he should say : it will rain to-day ; if it has 
been completed, he should say : it will rain to-morrow (MS.) ; yarhi vava vo 
maya^artho bhavita, tarhy eva vo 'ham punar agantasmi ivhen you will 
have need of me, then (on that particular occasion) I will come back to you 

a. Sometimes this form is used to express not that an action will 
take place at a definite time, but that it will take place with certainty ; 
e.g. sa^eva^iyam adya\^,&pi pratistha, sa^u ev& w &pi w ito 'dhi bhavita 
this is the foundation to-day, and it will also (certainly) be so in future (SB.). 

A. Imperative. 

215. The only pure impv. forms are those of the 2. 3. sing. 
and 3. pi., represented by bhava and bhavatat, bhavasva ; 
bhavatu ; bhavantu, bhavantam. The forms later regarded 
as imperatives of the l.pers., bhavani, bhavava, bhavama 
are subjunctives (cp. 131): while the 2. 3. du. and 2. pi. 
bhavatam, bhavatam, bhavetham, bhavetam; bhavata, 
bhavadhvam, are injunctives (cp. 122 a a). 

a. The impv. does not express commands only, but also 
a desire in the widest sense, such as a wish, a request, 
advice, a direction ; e. g. devam iha^a vaha bring hither the 
gods (i. 14 12 ) ; ahelamano bodhi le not angry (i. 24 11 ) ; 
imani^asya sirsani chinddhi cut off these heads of his (MS.) ; 
vrkse" navam prati badhnisva tie the ship to the tree (SB.) ; 
pra vam asnotu sustutih may the hymn of praise reach you 
two (i. 17 9 ) ; hanta na 6ko vettu come, let one of us find 
out (SB.). 

&. The sphere of the ordinary impv. is the present ; it 
may, however, still be used for the later of two opposed 
actions ; e. g. varam vrmsva^atha me punar dehi choose 
a loon and then give it me laclt (TS.). The form in tad, 
however, has a tendency in V. to express the more remote 
future, and in B. does so distinctly ; e. g. iha w eva ma 
tisthantam abhye'hi^iti bruhi, tarn tii na agatam pratipra 

215] IMPERATIVE 349 

brutat tell her : come to me as I stand here ; when she has 
come, you shall (then) tell it us (SB.). As this form is only 
active, the subj. takes its place in middle verbs ; thus tarn 
vrnisva = do thou choose it (now) as opposed to tarn vrnasai 
choose it then (SB.). 

a. The genuine impv. seems never to be found in negative sen- 
tences ; thus it never appears in V. with the prohibitive particle ma 
(which is used with injunctive forms only, and in B. almost exclu- 
sively with the aor. inj.). It is employed in positive principal clauses 
only ; e. g. v( no dhehi y&tha jivama so dispose us that ive may live (&B.). 
A subordinate clause with ind., subj., or (very rarely) opt. may pre- 
cede or follow ; e. g. y&s tvam dutdm sapary&ti, tdsya sma pravita 
bhava be the promoter of him who adores thee as a messenger (i. 12 8 ) ; s&m. 
vidusa nay a yo . . anusasati bring us together with one who knows, who 
may give us directions (vi. 54 1 ) ; id&m me haryata v&co ya"sya t&rema 
t&rasa satdm himah gladly accept this word of mine by the force of which we 
would pass a hundred winters (v. 54 15 ). In such periods the form with 
tad would regularly be used in B. 

0. The RV. has a number of 2. sing, forms made with si added 
directly to the root, which are clearly used imperatively, as is indicated 
by their being generally accompanied by imperatives (sometimes by 
subjunctives and imperatives) ; e.g. a deve"bhir yahi y&ksi ca come 
with the gods and sacrifice (i. 14 l ). These forms are confined to the RV. 
(and passages borrowed from it) except satsi (AV. vi. HO 1 ) ; and they 
are restricted to positive principal sentences. 

B. Injunctive. 

Formally this mood corresponds to an tmaugmented past 
tense (including the 2. 3. du. and 2. pi. as represented by 
act. bhavatam, bhavatam, bhavata ; mid. bhavetham, 
bhavetam, bhavadhvam, which later came to be regarded 
as imperatives). Its use constitutes one of the chief 
difficulties of Vedic grammar and interpretation, because it 
cannot always be distinguished from the subjunctive (e. g. 
gamat might be the subj. of a-gan or the inj. of a-gamat) 
or from an unaugmented indicative (e. g. carah might be = 
acarah). Judged by its uses the inj. probably represents 
a very primitive verbal form which originally expressed an 
action irrespective of tense or mood, the context showing 


which was meant. The addition of the augment gave the 
sense of a past tense to one set of forms, while the rest 
finally became incorporated with the impv. The general 
meaning of the inj. expresses a desire, combining the senses 
of the subj., the opt., and the impv. As compared with the 
subj., the inj. is essentially appropriate in principal clauses, 
though it sometimes appears in subordinate clauses intro- 
duced by relatives or the relative conjunctions yad and 

a. The first person expresses an intention the execution 
of which lies in the power of the speaker ; e. g. indrasya 
mi viryani pra vocam now I will proclaim the heroic deeds of 
Indra (i. 32 1 ). Sometimes, however, the execution depends 
on another ; e. g. agnim hlnvantu no dhiyas : te~na jesma 
dhanam-dhanam let our prayers urge Agni : through him we 
shall assuredly win booty after booty (x. 156 1 ). 

1). The second person is used exhortatively, very often 
beside an impv. ; e. g. suga nah supatha krnu ; pusann 
iha kratum vidah do thou make fair paths for us easy to 
traverse ; Pusan, here procure us tvisdom ; adya no deva 
savih saubhagarn, para dusvapnyam suva to-day, god, 
procure us good fortune; drive away evil dream (v. 82 4 ). 
A parallel opt. is much less common ; e. g. ete"na gatum 
vido nah ; a no vavrtyah suvitaya by reason of that find 
for us the path; mayst thou bring us to ivelfare (i. 173 13 ). 

c. The third person also is used exhortatively, very often 
beside an impv. ; e. g. s6mam vetu vasatkrtim ; agnir 
jusata no girah let him come to this Vamt call; may Agni 
accept our songs (vii. 15) ; it is often accompanied by a 
2. sing. impv. ; e. g. a^idam barhir yajamanasya sida ; 
atha ca bhud uktham indraya sastam seat thyself upon this 
straw of the sacrificer ; and then may the hymn be sung to Indra 
(iii. 53 3 ). It appears less frequently with the subj. ; e. g- 
lipa brahmani srnava ima no, atha te yajnas tanve vayo 
dhat mayst thou listen to these our prayers, and then let the 

215] INJUNCTIVE 351 

sacrifice bestow vigour on thyself (vi. 40 4 ). A parallel opt. is 
not common ; e. g. pari no heti rudrasya vrjyah, pari 
tvesasya durmatir mahi gat would that the dart of Eudra 
pass us by, let the great malevolence of the impetuous one avoid 
us (ii. 33 U ). 

d. The injimctive is very frequently used alone (unaccom- 
panied by any other modal form) in an impv. sense ; e. g. 
ima havya jusanta nah let them accept these oblations of 
ours (vi. 52 11 ) ; the preceding verse has the regular impv. : 
jusantam yujyam payali let them accept the suitable milk. 

In negative sentences the inj. is the only mood (with the 
exception of the single opt. form bhujema) with which 
the prohibitive particle ma can be used ; e.g. ma na indra 
para vrnak do not, Indra, abandon us (viii. 97 7 ) ; visvayan 
ma na a gan let not any swelling thing come, near us (vii. 50 l ) ; 
ma tantus chedi let not the thread be cut (ii. 28 5 ). The aor. 
form is commoner than the impf. form in the KV., but its 
relative predominance has greatly increased in the AV. 

e. The inj. not infrequently expresses a future sense like 
the subj. (215 C) in two types of sentences: 

1. in positive interrogative sentences ; e. g. k6 no many a 
aditaye piinar dat who ivill give us back to great Aditi? 
(i. 24 1 ). The subj. itself is here sometimes found beside it ; 
e. g. kada martam aradhasam pada ksumparri iva sphurat, 
kada nah susravad girah. when will he spurn the niggardly 
mortal like a mushroom with his foot ; when will he hear our 
songs? (i. 84 8 ). 

2. in negative sentences with na ; e. g. yam aditya abhi 
druh6 raksatha, ne'm agham nasat whom, Adityas, ye 
protect from harm, him misfortune will not reach (viii. 47 1 ). 

a. In B. the use of the inj. in positive sentences has almost entirely 
disappeared. The SB., however, preserves several examples; e.g. 
devan avat let it refresh the gods ; also sometimes in subordinate 
clauses, especially with ne"d ; e. g. ne"d idam bahirdha yajuad bhavat 
Jest it be outside the sacrifice. 

On the other hand the inj. is very frequent in negative sentences, 


in which it constantly appears with ma, in the vast majority of cases 
in the aor. form. Only a few examples of the impf. form occur : ma 
vadhadhvam slay not (TS.) ; ma bibhita fear not (AB.); kilbisam nu 
ma yatayan let them not reprove it as a fault (AB.) ; and from the perfect : 
ma susupthah sleep not (&B.). 

C. Subjunctive. 

The meaning of the subj. is best brought out by contrast- 
ing its use with that of the opt. From this it appears that 
the fundamental sense of the subj. is will, while that of the 
opt. is either wish or possibility (this mood being therefore 
alternatively called optative or potential). This distinction 
appears clearly from the fact that in the first person in 
independent sentences one group of verbs in the EV. employs 
the subj. exclusively or almost exclusively, while another 
employs the opt., because in the former the execution is 
dependent on the will of the speaker, while in the latter 
it is not in his control, but is only possible. With the subj. 
are thus used the verbs han strike, kr make, su press, bru 
speak. With the opt. on the- other hand appear : ji conquer, 
tr overcome, sah conquer as and nas obtain, vid acquire, is 
l>e master of', sac be associated with ; a-vrt attract (to the 
sacrifice) ; sak be able ; mad be happy ; rdh prosper ; pas live 
to see', as be (with predicates such as prosperous, &c.); also 
certain sacrificial verbs : idh kindle (with the co-operation of 
the god), das worship, vac and vad speak (effectively), vidh 
serve, sap please = obtain the favour o/(a god), hu call (= bring 

1. The meanings expressed by the different persons of the 
subj. are the following : 

The first person declares the will of the speaker; e.g. 
svastaye vayum lipa bravamahai for welfare we( wily invoke 
Vayu (v. 51 12 ). It is often accompanied by the particles mi 
and hanta ; e. g. pra nu voca sute"su vam I will now praise 
you two at the libations (v. 69 1 ). The 1. du. and pi. may also 
express an exhortation to another to share an action with 


the speaker, an impv. usually then preceding; e.g. daksi- 
nato bhava me : adha vrtrani janghanava bhuri stand on 
my right : then ive two ivill slay many Joes (x. S3 7 ) ; or an 
exhortation to aid the speaker ; e. g. J6sama w indra tvaya 
yuja we will conquer (= let us -conquer) with thee as our ally 
(viii. 63 11 ). 

In B. the usage is the same ; e. g. v&ram vrnai / will choose a boon 
(TS.) ; hanta^iman bhisayai well, I will terrify them (AB.) ; vayum deva 
abruvan : somam rajanam hanama^iti the gods said to Vdyu : let us slay 
king Soma (TS.). 

The second person is used exhortatively : hano vrtram, 
jaya apah slay Vrtra, win the waters (i. 80 3 ). It often 
follows a 2. pers. impv. ; e. g. agne srnuhi ; deve"bhyo 
bravasi/*ear, OAgni, do thou say to the gods (i. 139 7 ); sometimes 
it follows a 3. pers. impv. ; e. g. a vam vahantu . . asvah, 
pibatho asm6 madhuni let the horses bring you two ; do ye 
drink the honied draughts beside us (vii. 67 4 ). When an 
expectation is indicated, the subj. is almost equivalent to 
a future ; e. g. achanta me, chadayatha ca nunam ye have 
pleased me and ye shall please me now (i. 165 12 ). 

In B. the 2. pers. subj. is used only when the speaker makes a condi- 
tion or gives a direction relating to the (not immediate) future ; e. g. 
atho etam varam avrnlta : maya^eva pracim disam pra janatha^,iti 

so he made this condition: through me ye shall (in future) discover the eastern 
quarter (AB.). 

The third person is as a rule used in exhortations to the 
gods, though the subject is not always the name of the deity; 
e.g. imam nah srnavad dhavam he shall hear this our 
call (viii. 43 22 ) ; pari no helo varunasya vrjyah. ; uriim 
na indrah krnavad u lokam may the wrath of Varuna 
avoid us; Indra shall procure us wide space (vii. 84 2 ); sa 
devam a w iha vaksati he shall bring the gods hither (i. I 2 ) ; pra 
te sumna no asnavan thy good intentions shall reach us 
(viii. 90). The subj. sentence is sometimes connected with 
a preceding one ; e.g. agnim lie : sa u sravat I praise Agni: 
he shall hear (viii. 43 24 ). The subj. here often approaches the 


future in sense, being then usually opposed with imnam or 
nii to another verb : lid u sya devah savita . . asthat : 
nunam devdbhyo vi hi dhati ratnam god Savitr lias just 
arisen : lie will now distribute bounty to the gods (ii. 38 1 ) ; 
uvasa^usa uchac ca nii Dawn lias flushed (in the past) and 
she will flush now (i. 48 3 ). Sometimes there is no opposition ; 
e.g. a gha ta gachan littara yugani, yatra jamayah. krna- 
van ajami there shall come those later generations ivhen those 
who are akin will do what befits not kinsmen (x. 10 10 ). 

In B. the 3. pers. sub]', is not found in the hortative sense, appearing 
only when a condition, promise, or curse is expressed ; e.g. vrnisva w 
ity abruvan ; so 'bravm : maddevatya^eva samid asad iti they said : 
choose a boon; he replied : the fuel shall be sacred to me (MS.) ; sa^abravid : 
v&ram vrnai ; khatat parabhavisy&nti manye : t&to ma para bhuvam 
fti ; pura te samvatsarad dpi rohad ity abravit she said , I will make a 
condition ; J think I shall perish in consequence of digging ; let me not perish. 
He replied: before the lapse of a year for you, it (the wound) shall heal up 
(TS.) ; devas tan asapan : svena vab. kiskuna vajrena vrscan iti the 
gods cursed them (the trees) : they shall destroy you with your own handle, 
with a bolt (TB.). The 3. pers. subj. often also expresses the purpose of 
a ceremony ; e. g. 6rnad iti saram&yam barhir bhavati (MS.) the litter is 
made of reeds with the intention : it shall destroy him (the adversary). 

2. The syntactical employment of the subj. is twofold. 

a. It appears in principal sentences : 

a. with interrogatives, either the pronoun or the adverbs 
katha how ? kada when, and kuvid ; e. g. kim u nii vah 
krnavama what, pray, shall we do for you ? (ii. 29 3 ) ; katha 
mane" rudriyaya bravama how shall we speak to the great 
Eudra-host? (v. 4 1 11 ) ; kada nah susravad girah when will 
he hear our prayers ? (i. 84 8 ). kuvid nearly always accen- 
tuates the verb (which is thus treated as in a subordinate 
clause) : e. g. asvina sii rse stuhi : kuvit te sravato havam 
the Asvins praise well, seer: shall they hear thy call? 
(viii. 26 10 ). 

In B. first persons only seem to be met with in this use, and an 
interrogative word is sometimes lacking. 

/3. In negative sentences with na not ; e. g. na ta nasanti ; 


na dabhati taskarah they perish not ; no thief shall ((tan) harm 
them (vi. 28 3 ). 

In B. nd is similarly used ; e. g. nd^ato 'parah kds cand sahd sdri- 
rena^amfto 'sat from now onwards no one shall be immortal with his body 
(SB.). Once only, in a command, is the subj. used with mS : akamam 
sma ma ni padyasai you shall not approach me (in future) against my icill 


1). In dependent clauses the subj. is used either with a 
negative or with relatives (pronominal or adverbial) : 

a. in a final sense with the negative particle ne~d that not, 
lest. The antecedent clause has either an ind. or an impv. ; 
e.g. hotrad aham varuna bibhyad ay am, n6d eva ma 
yunajann atra devah. fearing the office of Hotr, Varuna, 
I went aivay, lest the gods should appoint me thereto (x. 5 1 4 ) ; 
vy ucha duhitar divo ma ciram tanutha apah, ne~t tva 
stenam yatha ripum tapati suro arcisa shine forth, daugh- 
ter of the sky, delay not long thy work, lest the sun scorch thee, 
like a hostile thief, with his ray (v. 79 9 ). 

In B. the antecedent clause has either an ind. or an opt. ; e. g. a"tha 
y&n nd pr^ksate, ne"n ma rudro hindsad iti now (the reason) why he does 
not look is lest Rudra should injure him (SB.) ; ta"n rid dadbhih khaded, 
n6n ma iddm rudriyam dato hindsad iti he should not chew it with his 
teeth, lest this that belongs to Rudra injure his teeth (SB.). A gerundive in 
the antecedent clause has also been noted in the AB. 

/3. in relative clauses : 

1. such a clause normally precedes if it contains a suppo- 
sition determining the sense of the principal clause ; the 
latter usually has an impv., not infrequently a subj., seldom 
an inj. or ind. ; e. g. yo nah prtanyad, apa tam-tam id 
dhatam whoever shall combat us, him do ye two slay (i. 132 6 ); 
yas tiibhyam dasan na tarn amho asnavat ivho shall serve 
thee, him no distress can reach (ii. 23 4 ); uta nunam yad in- 
driyam karisya indra paumsyam, adya nakis tad a 
minat and what heroic, manly deed thou, Indra, shalt now do, 
that let no one belittle to-day (iv. 30 23 ) ; yasmai tvam suk^te 
jataveda, u lokam agne krnavah syonam, sa rayim 

A a 2 


nasate svasti the righteous man for whom thou shall procure, 
Agni Jatavedas, a comfortable place, he obtains riches for 
iveljare (v. 4 11 ). 

In B. the use of the subj. in relative clauses is similar ; but here 
the subj. is by far the commonest form in the principal clause, the 
impv. and hid. (sometimes omitted) being rare ; e. g. tany abru- 
van, v&ram vrnamahai : ydd dsurafi. j&yama, t&n uah sahd^asad iti 
they said, we will make a condition : what we shall win from the Asuras that 
shall le ours in common (TS.) ; yds tva kds ca^upayat, tusnim evd^asva 
whoever shall come towards you, sit still ; yad vindSsai tdt te 'gnihotram 
kurmah what thou shall find, that we (shall) make thy fire-oblation (MS.) ; 
tdd v&i s&mrddham y&m devah sadhaVe karmane jusantai that, indeed, 
(is) excellent, if the gods shall be pleased with him for a good work (SB.). In 
the last example the relative clause exceptionally follows. 

2. The relative clause follows if it expresses a final or 
consequential sense (in order that, so that) arising from the 
principal clause ; the latter usually has an impv., but some- 
times an inj., opt, or ind. ; e.g. sam pusan vidiisa naya, 
yd anjasa^anusasati, ya eva^idam iti bravat associate us, 
Pusan, with a wise (guide) who shall at once direct us and 
who shall say : here it is (vi. 54 1 ) ; asmabhyam tad radha a 
gat, sam yat stotrbhya apaye bhavati let that wealth come 
for us which shall be a blessing to thy praisers and thy kinsman 
(ii. 38 11 ); tad adya vacah prathamam masiya y6na w asu- 
ram abhi deva asama I would to-day think of that as the 
first (point) of my speech wliereby we gods shall overcome the 
Asuras (x. 53 4 ) ; imam bibharmi sukrtam te ankusam 
y^na^arujasi maghavan chaphariijah I bring to thee this 
well-fashioned weapon (with which =) in order that thou shouldst 
break the hoof-breakers (x. 44 9 ). The subj. of these relative 
clauses sometimes comes to have a purely future sense; 
e. g. 6 (=a w u) t6 yanti y6 aparisu pasyan those are coming 
who in future days will see her (i. 113 11 ). 

In B. this type of relative clause with the subj. is rare ; e. g. y&n ma 
dhinaVat t&n me kuruta procure for me that which shall refresh me (SB.) ; 
h&nta vaydm t&t srjamahai y&d asmau, anvdsad iti come, let us create 
what shall come after us (SB.). 


y. with relative conjunctions : 

1. yad, which, if the clause is determinative, means wlien ; 
the dependent clause then precedes, while the principal clause 
usually contains an impv., but sometimes an inj., a subj., 
or an opt. ; the conjunction means in order that, so that, if the 
dependent clause is final or consequential ; the dependent 
clause then follows, \vhile the principal clause contains an 
impv., a subj., or an ind., e. g. 

if yad = when : liso yad adya bhanuna vi dvarav 
rnavo divah, pra no yachatad avrkam Daivn, ivhen to- 
day with thy beam thou shalt open the doors of heaven, then 
bestow on us safe shelter (i. 48 15 ) ; yad adya bhagam vibhaj- 
asi nrbhya, liso devo no atra savita damuna anagaso 
vocati suryaya when thou shalt to-day distribute a share to men, 
Dawn, god Savitr, the house friend, shall declare us guiltless 
to Surya (i. 123 3 ); yad va agah pnrusata karama, ma vas 
tasyam dpi bhuma ivhen we shall commit a sin against you 
after the manner of men, let us not have a part in that (shaft) of 
yours (vii. 57 4 ) ; yad didyavah. prtanasu prakrllan, tasya 
vam syama sanitara aj6h wJien shafts shall play in battles, of 
that conflict of yours we would be the winners (iv. 41"). 

if yad = in order that, or so that : sa a vaha devatatim 
yavistha, sardho yad adya divyam yajasi so bring hither the 
gods, youngest, that thou mayst adore the heavenly host to-day 
(iii. 19 4 ); tav6d u tah sukirtayd 'sann uta prasastayah, 
yad indra mrlayasi nah these laudations and praises shall 
be thine, that thou, Indra, mayst be merciful to us (viii. 45 33 ); 
na papaso manamahe, yad in nv indram sakhayam krnav- 
amahai we deem not ourselves wicked, (so) that we can now 
make Indra our friend (viii. 61 11 ). In such posterior clauses 
the yad sometimes comes to express the content of the 
principal clause ; e. g. na te sakha sakhyam vasty etat, 
salaksma yad visurupa bhavati (x. 10 2 ) thy friend wishes 
not this friendship, that she who is of the same type (= akin) 
shall become of a different kind (= not akin). This yad may 


once be translated by till : kiyaty a yat samaya bhavati 
ya vyusiir yas ca nunam vyuchan in ivhat time will it be 
that (= how long will it be till) she shall be between those that 
have shone forth and those that shall now shine forth? (i. 113 10 ). 

In B. the subj. is rarely found in these clauses with yad ; e.g. tat 
prapnuhi yat te prano vatam apipadyatai attain this that your breath 
shall transfer itself to the wind (SB.). 

2. yatra when seems not to occur in V. with the subj. 
when it is a genuine conjunction (that is, when it is not 
equivalent to the loc. of the relative pronoun). 

In B., however, it is found with the subj. in the sense of 
a future perfect ; e. g. yatra hota chandasah param gachat, 
tat pratiprasthata prataranuvakam upa kurutat when 
the Hotr shall have got to the end of the metre, then let the Prati- 
prasthatr start a Prataranuvaka (SB.). 

3. yatha with the subj. as an antecedent clause means as, 
the principal clause containing an impv. or a subj. ; as a 
posterior clause it has the sense of in order that, so that, the 
principal clause containing either a demand (generally impv., 
occasionally inj., opt., or gerundive) or a statement (ind. 
pres. or aor., act. or pass.). Examples of the first use are : 
yatha hotar manuso devatata yajasi, eva no adya yaksi 
devan as thou canst, priest, worship at the divine service of man, 
so do thou for us to-day worship the gods (vi. 4 1 ). This use does 
not seem to occur in B. Examples of the second use are : grhan 
gacha grhapatni yatha^asah go to the house that you may be 
mistress of the house (x. 85 26 ) ; idanim anna upavacyo 
nrbhih, sr6stham no atra dravinam yatha dadhat at this 
time of day he is to be addressed by men that tie may here bestow 
on us the best wealth (iv. 54 1 ); mahatam a vrnimah6 'vo, 
yatha vasu nasamahai we implore the favour of the great, in 
order that we may obtain riches (x. 36 n ) ; idam patram apayi 
matsad yatha saumanasaya devam this botvl has been drunk 
up, in order that it may exhilarate the god to benevolence 
(vi. 44 16 ). The negative in such clauses is na or nu. 


. In B. the usage is similar: the principal clause here contains 
either an impv. or a subj. ; e.g. tatha me kuru yatha^aham imam 
senam jayarii so arrange for me that I may conquer this army (AB.); sam- 
dham nu sam dadhavahai ydtha tvam ev& pravisaniti now let us two 
make an agreement in order that I may enter into thee (MS.). 

4. yada ivhen, with the subj. (pres. or aor.), which then 
has the value of a fut. perf., is regularly antecedent, the 
principal clause containing an impv. or a subj.; e.g. srtam 
yada karasi jatavedo, atha^im enam pari da t tat pitr- 
bhyah tvhen thou shalt have made him done, then deliver him to 
the fathers (x. 16 2 ) ; yada gachaty asumtim etam, atha 
devanam vasanir bhavati when he shall have gone to that 
spirit world, then he shall become subject to the gods (x. 16 2 ). 
yada kada ca whenever seems to give the verb the same 
sense : yada kada ca sunavama somam, agnis tva dut6 
dhanvaty acha whenever ^ve shall have pressed Soma, Agni 
shall hasten to thee as a messenger (iii. 53 4 ). 

a. The usage of B. is the same ; e. g. s& yada tarn ativardha, atha 
karsum khatva t&syam ma bibharasi when I shall have outgrown that 
(vessel), then having dug a trench you shall keep me in it (SB.). 

5. yadi ?/with the subj. generally precedes the principal 
clause, which contains an impv., a subj., (rarely) an opt., or 
an ind. (sometimes to be supplied); e.g. yadi st6mam 
mama sravad, asmakam indram indavo mandantu if he 
shall hear my praise, let these drops of ours gladden Indra 
(viii. I 15 ) ; yajama devan yadi saknavama we will adore the 
gods, if we shall l)e able (i. 27 lb ); yadi prati tvam haryah . . 
apa ena jayema if thou shalt accept (it) gladly, ive might thereby 
ivin the tvaters (v. 2 n ); indra ha varuna dh^stha, yadi 
sdmaih . . madayaite Indra and Varuna (are) the most 
liberal, if they shall delight in the Soma offerings (iv. 4 1 3 ). 

a. In B. the subj. with yadi is very rare ; an example is : yadi tva^, 
et&t punar braVatas, tv&m brutat if they two shall say this again to thee, do 
thou say (SB.). 

6. yad so long as occurs twice with the subj. in the EV. : 
ananukrtyam apunas cakara yat suryamasa mitha ucca- 

360 OUTLINES OF SYNTAX [215-216 

ratah he lias once for all done what is inimitable so long as sun 
and moon alternately shall rise (x. 68 10 ); vasistham ha varu- 
no . . rsim cakara . . yan mi dyavas tatanan, yad usasah 
Varuna has made Vasutha a seer, so long as the days shall 
extend, so long as the dawns (vii. 88 4 ). In B. yad doos not 

8. The subj. is sometimes used in an antecedent clause 
with ca in the sense of if, which is then treated as a subor- 
dinate conjunction and accentuates the verb ; e. g. indras 
ca mrlayati no, na nah pascad agham nasat if Indra 
shall l)e gracious to us, no evil shall afterwards touch us (ii. 41 11 ). 

D. Optative or Potential. 

216. 1. The meaning of the opt. is predominantly a 
wish, which is modified according to the person of the verb. 

The first person, which is very common, expresses the 
wish of the speaker, generally addressed to the gods ; e. g. 
lisas tarn asyam yasasam rayim Dawn, I would obtain 
that glorious wealth (i. 92 8 ) ; vidh^ma te stdmaih we would 
worship thee with songs of praise (ii.9 3 ); vayam syama patayo 
rayinam we would be lords of riches (iv. 50 G ). 

In B. the sense of the first person is similar, but its occurrence, 
owing to the nature of the subject-matter, is far less common; e.g. 
vise ca ksatraya oa samadam kuryam I should like to create enmity between 
people and nobility (MS.). 

. The second person is much less common. It is almost 
exclusively used to express a wish or a request addressed to 
a god ; e. g. a no mitravaruna hotraya vavrtyah pray bring 
Mitra and Varuna to our oblation (vi. II 1 ); tya me havam a 
jagmyatam so, pray, do ye two come to my call (vi. 50 10 ) ; pra 
su na ayur jivase tiretana do ye, pray, extend fully our 
allotted span that we may live (viii. 18 22 ). We might here 
often rather expect the impv., which indeed frequently 
either precedes or follows the 2. opt. ; e.g. dhisva vajram 
raksohatyaya : sasahistha abhi sprdhah take the bolt for 

216] OPTATIVE 361 

the slaughter of the demons : mayst thou overcome our foes 
(vi. 45 18 ); imam me samidham vaneh; ima u sii srudhi 
girah pray accept this my fuel ; graciously hear these songs 
(ii. 6 1 ). 

In B. the second person is used almost exclusively in wishes ; e. g. 
asmin yaj'amane bahvyah syata may you be numerous beside this sacriflcer 


The third person is used in the three different senses of 
wish, precept, or supposition ; e. g. midhvam asmakam 
babhuyat may he be bountiful to us (i. 27 2 ) ; imam amrtam 
dutam krnvita martyah. this immortal the mortal should make 
his messenger (viii. 23 19 ); prnann apir aprnantam abhi syat 
the friend who bestows would prevail over him who does not 
bestow (x. 117 7 ). In the sense of a supposition (regarded as 
possible or probable) the opt. seldom appears independently, 
but often in an apodosis. 

In B. it is common in all three senses : expressing a wish ; e.g. apas- 
uh syat may he be bereft of cattle (TS.) ; a general precept (where a 
gerundive may also be used) ; e. g. ks&ume vasana agnfm a dadhiya- 
tam, t6 adhvary&ve d6ye wearing linen garments the tiro should lay the 
fire ; the two (garments) should be given to the Adhvaryu (MS.) ; a supposition 
in the apodosis of periods, but seldom independently ; e.g. na^asya 
tarn ratrim apo grhan prd hareyur ; ,po v&i santih : sam&yeyur eva 
(MS.) they should not during that niyht bring water into his house ; for water 
is extinction : they would thus extinguish (if they did this). The protasis 
in this example must be supplied. 

2. The syntactical employment of the optative is two- 
fold : 

a. it appears in principal sentences (for the most part re- 
taining the sense of a wish) with interrogatives, either the 
pronoun or the adverbs katha Iww ? kada tvhen ? and kuvid ; 
e.g. kasmai devaya havisa vidhema what god ivould we 
worship with oblation? (x. 121 1 ); kada na indra ray a a 
dasasyeh when wouldst thou, Indra, bestow riches upon us ? 
(vii. 37 5 ); kuvit tutujyat sataye dhiyah (i. 143 6 ) would he 
not stimulate our prayers for gain ? (cp. p. 354, 2 a). A possi- 
bility is sometimes thus repudiated; e.g. kad dha nunam 


rta vadanto anrtam rapema how could ivc now speaking 
righteous words utter unrighteousness ? (x. 10 4 ). 

In B. the optative with interrogatives may express a wish, precept, 
possibility, or the repudiation of a suggestion : e. g. kath&ni mi pr& 
jayeya how should I propagate myself? (SB.) ; yamim eva purvam samset 
he should first pronounce the formula addressed to Yama (AB.); kim mama 
t&tah syat (SB.) what would then accrue to me (if I did this)? k&s td a 
driyeta who would pay attention to that ? (SB.). 

a. The opt. appears in negative sentences with na not, 
sometimes nu. cid never. The sense is either optative or 
potential ; e. g. na risyema kada cana may ice never suffer 
harm (vi. 54 9 ); nu cin mi vayor amrtam vi dasyet may 
the nectar of Vayu never' fail (vi. 37 3 ) ; na tad devo na mar- 
tyas tuturyad yani pravrddho vrsabhas cakara no god, 
no mortal could surpass what the mighty bull has done (viii. 96 2 ). 
The only opt. form with which the prohibitive ma occurs is 
bhujema: ma va 6no anyakrtam bhujema may we not 
suffer before you for a sin done ~by others (vi. 5 1 7 ). 

In B. the opt. is used with n& to express either a general prohibition 
or a potential sense ; e. g. tdsya^etdd vratdm : na^&nrtam vaden, n& 
mams6,m asniyat this is his ww: he should not speak the untruth, he should 
not eat meat ; na\_,enam dadhikrava can& pavayam kriyat Dadhikrdvan 
himself could not make him pure (MS.). 

b. In dependent clauses the opt. is used with relatives 
(pronominal or adverbial): 

a. such a clause having a determining sense, usually 
precedes. This type is very rare in V. ; e. g. suryam yd 
brahma vidyat, sa id vadhuyam arhati a priest who should 
know Surya deserves the bridal garment (x. 85 34 ). 

In B., on the other hand, clauses of this type, which always imply 
a supposition, are very common. The opt. here expresses a precept 
or a potential sense ; the principal clause most often has the opt. 
also ; e. g. y&m dvisyat, t&m dhyayet whom he may hate, he should think 
o/"(TS.) ; yo va im&m al&bheta, mucyeta^asmiit papmanah he who were 
to offer this (bull), would be delivered from this sin (TS.). In the principal 
clause a gerundive occasionally appears or the verb to be has to be 

216] OPTATIVE 363 

supplied ; e. g. yo rastrad apabhutah syafc tasmai hotavya this should 
be offered for him ivho should be deprived of his kingdom (TS.) ; yasya^agnayo 
gramyena^agnina samdahyeran, katatra prayascittih -if any one's fires 
should be united with a village fire, what expiation (is) there? (AB.). 

^. the relative clause, if it has a final or consequential 
sense (in order that, so that) follows. The principal clause 
contains an iinpv., a subj., or an opt. ; e.g. revatir nah 
sadharnada indre santu yabhir madema (i. 30 13 ) let our feasts 
beside Indra ~be rich (by which = ) that we may rejoice (in them) ; 
dhasatho rayim ye~na samatsu sahisimahl bestow wealth on 
us (by which =) that we may be victorious in battles (viii. 40 1 ); 
yaya^ati visva durita tarema sutarmanam adhi navam 
ruhema we would ascend the rescuing ship (by which =. ) that we 
may cross over all misfortunes (viii. 42 3 ). 

In B. final relative clauses with the optative are rare. 

y. with relative conjunctions : 

1. yad if: in the antecedent clause of pres. conditional 
periods, the condition being generally regarded as unful- 
filled. The apodosis normally contains a potential opt. 
(though isolated examples of the impv., inj., and ind. occur); 
e. g. yad agne syam aham tvam, tvam va gha sya aham, 
syus te satya iha^asisah if J, Agni, were thou, and thou 
wert I, thy prayers would be fulfilled (viii. 44 23 ); occasionally 
the fulfilment of the condition is expected ; e. g. yac chu- 
sruya imam havam durmarsam cakriya uta, bhaver apir 
no antamah if thou shouldst hear this call and shouldst not 
forget it, thou ivouldst be our most intimate friend (viii. 45 18 ). 
The temporal sense of when with the opt. seems to occur 
only once in the RV. (iii. 33 11 }. 

In B. (as in V.) y&d e/with the opt. is very common in the protasis, 
when the fulfilment of the condition is not expected (y&di with opt. 
being used when it is expected); e.g. sa ydd bhidyeta w artim arched 
yajamanah if it should be broken, the sacrificer would fall into calamity (TS.). 
The infinitive with Isvard may take the place of the opt. in the prin- 
cipal clatise ; e.g. yad etam samsed Isvarah parjanyo Varstoh if he 
were to repeat this (formula}, Parjanya might not rain (AB.). Sometimes the 


verb (opt. of as be) is omitted in the apodosis. The opt. with yad here 
rarely expresses a purely hypothetical case (that is, without the im- 
plication that the condition will not be fulfilled); e.g. yan mam 
praviseh kfm ma bhunjyah (TS.) if you were to enter me,ofwfiat use would 
you be to me 'f (afterwards he does enter Indra). 

a. yad with the opt. in the final sense of in order that is 
very rare ; e.g. yan nunam asyam gatim, mitrasya yayam 
patha in order that I might note obtain a refuge, I would go on 
tliepath o/Mitra (v. 64 3 ). 

0. In B. y&d with the opt in the sense of that is frequently used 
after aVa kalpate is suitable, tit sahate endures, ichati desires, ve"da 
knows, yukto bhavati is intent, in posterior clauses ; e. g. n& hi t&d 
avak&lpate y&d bruyat/or it is not fitting that he should say (SB.) ; n& va 
ah dm id dm ut sane y&d vo hota syam (SB.) I cannot endure this that 
should be ( = I cannot be) your Hofr- t&d dhy ev& brahmanena^estaVyam 
y&d brahmavarcasi syat/or that is to be aimed at by the Brahmin, that he 
should be pious (&B.); svay&m va et&smai deva yukta bhavanti y&t 
sadhu v&deyuh for the gods themselves are intent on this, that they should say 
what is right 0$B.) k& s t^d veda y&d vrataprad6 vratdm upotsincet 
for who knows (this that = ) whether he who hands the fast-milk (should add = ) 
adds (fresh milk) to it (SB.). In the &B. isvard also is used with this 
construction (in other Brahmanas with the infinitive only) to express 
a possible consequence (though the yad is nearly always omitted) ; 
e. g. paran asmad yajilo 'bhud iti^Isvaro ha yat tatha^evd syat the 
sacrifice has turned away from him : it is possible that this should be so (SB.). 
Otherwise the phrase regularly appears in the form of iti^isvaro ha 
tatha eva syat, perhaps because IsvarS, came to be regarded as a kind 
of adverb = possibly this might be so. 

7. In B. yd introducing a clause with the opt. accompanied by na 
and ending with fti, dependent on a verb of fearing or similar expres- 
sion, is equivalent to lest ; e. g. deva ha vai bibhayam cakrur ydd vai 
nah . . asuraraksasani^im&m gr&ham n& hanyur iti the gods feared 
lest the Asuras and Raksases should destroy this draught (SB.) ; indro ha va 
iksam cakre yd,n ma t&n nd w abhibhdved iti Indra pondered (fearing) 
lest that should vanquish him (SB.). 

2. yadi if with the opt. does not occur in the RV. and 
AV. at all, and only once in the SV. 

In B. it is very common, expressing a condition the fulfilment of 
which is assumed (while yd with opt. implies non-fulfilment of the 
condition). The clause with yddi generally precedes. The apodosis 

216] OPTATIVE 365 

a. usually the opt., which expresses a precept applicable when the 
condition is fulfilled ; e. g. y&di pura samsthanad diryeta^,ady& var- 
sisyati w iti bruyat if (the vessel) should be broken before the completion (of 
the sacrifice), he should say : it will rain to-day (MS.); yadi na saknuyat 
so 'gnaye purolasam nir vapet if he should not be able to do so, he should 
offer a cake to Agni (AB.). The precept occasionally has a potential 
sense ; e.g. y&dy 6kataylsu dvayisu va^avag&ched, aparodhuka enam 
syuh (MS.) if he (the banished man) should return after one or two libations, 
they might exclude him from the sovereignty (but not if he returns at the 
conclusion of the ceremony). 

/3. isvard with the infinitive ; e. g. isvaro ha yady apy anyo 
yajeta^atha hotaram yaso 'rtoh even -if another should sacrifice (instead 
of him), it is possible that fame should come to the Hotr (AB.). 

7. a gerundive ; sa yadi na jayeta, raksoghnyo gayatryo 'nucyah 
if it (the fire) should not be kindled, the demon-slaying verses are to be repeated 

8. an ind. (sometimes omitted if it is a form of as fee); 
e. g. tasmad yadi yajna rkta artih syad brahmana eva ni 
vedayante therefore if at the sacrifice there should be any failure 
with regard to a Re verse, they inform the Brahman priest (AB.); 
yadi no yajna rkta artih syat, ka prayascittih if we shall 
have an accident at the sacrifice in regard to a EC verse, what (is) 
the penance? (AB.). 

e. The difference between yad and yadi with the opt. 
may be illustrated by the following example : yan no jaye- 
yur ima abhyiipa dhavema, yady u jayema^ima abhyupa 
vartemahi^iti if they were to conquer us (not to be assumed), 
we should take refuge with these (friends), but ?/(as is to be 
assumed) we should conquer, we could again betake ourselves to 
them (MS.). 

3. yatha used in V. only in the sense of in order that, 
generally following the principal clause, which contains an 
impv., an inj., or an ind. ; e. g. apa visvam amitran midasva, 
yatha tava sarman madema drive away all foes that we may 
rejoice in thy protection (x. 131 1 ) ; tvaya yatha grtsamadaso 
. . uparam abhi syuh, suribhyo grnat6 tad vayo dhah 
bestow on the patrons and the singer this blessing that through 
thee tlie Grtsamadas may be superior to their neighbours (ii. 4 9 ) ; 


a daivya vrmmahe" 'vamsi, yatha bhavema milhuse ana- 

gah we implore the divine aids that we may be sinless before the 
gracious one (vii. 97 2 ). 

a. In B. yatha with the opt. has two uses : a. in antecedent clauses 
in the sense of as, as if, with a correlative meaning so in the principal 
clause, which contains an opt., an ind., or no verb ; e. g. yatha^eva 
chinna naur bandhanat plaveta JVw ,evam eva te plaveran just as a boat 
cut from its fastening would drift, so they would drift (AB.); s& yatha iiad- 
yai param parapasyed evam svasya^ayusah. param para cakhyau as 
if he were looking across to the farther bank of a river, so he saw the end of his 
life from afar (SB.) ; atho yatha bruyad etan me gopaya w \ti tadfg ev& 
tat then it (is) so as if he were to say : guard this for me (TS.). 

#. in posterior clauses in the sense of how, so that ; e. g. upa janita 
yatha w iyam ptinar agachet do ye find out how she could come back (SB.) ; 
tat tatha^evahotavyam yatha w agnim vyaveyat hence it is to be so poured 
that it may divide the fire (MS.). 

4. yatra and yada are not found with the opt. in V., and 
yarhi does not occur at all in the RV. and AV. 

In B. all three conjunctions are used hypothetically with the opt. in 
the sense of when. 

a. yatra, besides having the sense of when, in case, often seems to 
mean at the moment when, as soon as ; the principal clause has the opt. or 
the ind. : e. g. marutam saptakapalam nir vaped yatra vfd rajanam 
jfjyaset he should offer a cake on seven dishes to the Maruts in case the people 
were to oppress the king (MS.) ; si yatra prastuyat tad etani japet as soon 
as he (the priest) begins to sing, one should mutter the following prayers (SB.). 

0. yada as soon as seems often to imply that the action of the opt. 
should be assumed to be past ; it seems always to be followed by atha 
then e. g. s& yada samgramam jayed atha^,aindragnam nir vapet as 
soon as he may have icon a battle, he should sacrifice to Indra and Agni (MS.). 

7. yarhi tvhen is generally followed by the correlative tarhi then in 
the principal clause, which usually has the opt. also ; e. g. yarhi 
prajah ksiidham nigacheyus, tarhi navaratre'na yajeta when his people 
should be exposed to hunger, then he should sacrifice with the rite of nine nights 

5. ce'd */is used with the ind. only in the RV. and only 
once with the opt. in the AV. 

In B. it is used with the opt. like yadi (with which it may inter- 
change) ; e. g. etam ced anyasma anubrdyas, tata ev te siras chind- 
yam if you were to communicate this to another, I would cut off your head (SB.). 



217. This form, which occurs in the RV. and AV. in 
principal clauses only, and never interrogatively, expresses 
a prayer or wish addressed to the gods almost exclusively, as 
is to be expected from the nature of those texts ; e. g. yo no 
dv6sty adharah sas padista may lie who hates us fall to the 
ground (iii. 53 21 ). When a negative is used it is na ; e. g. 
bhago me agne sakhy6 na mrdhyah. may my good fortune, 
Agni, not relax in (thy) friendship (iii. 54 21 ). 

In B. the precative is almost restricted to verse or prose formulas 
quoted and to paraphrases of such formulas ; e. g. bhuyasinam utta- 
ram sdmam kriyasam iti g&vam l&ksma kuryat would that I may do 
(this) to more next year : so saying he should make the mark of the cows (MS.). 
sat&m hima iti satdm varsani jivyasam ity evfi^et&d aha by the expres- 
sion i a hundred winters ' he says this : i would tliat I may live a hundred years ' 
(SB.). It is, however, sometimes found in genuine prose narrative 
also ; e. g. sa ha vak prajapatim uvaca : dhavyavad eva^ab&m 
tubhyam bhuyasam Vac said to Prajdpati : I would like not to be a con- 
ductor of sacrifice for thee (SB.); t&m asapad: dhiya-dhiya tva vadhya- 
suh him (Agni) cursed (saying) : I wish they may kill thee with repeated 
deliberation (TS.). 


218. In V. the conditional occurs only once (RV. ii. 30 2 ) in 
a somewhat obscure passage, though the form abharisyat 
used after a past tense appears to mean ivould take away 
(in place of the future which would have been used after 
a present tense). 

In B. the conditional is once found in a simple interrogative sen- 
tence : t&ta evd^asya bhay&m viyaya : k&smad dhy dbhesyat there- 
upon his fear departed: for of what should he have been afraid? (SB.). 
Otherwise it occurs only in compound sentences : 

1. usually in both protasis and apodosis of conditional sentences, 
expressing what might have happened in the past, but did not happen 
because the condition was not fulfilled. The conditional clause is 
generally introduced by y&d, rarely by ysidi (216) ; e. g. s& ydd dha^&pi 
mukhad &drosyan, n ha w ev& prayascittir abhavisyat if it (Soma) had 
also flowed out of his mouth, there would not have been a penance (SB.); y&d ev&m 
na^aVaksyo murdha te vy apatisyat if you had not spoken thus, your 
head would have split asunder (SB.) ; padau te 'mlasyatam y&di ha na^, 
dgamisyah your feet would have withered, if you had not come (SB.). 


a. When yad is used with the opt. the supposed condition 
refers to the present (216). 

2. in relative clauses dependent on negative principal 
clauses containing a past tense (always of vid find) ; e. g. sa 
tad eva na^avindat prajapatir yad ahosyat Prajapati 
found nothing that he could sacrifice (MS.); sa vai tarn 
na^avindad yasmai tarn daksinam anesyat he found no 
one to whom he should give this sacrificial fee (TB.). 

3. in a clause introduced by yad that dependent on a 
negative (or equivalent) clause ; e.g. ciram tan mene yad 
vasah. paryadhasyata he thought it too long (that =) till he 
should put on the garment (SB.) = he thought the time was not 
short enough till lie should put on the garment. 



The order of the parts of the verb, when all are given, is : Present 
Indicative (PR.), Subjunctive (SB.), Injunctive (INJ.), Optative (OP.), 
Imperative (IPV.), Participle (PT.), Imperfect (lPF.)Q Perfect (PF.)) 
Pluperfect (PPF.)? Aorist (AO.)(?J Precative (PKC.) Future (FT.)0 
Conditional (co.), Passive (PS.), Present, Aorist, Past ^Participle (PP.) ; 
Gerundive (GDV.)(pGerund (oD.)(p Infinitive (INF.); Causative (cs.) f 
Desiderative (DS.)~; Intensive (INT.). 

The Koman numerals indicate the conjugational class of the verb ; 
P. signifies that the verb is conjugated in the Parasmaipada (active) 
only, A. that it is conjugated in the Atmanepada (middle) only. 

ams attain, V. : PR. asn6ti ; sn. asnavat ; IPV. asn6tu ; 

PT. asnuvant. PF. anamsa and anasa ; anasma, anasa, 

anasiir ; anasd ; SB. anasamahai ; OP. anasyam ; PT. 

anasana; PF. also asa, asatur, asiir; A. du. asathe, 

asate. AO. root : A. 3. s. asta, pi. asata ; INJ. asta, 

pi. asata; OP. asyat, PRO. 3. s. asyas (^asyas-t); s: SB. 

aksat; a: as6t. INF. astave. 
aks mutilate, V. : PR. IPV. aksnuhi. PF. PT. aksana. AO. 

is : aksisur. 
ac bend, I. : PR. acati. IPV. 2. s. aca ; acasva. PS. acyate ; 

PT. acyamana ; IFF. acyanta ; PP. akna (B.). GD. -acya. 
aj drive, I.: PR, ajati, ajate; SB. ajani, ajasi, ajati; OP. 

ajeta ; IPV. ajatu ; PT. ajant. IPF. ajat. PS. ajyate ; 

PT. ajyamana. INF. -aje. 
anj anoint, VII. : PR. anakti, ankt6 ; SB. anajat ; IPV. andhi 

( angdhi), anaktu; PT. anjant, anjana. IPF. afijan, 

PF. ananja ; anajd, anajr6 ; SB. anaja ; OP. anajyat ; 

PT. anajana. PS. ajyate; PT. ajyamana; PP. akta. 

GD. aktva (B.), -ajya (B.). 


ad eat, II. : PR. admi, atsi, atti ; adanti ; SB. adat, pi. 

adan (AV.) ; OP. adyat ; IPV. addhi, attu ; attam, attam ; 

atta, adantu ; PT. adant, adana. IFF. adat. FT. atsyati. 

pp. anna n. food. GD. attvaya (B.). INF. attum, attave, 

attos (B.). cs. adayati (B.). 
an breathe, P.: I. anati (AV.) ; VI.: anati (AV.); II.: 

aniti ; IPV. anihi ; PT. anant. IPF. amt. PF. ana. 

AO. anisur. FT. anisyati (B.). PP. anita(B.). -anya(B.). 

INF. anitum (B.). cs. anayati. 
am injure, II. : PR. amisi, amiti ; I. : PR. ame ; INJ. amanta ; 

IPV. amisva; PT. amamana. IPF. amit. PF. amir6 (B.). 

AO. amamat. PS. amyate. cs. amayati. 
arc praise, I. : PR. arcati ; SB. area, arcat ; arcama, arcan ; 

INJ. arcat ; arcan ; IPV. arcatu ; PT. arcant. IPF. arcan. 

PF. anrcur ; anrce\ PS. rcyate ; PT. rcyamana. INF. 

rcase. cs. arcayati. 
arh deserve, I. : PR. arhati ; SB. arhat ; PT. arhant. PF. 

anrhiir (TS.) ; arhir6. INF. arhase. 
av favour, I. P. : PR. avati ; SB. avat ; INJ. avat ; OP. avet ; 

IPV. avatu; PT. avant. IPF. avat. PF. avitha, ava. 

AO. root : OP. 2. avyas; PRC. 3. avyas ( = avyas-t) ; is : avit; 

SB. avisat; INJ. avit; IPV. aviddhi, avistu; avistam, 

avistam; avistana. FT. avisyati; PT. avisyant. PP. 

-uta. GD. -avya. INF. avitave. 
as eat, IX. : PR. asnati, asnanti ; asnit6, asnate ; OP. 

asniyat; IPV. asana; PT. asnant. IPF. asnam, asnat; 

asnan, asnan. PF. asa. AO. is : asisam, asis, asit ; 

INJ. asit. FT. asisyati (B.). PS. asyate ; PP. asita. 

GD. asitva (B.), -asya (B.). cs. asayati (B.). DS. 

asisisati (B.). 
1. as be, II. P. : PR. asmi, asi, asti ; sthas, stas ; smas, 

stha and sthana, santi ; SB. asani, asasi and asas, asati 

and asat ; asathas ; asama, asatha, asan ; INJ. 3. pi. 

san; OP. syam, syas, syat; syatam, syatam; syama, 

syata and syatana, syiir ; IPV. edhi, astu ; stam, stam ; 

sta, santu; PT. sant. IPF. asam, asis, as ( = as-t) and 


asit; astam, astam; asan. PF. asa, asitha, asa; asa- 

thur, asatur ; asima, asiir. 
2. as throw, IV. : PR. asyami, asyati and asyate ; asyamasi, 

asyanti ; IPV. asya and asyatat, asyatu ; PT. asyant. 

IPF. asyat. PF. asa. FT. asisyati. PS. asyate ; PP. asta. 

GD. -asya. INF. astave, astavai (B.). 
ah say, P. : PF. aha, attha (B.) ; ahatur (B.) ; ahur. 
ap obtain, V. : PR. apnoti. PF. apa, apitha ; apir6 ; PT. 

apana. AO. red.: apipan (B.) ; a: apat; OP. ap6yam 
.(AV.). FT. apsyati, - te (B. ) ; apta (B.). PS. apyate (B.) ; 

AO. api (B.) ; PP. apta. GD. aptva (B.), -apya (B.). INF. 

aptum (B.). cs. apayati (B.). DS. ipsati, ipsate (B.) ; 

AO. aipsit (B.) ; DS. of cs. apipayiset (B.). 
as sit, II. A. : PR. aste ; asathe, asate ; asmahe, asate ; 

SB. asate ; OPT. asita ; IPV. s. 3. astam, pi. 2. adhvam ; 

PT. asana and asina. IPF. pi. 3. asata. PF. asam cakre 

(B.). AO. asista (B.). FT. asisyati, -te (B.). PP. asita 

(B.). GD. asitva (B. ). INF. asitum (B.). cs. asayati (B.). 
i go, II. : PR. 6ti; yanti ; A. 1. s. iye, du. 3. iyate, pi. 1. 

imahe ; SB. aya, ayasi and ayas, ayati and ayat ; ayama, 

ayan; INJ. pi. 3. yan; OP. iyam, iyat; iyama; IPV. ihi, 

6tu ; itam, itam ; ita and eta, itana, yantu ; PT. yant, 

iyana. IPF. ayam, ais, ait ; aitam, aitam ; aita, ayan ; 

A. 3. pi. ayata. L: ayati, ayate; INJ. ayanta ; IPV. 

3. du. ayatam, pi. ayantam. V. : PR. inoti ; invir^. 

IPF. ainos, ainot. 

PF. iyetha and iyatha, iyaya; lyathur, lyatur; lyur; 

PT. lyivams. PPF. aiyes. FT. esyati; ayisyati (B.); 

eta (B.). PP. ita. GD. itva, -itya. INF. 6tum (B.) ; 

6tave, 6tavai, ityai, iyadhyai, ayase ; 6tos. 
idh kindle, VII. A. : PR. inddh6 ; indhate and indhat6 ; 

SB. inadhate ; IPV. indham (^inddham); indhvam 

(=inddhvam), indhatam; PT. indhana. IPF. aindiia. 

PF. Idh6 ; Idhire\ AO. SB. idhat6 ; OP. idhimahi ; PT. 

idhana. PS. idhyate; IPV. idhyasva; PT. idhyamana; 

pp. iddha. INF. -idham; -idhe. From the nasalized 
Bb 2 


root, inda, the is AO. is formed in B. : IND. aindhista ; 
OP. indhisiya. 

inv go, I. P. ( = V. i-nu + a): PR. invasi, invati; invathas, 
invatas. SB. invat; IPV. inva, invatu; invatam, in- 
vatam ; PT. invant. 

1. is desire, VI. : PH. ichati, -ta ; SB. ieliat ; INJ. ichas ; 
ichanta ; OP. ich6t ; ich^ta ; IPV. icha, ichatu ; ichata ; 
ichasva, ichatam ; PT. ichant ; ichamana. IPF. aichat. 
PF. (B.) iy6sa, Isiir ; Is6, Isir6. AO. (B.) aisit; aisisur. 
FT. (B.) esisyati, -te. PP. ista. GD. -isya. INF. 6stmn 
(B.) ; (stavai (B.). 

2. is send, IV. : PR. isyati, -te ; IPV. isyatam ; isyata ; 
PT. isyant. IX. : PR. isnati ; PT. isnant ; isnana. VI. : 
PR. is6 ; INJ. isanta ; OP. isma ; IPF. aisanta. PF. isathur, 
isiir; Is6, isir6. PP. isita. GD. -isya(B.). INF. isadhyai. 
cs. isayati^ -te ; INF. isayadhyai. 

Iks see, I. A. : PR. ikse ; PT. Iksamana. IPF. aiksata ; 

aiksetam; aiksanta. PER. PF. iksam cakre (B.). AO. is: 

aiksisi. FT. iksisyati, -te (B.). PP. iksita (B.). GDV. 

iksenya. GD. Iksitva (B.). cs. iksayati, -te. 
mkh swing: cs. Inkhayati, -te ; SB. inkhayatai (AV.), 

mkhayavahai ; IPV. inkhaya ; PT. mkhayant. PP. 

id praise, II. A. : PR. 1. lie, 3. itte ; ilate ; SB. ilamahai 

and ilamahe; INJ. ilata (3. pi.) ; OP. ilita; IPV. ilisva; 

PT. liana. PF. 116 (3. s.). PP. Ilita. GDV. idya, Il^nya. 
Ir set in motion, II. : PR. irte ; irate; SB. irat; IPV. irsva; 

iratham ; irdhvam, iratam; PT. Irana. IPF. airam, 

air-a-t, du. 2. air-a-tam; A. airata (3. pi.). PP. Irna (B.). 

cs. Irayati; SB. Irayamahe; INJ. Irayanta; IPV. Iraya, 

Irayatam; Irayasva; Irayadhvam; PT. irayant. IPF. 

airayat ; airayata ; INF. Irayadhyai. PP. Irita. 
Is l>e master, II. A. : PR. 1. ise, 2. ikse and isise, 3. iste, 

ise and (once) isate ; isathe ; ismahe, isidhve, isate ; 

INJ. isata (3. s.) ; OP. islya, isita ; PT. isana. PF. isire ; 

PT. Isana. 


is move, I. : PR. isati, -te ; 6sati ; INJ. 6sas ; IPV. isatu, 
6satu ; PT. 6sant ; isamana. PF. Is6 (1. 3.). PP. -isita. 

1. uks sprinkle, VI. : PR. uksati, -te ; IPV. uksatam, uksata ; 
uksetham ; PT. uksamana. AO. is : auksisam (B.). FT. 
uksisyati (B.). PS. uksyate (B.) ; PP. uksita. GD. 

2. uks (=vaks) grow, I. and VI. : PR. PT. uksant ; uksamana. 
IFF. auksat. AO. s : auksis. PP. uksita. cs. uksayate. 

ue be pleased, IV. P. : PR. ucyasi. PF. uvocitha, uvoca ; 

ucis6, uc6 ; PT. okivams, ucus. pp. ucita. 
ud wet, VIL: PR. unatti; undanti; undate (3. pi.). IPV. 

undhi ( unddhi); unatta; PT. undant. VI. P.: PR. 

undati (B.). IFF. aunat. PF. udiir. PS. udyate; 

pp. utta (B.). GD. -udya (B.). 
ubj force, VI. P. : PR. ubjati ; IPV. ubja, ubjatu ; ubjatam ; 

ubjantu; PT. ubjant. IPF. 2. ubjas, 3. aubjat. PP. 

ubjita. GD. -ubjya (B.). 
ubh confine, VII. P. : IPF. unap (2. s.), aumbhan (TS.). 

VI. P. : IPV. umbhata (2. pi.) ; IPF. aumbhat. IX. P. : 

IPF. ubhnas, aubhnat. PP. ubdha. 
us burn, I. P. : PR. 6sati ; INJ. osas ; IPV. osa and dsatat, 

6satu ; osatam ; PT. osant. IX. P. : PT. usnant. IPF. 

usnan. PF. uvosa (B.). AO. ausit (B.). PP. usta (B.). 

1. uh remove, I. : PR. uhati ; IPV. uha. IPF. auhat ; auhata, 
auhan ; A. auhata (3. s.). AO. auhit (B.) ; OP. uhyat 
(B.). PP. udha (B.). GD. -uhya and -lihya (B.). INF. 
-uhitavai (B.). 

2. uh consider, I. A. : PR. ohate. II. A. : PR. 6hate (3. pi.) ; 
PT. 6hana and ohana. PF. uh6 ; 2. du. uhyathe (=uh- 
athe ?). AO. auhista ; PT. ohasana. 

r go, VI. P. : PR. rchati (-te, B.) ; SB. rchat; IPV. rchatu; 
rchantu. III. P.: PR. iyarmi, iyarsi, iyarti; IPV. 
iyarta (2. pi.). V. : PR. rnomi, rn6ti ; rnvanti ; rnv6 ; 
rnvir6 ; INJ. rnos ; rnvan ; A. rnuta (3. s.) ; SB. rnavas ; 
IPV. : A. rnvatam (S. pi.) ; PT. rnvant. IPF. rnvan. pp. 
aritha, ara ; arathur, arur ; PT. arivams ; arana. AO. 


root : arta ; arata ; INJ. arta (A. 3. s.) ; OP. aryat (TS.) ; 

arita ; PT. arana ; a : aram, arat ; arata, aran ; A. arata 

(3. s.); aranta; SB. arama ; INJ. aram; aran; A. ara- 

mahi, aranta ; IPV. aratam, aratam. FT. arisyati (B.). 

pp. rta. GD. rtva, -ftya. cs. arpayati; AO. red.: 

arpipam ; PP. arpita and arpita. GD. -arpya, arpayitva 

(AV.). INT. alarsi, alarti. 
rj direct, VI. : PR. rnjati, -te ; IPV. rnjata ; PT. rnjant. 

VII. A.: PR. rnj<; rnjate (3. pi.); IV.: PR. rjyate ; 

PT. fjyant. I. : PR. arjati (B.). AO. PT. rnjasana. 

INF. rnjase. 
rd stir, VI. P. : IPV. rdantu. IPF. ardan. I. : PR. ardati 

(AV.). cs. ardayati ; SB. ardayati. 
rdh thrive, V. P. : PR. rdhndti ; IPF. ardhnot. IV. : PR. 

fdhyati, -te; IPV. fdhyatam. VII. P.: SB. rnadhat ; 

OP. rndhyam ; PT. rndhant. PF. anardha (K.) ; anrdhiir ; 

anrdhe\ AO. root : ardhma (B.) ; SB. rdhat ; A. rdhathe 

(2. du.) ; OP. rdhyam, rdhyas, rdhyama ; rdhimahi ; 

PRC. rdhyasam; PT. rdhant; a: OP. rdh^t, rdh6ma; 

is: ardhista (B.). FT. ardhisyate (B.j; ardhita (B.). 

PS. rdhyate; IPV. rdhyatam; PP. rddha. GDV. ardhya. 

cs. ardhayati. DS. irtsati ; PT. irtsant. 
rs rush, I. : PR. arsati, -te ; SB. arsat ; INJ. arsat ; IPV. 

arsa, arsatu ; arsata, arsantu ; PT. arsant. VI. P. : PR. 

rsati ; PT. rsant. PP. rsta. 
ej stir, I. P. : PR. ejati ; SB. djati and 6jat ; IPV. ejatu ; 

PT. 6jant. IPF. aijat. cs. ejayati (B.). 
edh thrive, I. A. : PR. <$dhate (B.) ; IPV. 6dhasva, <dhatam 

(B.). PER. PF. edham cakrire (B.). AO. is: OP. edhisiya. 
kan, ka enjoy, IV. : PR. PT. kayamana. PF. cak6 ; SB. 

cakanas, cakanat; cakanama; INJ. cakananta; OP. 

cakanyat ; IPV. cakandhi, cakantu ; PT. cakana ; 

PPF. cakan (2. s.). AO. akanisam ; SB. kanisas. 
kam love : PF. PT. cakamana. AO. red. : acikamata (B.). 

FT. kamisyate (B.); kamita (B.). cs. kamayate; SB. 

kamayase ; PT. kamayamana. 


kas appear, I.: PR. kasate (B.). INT. cakasimi, cakasiti ; 
cakasyate (B.) ; SB. cakasan (AV.) ; PT. cakasat. IPF. 
acakasam. cs. kasayati. 

kiip be angry, IV. : PR. PT. kiipyant. PP. kupita. cs. 

1. kr make. V. : PR. krnomi, krnosi, krnoti ; krnuthas, kr- 
nutas ; krnmasi, krautha, krnvanti ; A. krnv6, krnus6, 
krnut ; krnmahe, krnvate ; IN.T. krnvata (3. pi.) ; SB. 
krnava, krnavas, krnavat; krnavava; krnavama, 
krnavatha (VS.), krnavan ; A. krnavai, krnavase, 
krnavate; krnavavahai, krnvaite (for krnavaite); 
kmavamahai, krnavanta; OP. krnvita; IPV. krnii, 
krnuhi and krnutat, krnotu; krnutam, krnutam; 
krnuta, krnota, and krnotana, krnvantu ; A. krnusva, 
krnutam ; krnvatham ; krnudhvam ; PT. krnvant ; 
krnvana. IPF. krnavam, akrnos, akrnot; akrmitam; 
akrnuta, akrnota and akrnotana, akrnvan; A. akr- 
nuta (3. s.) ; akrnudhvam, akrnvata. 
VIII. : kardmi, karoti ; kurmas, kurvanti ; kurv6, ku- 
rut6; kurvate; se.karavas, karavat; JPV. kurii, kar6tu; 
A. kurvatam. PT. kurvant ; kurvana. IPF. akaros, 
akarot; akurvan; A. kuruthas, akuruta; akurvata. 
II. : PR. karsi ; krthas ; krtha ; A. krs6. 
PF. cakara, cakartha, cakara ; cakrathur, cakratur ; 
cakrma, cakra, cakriir ; A. cakr6, cakrsd, cakr6 ; ca- 
krathe, cakrate ; cakrir6 ; OP. cakriyas ; PT. cakrvams ; 
cakrana. PPF. cakaram, acakrat ; acakriran. AO. root : 
akaram, akar, akar ; kartam, dkartam ; akarma, 
akarta, akran ; A. akri, akrthas, akrta ; akrata ; INJ. 
karam, kar ; SB. karani, karasi and karas, karati and 
karat ; karathas, karatas ; karama, karanti and karan ; 
A. karase, karate ; karamahe ; OP. kriyama ; PRC. 
kriyasma; IPV. krdhi; krtam and kartam; krta and 
kartana; A. krsva ; krdhvam; PT. krant; krana. 
AO. a : akaras, akarat ; IPV. kara ; karatam, karatam ; 
s: akarsit (B.) ; A. akrsi (B.). FT. karisyati ; -te (B.) ; 


SB. karisyas. co. akarisyat (B.). PS. kriyate ; PT. kri- 

yamaria ; AO. akari ; PP. krta. GDV. kartva. GD. 

krtva, krtvi, krtvaya. INF. kartave, kartavai ; kartos ; 

kartum. cs. karayati, karayate (B.). DS. cikirsati. 

INT. PT. karikrat and carikrat. 
2. kr commemorate : AO. s : akarsam ; is : akarisam, akarit. 

INT. carkarmi ; SB. carkiran ; AO. carkrse (3. s.) ; GDV. 

krt cut, VI. P. : PR. krntati ; INJ. krntat ; IPV. krnta ; 

PT. krntant. IPF. akrntat. PF. cakartitha, cakarta, 

AO. a: akrtas; PT. krtant; red.: acikrtas (B.). FT. 

kartsyami. PS. krtyate ; PP. krtta. GD. -krtya. 
krp lament, I. A. : . PR. krpate ; PT. krpamana. IPF. akrp- 

anta. PF. cakrpe (K.). PPF. cakrpanta. AO. root : akrp- 

ran ; is : akrapista. cs. PT. krpayant ; IPF. akrpayat. 
krs le lean, IV. P. : PR. krsyati (B.). PF. cakarsa. PP. 

krsita (B.). cs. karsayati. 
krs plough, I.: PR. karsati ; -te (B.) ; INJ. karsat ; IPV. 

karsa. VI. : PR. krsati ; IPV. krsatu ; krsantu ; A. krs- 

asva; PT. krsant. PF. cakarsa (B.). AO. red. : acikrsam ; 

sa: akrksat (B.). FT. kraksy6 (B.). PS. krsyate ; PP. 

krsta. GD. krstva (B.). INT. 3. pi. carkrsati; SB. 

carkrsat ; PT. carkrsat ; IPF. acarkrsur. 
kf scatter, VI. P. : PR. kirati, -te ; SB. kirasi ; IPV. kira, 

kiratu. IPF. akirat. AO. is : SB. karisat. PS. kiryate 

(B.) ; PP. kirna (B.). 
kip be adapted, I. : PR. kalpate ; IPV. kalpasva ; PT. kalp- 

amana. IPF. akalpata, akalpanta. PF. caklpur; 

caklpr^. AO. red. : aciklpat ; SB. ciklpati. FT. kalp- 

syate (B.). PP. klpta. cs. kalpayati; SB. kalpayati; 

kalpayavahai ; IPV. kalpaya, kalpayatu ; kalpayasva ; 

PT. kalpayant ; IPF. akalpayat. DS. cikalpayisati (B.) ; 

GD. kalpayitva. 
krand cry out, I. P. : PR. krandati ; INJ. krandat ; IPV. 

kranda, krandatu ; PT. krandant. IFF. akrandas, 

krandat. PF. cakrad6. PPF. cakradas, cakradat. 


AO. a : INJ. kradas ; red. : acikradas, acikradat ; aci- 

kradan ; INJ. cikradas ; s : akran (2. 3. s.). cs. krand- 

ayati. INT. kanikranti (3. s. = kanikrant-ti) ; PT. 

kram stride, I. P. : PR. kramati ; OP. kramema ; IPV. krama ; 

PT. kramant ; IPF. akramat ; A. : kramate ; SB. kram- 

ama ; IPV. kramasva. PF. cakrama, cakramiir ; ca- 

kram6 ; cakramathe ; PT. cakramana. PPF. cakram- 

anta ; AO. root : akran ; akranmr ; INJ. kramur ; a : 

akramat, akraman ; s : A. akramsta ; akramsata ; SB. 

kramsate ; is : akramisam and akramim, akramis, 

akramit ; kramista (3. s.) ; INJ. kramis ; IPV. kramistam. 

FT. kramsyate ; kramisyati, -te (B.) ; PP. kranta. GD. 

krantva (B.), -kramya. INF. -krame; kramitum (B.) ; 

kramitos (B.). cs. kramayati (B.). INT. IPV. cankra- 

m-a-ta (2. pi.) ; cankramyate (B.). 
kri buy, IX. : PR. krmati ; krinit6 ; SB. krmavahai. 

IPF. akrinan. PT. kresyati, -te (B.). PS. kriyate (B.) ; 

pp. krita. GD. kritva, -kriya (B.). 
krudh l>e angry, IV. P. : PR. krudhyati. PF. cukrodha (B.). 

AO. red. : acukrudhat ; SB. cukrudhama ; INJ. cukrudh- 

am ; a : INJ. krudhas. PP. kruddha. cs. krodhayati. 
krus cry out, I. : PR. krdsati ; IPV. krosatu ; PT. krdsant ; 

krosamana. AO. sa : akruksat. PP. krusta (B.). 
ksad divide, I. A. : PR. ksadamahe. PF. caksad6 ; PT. 

caksadana. INF. ksadase. 
ksam endure, I. A. : OP. ksameta ; IPV. ksamadhvam. 

PT. ksamamana. PF. caksame (B.) ; OP. caksam- 

ksar flow, I. P. : PR. ksarati ; INJ. ksarat ; IPV. ksara ; 

ksarantu ; PT. ksarant. IPF. aksarat ; aksaran. AO. s : 

aksar. PP. ksarita (B.). INF. ksaradhyai. cs. ksar- 

ayati (B.). 
1. ksi possess, II. P. : PR. ksdsi, ks^ti ; ksitas ; ksiyanti ; 

SB. ksayas, ksayat; ksayama; PT. ksiyant. I. P. : PR. 

ksayati ; OP. ksayema (AV.) ; PT. ksayant. IV. P. : 


PR. ksiyati ; OP. ksiyema ; IPV. ksiya. AO. s : SB. ks6sat. 

FT. PT. ksesyant. cs. IPV. ksayaya; INJ. ksepayat. 
2. ksi destroy, IX. : PR. ksinati ; ksinanti ; INJ. ksinam. 

IFF. aksinas. V. : PR. ksinomi. IV. A. : PR. ksiyate ; 

ksiyante. AO. s : INJ. ksesta (AY.). PS. ksiyate ; 

PT. ksiyamana; PP. ksita; ksina (AV.). GD. -ksiya (B.). 

INF. -ksetos (B.). DS. ciksisati (B.). 
ksip throiv, VI. P. : PR. ksipati ; INJ. ksipat ; IPV. ksipa ; 

PT. ksipant. AO. red. : INJ. ciksipas ; ciksipan. pp. 

ksipta. INF. -kseptos (B.). 
ksnu whet, II. : PR. ksnaumi ; PT. ksnuvana. PP. ksnuta 

(B,). GD. -ksnutya (B.). 
khan, kha dig, I. : PR. khanati; SB. khanama; OP. khan- 

ema ; PT. khanant. IPF. akhanat ; akhananta. PF. 

cakhana; cakhmir. FP. PT. khanisyant. PS. khayate 

(B.) ; pp. khata. GD. khatva (B.) ; khatvi (tfS.), -khaya 

(B.). INF. khanitum. 
khad chew, I. P. : PR. khadati ; IPV. khada ; PT. khadant. 

PF. cakhada. PP. khadita (B.). GD. khaditva (B.). 
khid tear, VI. : PR. khidati ; INJ. khidat ; OP. khid6t. 

IPV. khida ; khidant. IPF. akhidat. PF. PT. khidvams. 

GD. -khidya (B.). 
khya see: PF. cakhyathur. AO. a: akhyat; INJ. khyat; 

IPV. khyatam; khyata. FT. khyasyati (B.). PS. 

khyayate (B.) ; PP. khyata. GDV. -khyeya. GD. -khyaya. 

INF. khyatum (B.) ; -khyai. cs. khyapayati, -te (B.). 
gam go, I. : PR. gachati, -te ; SB. gachasi and gachas, 

gachati and gachat; gachatha, gachan; A. gachai; 

OP. gachet ; gachema ; IPV. gacha and gachatat, gachatu 

and gachatat ; gachatam, gachatam ; gachata, ga- 

chantu ; A. gachasva (AV.), gachatam ; gachadhvam ; 

PT. gachant; gachamana. IPF. agachat; agachanta. 

PF. jagama, jagantha, jagama ; jagmathur, jagmatur ; 

jaganma, jagmiir; jagm6; OP. jagamyam, jagamyat; 

jagamyatam, jagamyiir; PT. jaganvams, jagmivams; 

jagmana. Per. PF. gamayam cakara (AV.). PPF. ajagan 


(2. s.) ; ajaganta ; A. ajagmiran. AO. root : agamam, agan 
(2. 3. s.) ; aganma, agman ; agathas, agata ; ganvahi ; 
aganmahi, agmata ; SB. gamani, gamas, gamat ; 
gamathas, gamatas ; gamama, gamanti ; INJ. gan ; 
OP. gamy as ; gmiya (B.) ; PRO. 3. s. gamy as ; IPV. 
gadhi and gahi, gantu ; gatam and gantam, gantam; 
gata, ganta and gantana, gamantu ; PT. gmant ; 
a : agamat. agaman ; SB. gamatas ; gamatha ; INJ. gam- 
an ; gam^yam, gam^s, garnet ; gamama ; gam^mahi ; 
red. : ajigamam, ajigamat ; s : agasmahi; is: gamistam; 
gmisiya (VS.). FT. gamisyati (AV.); ganta (B.). PS. 
gamyate; AO. agami; PP. gata. GD. gatva, gatvaya, 
gatvi, -gatya. INF. gantave, gantavai, gamadhyai, 
gamadhye (TS.); gantos, -gamas. cs. gamayati and 
gamayati. DS. jigamsati ; jigamisati, -te (B.). INT. 
ganiganti; PT. ganigmat. 

1. ga#o, III. P.: PR. jigasi, jigati; INJ. jigat; IPV. jigatam; 
jigata; PT. jigat. IPF. ajigat. PF. OP. jagayat. AO. root: 
agam, agas, agat ; agatam, agatam ; agama, agata, 
agur ; SB. gani, gas, gat ; gama ; INJ. gam ; gama, giir ; 
IPV. gata and gatana; s: INJ. gesam(VS.) ; gesma(AV.). 
DS. jigasa (SV.). INF. gatave. 

2. ga sing, IV.: PR. gayasi, gayati; gayanti; A. gaye; 
INJ. gayat; IPV. gaya; gayata, gayantu; PT. gayant. 
IPF. agayat. PF. jagan (B.). AO. s: INJ. gasi (1. s.); 
sis: agasisur; SB. gasisat. FT. gasyati (B.>. PS. PT. 
giyamana; PP. gita. GD. gitva (B.); -gaya (B.) and 
-giya (B.). INF. gatum (B.). cs. gapayati, -te (B.). 
DS. jigasati (B.). 

gah, plunge, I. A. : PR. gahase, gahate; OP. gahemahi; 

IPV. gahetham; PT. gahamana. IPF. agahathas. INT. 

gur greet, VI.: PR. IPV. gurasva. PF. SB. jugurat; OP. 

juguryas, juguryat. AO. root : gurta (3. s. A.). PP. giirta. 

GD. -gurya. 
guh hide, I. : PR. guhati, -te ; INJ. guhas ; guhathas ; 


IPV. guhata ; PT. guhant ; guhamana. IFF. aguhat. 
AO. a: guhas; INJ. guhas; PT. guhant; guhamana; 
sa : aghuksat. ps.guhyate; PT. guhyamana; PP. gudha; 
GDV. giihya, -gohya. GD. gudhvi. DS. juguksati. 

1. gr sing, IX. : PR. grnami, grnati ; grnitas ; grnimasi, 
grnanti ; A. grn6, grnise", grnit6 (and grne"), grnimahe ; 
INJ. grnita (3. s. A.) ; IPV. grnihi, grnatu ; grnitam, 
grnitam ; grnita, grnantu ; PT. grnant ; grnana. GD. 
-girya (B.). INF. grmsani. 

2. gr wake: AO. red.: 2. 3. ajigar; IPV. jigrtam; jigrta. 
INT. jagarti; jagrati; SB. jagarasi (AV.), jagarat; OP. 
jagriyama(VS.), jagryama(TS.); ipv.jagrhi andjagrtat; 
jagrtam, jagrtam ; PT. jagrat. IFF. ajagar. PF. 1. s. ja- 
gara. 3. jagara. PT. jagrvams ; FT. jagarisyati, -te 
(B.) ; PP. jagarita (B.). cs. jagarayati (B.). 

grdh be greedy, IV. P. : PR. PT. grdhyant. PF. jagrdhur. 

AO. a : agrdhat ; INJ. grdhas ; grdhat. 
gr swallow, VI. P. : PR. girati. PF. jagara. AO. root : 

SB. garat, garan; red.: ajigar (2. s.); is: INJ. garit. 

FT. garisyati (B.). PP. girna. GD. -girya (AV.). INT. 

SB. jalgulas ; PT. jargurana. 
grabh seize, IX.: PR. grbhnami, grbhnati; grbhnanti; 

grbhnd; grbhnate; SB. grbhnas; INJ. grbhnita (3. s.); 

IPV. grbhmhi. IFF. agrbhnas, agrbhnat; agrbhnan; 

agrbhnata (3. pi. A.). PF. jagra-bha (1. s.) ; jagrbhathur ; 

jagrbhma, jagrbhiir; A. jagrbhr6 and jagrbhrir6 ; OP. 

jagrbhyat; PT. jagrbhvams; PPF. ajagrabham, aja- 

grabhit. AO. root : agrabham ; agrbhran ; PT. grbhana ; 

a: agrbham; red.: ajigrabhat; is: agrabhim (TS.), 

agrabhit; agrabhisma, agrabhisur; agrbhisata( A.). 

INJ. grabhista (2. pi.). PP. grbhita. GD. grbhitva, 

-grbhya. INF. -grabh6, -grbh6. cs. PT. grbhayant. 
gras devour, I. A. : PR. grasate ; OP. grasetam. PF. OP. 

jagrasita ; PT. jagrasana. PP. grasita. 
grah seise, IX. : grhnami, grhnati ; grhnanti ; grime" ; 

grhnimahe, grhnate ; OP. grhniyat ; IPV. grhnahi (AV.), 


grhmtat and grhana ; grhnatu ; grhnitam ; grhnantu ; 

PT. grhnant; grhnana. IFF. agrhnat, agrhnan. PF. 

jagraha, jagraha; jagrhma, jagrhur; jagrh6. AO. a: 

INJ. grhamahi ; is : agrahit ; agrahista. FT. grahisyati 

(B.); co. agrahlsyat (B.), agrahaisyat (B.). PS. grhyate ; 

pp. grhita. GD. grhitva, -grhya. INF. grahitavai (B.). 

grahitos (B.). cs. grahayati (B.). DS. jighrksati, 

-te (B.). 
ghas eat: PF. jaghasa, jaghasa; OP. jaksiyat; PT. jaksi- 

vams (AV.). AO. root : aghas (2. 3. s.), aghat (3. s., B.) ; 

aghastam (3. du., B.) ; aghasta (2. pi., B.), aksan; 

SB.ghasas, ghasat ; IPV. ghastam (3.du.); s : aghas (2. s.) ; 

red. : ajighasat. PP. -gdha (TS.). DS. jighatsati. 
ghus sound, I. : PR. gh6sati, ghdsate ; SB. gh6sat ; gh6san ; 

PT. ghosant. PF. jugh6sa (B.). PS. AO. gh6si. GD. 

-ghiisya. cs. ghosayati. 
oaks see, II. : PR. cakse (= caks-se), caste; caksathe; 

caksate; P. caksi (= caks-si) ; IFF. caksur. I. A. : PR. 

caksate (3. s.) ; IFF. caksata (3. s.). PF. cacaksa ; ca- 

caks6 (B.). PPF. acacaksam. GDV. caksya. GD. -caksya. 

INF. -cakse, caksase ; -caksi. cs. caksayati. 
car move, I. P. : PR. carati ; SB. carani ; carava, caratas ; 

car an ; caratai (AV.) ; INJ. carat ; OP. caret ; IPV. cara, 

caratu; carata, carantu; PT. carant. IPF. acarat. 

PF. cacara; cerima, ceriir. AO. red. : acicarat; s: acar- 

sam (B.) ; is : acarisam ; INJ. carit. FT. carisyami. 

PS. caryate (B.) ; PP. carita ; GDV. -car^nya. GD. caritva 

(B.) ; -carya (B.). INF. carase, caritave, caradhyai ; 

caritavai (B.) ; caritum (B.) ; caritos (B.). cs. carayati, 

-te(B.). DS. cicarsati (B.), cicarisati(B.). INT. carcariti; 

PT. carcuryamana. 
cay note, I. : PR. cayati (B.) ; PT. cayamana. PER, PF. -cayam 

cakrur (B.). AO. is : acayisam. PS. cayyate. GD. 

cayitva; -cayya. 
1. ci gather, V. : PR. cin6tt ; cinvanti ; cinut6 ; SB. cinav- 

at ; OP. cinuyama ; IPV. cinuhi, cinotu ; cinvantu ; 


cinusva ; PT. cinvant ; cinvana. I. : PR. eayase, cayate ; 

cayadhve ; INJ. cayat ; OP. cayema. PF. cikaya ; cikye ; 

cikyir6. AO. root : acet ; IPV. citana, ciyantu ; s : 

acaisam (B.) ; is : cayistam. FT. cesyati, -te (B.). 

PS. ciyate (B.) ; PP. cita. GD. citva(B.). INF. c6tum (B.) ; 

cetavai (B.). DS. cikisate (B.). 
2. ci note, III. : PR. cik6si (AV.) ; IPV. cikihi (AV.), ciketu 

(TS.) ; A. (3. s.) cikitam (AV.) ; PT. cikyat. IPF. aciket ; 

acikaynr (B.). PF. cikaya; cikyatur; cikyiir; A. 2. 

du. cik^the (for cikyathe). AO. root : acet ; A. aci- 

dhvam. PP. cita. DS. cikisate. 
cit perceive, I. : PR. c6tati ; c^tathas ; c^tatha ; A. estate ; 

c^tante ; INJ. c6tat ; IPV. c6tatam ; PT. extant ; IPF. 

acetat. II. A. : PR. cit6 (3. s.). PF. ciketa ; cikitiir ; 

A. cikit6 ; cikitr6 and cikitrir6 ; SB. cikitas, ciketati 

and ciketat ; ciketathas ; IPV. cikiddhi ; PT. cikitvams ; 

cikitana; PPF. ciketam; aciketat. AO. root: acet; 

PT. citana ; PS. : aceti ; s : acait. INF. citaye. cs. cetayati, 

-te and citayati, -te ; SB. cetayani, cetayatai (TS.) ; OP. 

citayema. DS. INJ. cikitsat. INT. c6kite (3. s.) ; SB. c6- 

kitat ; PT. c^kitat. 
cud impel, I. : PR. codami ; codate ; INJ. c6dat ; IPV. c6da, 

codata; c6dasva, codetham. cs. SB. codayasi, cod- 

ayat ; codayase, codayate ; PP. codita. 
cyu move, I. : PR. cyavate ; INJ. cyavam ; cyavanta ; IPV. 

cyavasva ; cyavetham ; cyavadhvam. PF. cicyus^, 

cucyuv^ (3. s. ) ; iNJ.cucyavat ; OP. cucyuvimahi, cucyav- 

irata. PPF. acucyavat, acucyavit ; acucyavitana, acu- 

cyavur. AO. s: cyosthas. FT. cyosyate (B.). pp. cyuta. 

cs. cyavayati, -te. 
chad or chand seem, II. : PR. chantsi. PF. cachanda ; 

OP. cachadyat. AO. s: achan; achanta (=achant-s-ta), 

achantsur ; SB. chantsat. cs. chadayati ; chandayase ; 

INJ. chadayat ; SB. chadayatha ; chandayate ; IPF. 

chid cut off, VII. : PR. chinadmi, chinatti ; IPV. chindhi 


( chinddhi), chinattu; chintam (=chinttam). PP. ci- 

ch6da; cichid6 (B.). AO. root: chedma; a: achidat ; 

achidan ; s : achaitsit (B.) ; INJ. chitthas. FT. chetsyati, 

-te (B.). PS. chidyate; PT. chidyamana ; AO. achedi; 

pp. chinna. GD. -chidya; chittva (B.). INF. ch^ttavai 

(B.) ; chettum (B.). DS. cichitsati, -te (B.). 
jan generate, I. : PR. janati ; SB. janat ; INJ. janat ; IPV. 

janatu; PT. janant; janamana. IFF. ajanat; Janata 

(3. s.) ; ajananta. PF. jajana ; jajnatur ; jajniir and 

jajamir; A. jajnis6, jajn6; jajnir6; PT. jajnana. AO. 

root: ajani(l. s.) ; red.: ajijanat, ajijanan; INJ. jijanam; 

jijananta ; is : janistam (3. du.) ; A. ajanisthas, ajanista ; 

OP. janisiya, janisista. FT. janisyati, -te ; janita (B.) ; 

co. ajanisyata (B.). PS. : AO. ajani; jani, jani. GDV. 

jantva and janitva. GD. janitvi. INF. janitos. cs. jan- 

ayati, -te ; SB. janayas ; OP. janayes ; IPV. janaya, 

janayatu ; janayatam ; janayata. DS. jijanisate (B.). 
jambh chew: AO. red.: ajijabham; is: SB. jambhisat. 

PP. jabdha. cs. : IPV. jambhaya ; jambhayatam ; PT. 

jambhayant. INT. janjabhyate (B.) ; PT. janjabhana. 
jas be exhausted, I. : PR. PT. jasamana ; IV. : IPV. jasyata. 

PF. jajasa; IPV. jajastam. AO. red. : ajijasata (3. s., B.). 

cs. jasayati (B.). 
ja l)e born, IV. A. : PR. jayate ; INJ. jayata ; OP. jayemahi ; 

IPV. jayasva, jayatam; jayadhvam; PT. jayamana. 

IPF. ajayathas, ajayata; ajayanta. PP. jata. 
1. ji conquer, I. : jayati, -te ; SB. jayasi, jayas, jayati ; 

jayava, jayatha; A. jayatai (AV.) ; INJ. jayat; OP. 

jayema ; IPV. jayatu ; A. jayantam ; PT. jayant. IPF. 

ajayat. II. P. : PR. J6si. PF. jig^tha, jigaya ; jigyathur ; 

jigyur ; A. jigy6 ; PF. jigivams ; jigivams (B.) ; AO. root : 

INJ. j6s; IPV. jitam; s: ajaisam, 3. ajais (=ajais-t); 

ajaisma; SB. j^sas, j6sat; j^sama; INJ. jdsam (VS.), 

j6s; j6sma, jaisur (AV.). FT. jesyati; PT. jesyant. 

PP. jita ; GDV. j6tva. GD. jitva (B.) ; -jitya. INF. jis6 ; 

j^tave (B.) ; jdtum (B.). cs. japayati (B.) ; ajijapata 


(VS.) and ajijipata (TS.). DS. jigisati, -te ; PT. jigi- 


2. ji quicken, V. : PR. jinosi; jinve. IPF. ajinot (B.). 
jinv quicken (=V. ji-nu + a), I. :_ PR. jinvasi, jinvati; jinva- 

thas ; jinvatha, jinvanti ; A. jinvate ; IPV. jinva, jinv- 

atu; jinvatam; jinvata; PT. jinvant. IFF. aj in vat; ajinv- 

atani. PF. jijinvathur. FT. jinvisyati (B.). PP. jinvita. 
jiv live, I. P. : PR. jivati ; SB. jivani, jivas, jivati and jivat ; 

jivatha, jivan ; OP. jivema ; IPV. jiva, jivatu ; jivatam ; 

jivata, jivantu; PT. jivant. PF. jijiva (B.). AO. root: 

PRC. jivyasam; is: INJ. jivit. FT. jivisyati (B.). PS. 

jivyate (B.) ; PP. jivita. GDV. jivamya. GD. jivitva 

(B.). INF. jivase; jivitavai, jivatave (TS. vs.); jivitum 

(B.). cs. jivayati. DS. jijivisati (B.) ; jujyusati (B.) ; 

PP. jijyusita (B.). 
jus enjoy, VI. : PR. jusate ; OP. jus^ta ; jus^rata ; PT. 

jusamaua ; IPF. ajusat ; ajusata. PF. juj6sa ; jujus^ ; 

SB. jujosati, jiijosat; jiijosatha, jiijosan; A. jiijosate; 

IPV. jujustana ; PT. jujusvams ; jujusana. PPF. ajujosam. 

AO. root : ajusran ; SB. J6sati, j6sat ; A. josase ; PT. 

jusana; is: SB. j6sisat. PP. justa gladdened and justa 

welcome. GD. justvi. cs. josayate ; SB. josayase. 
ju speed, IX. P. : PR. junati; junanti; sB.junas. I. A. : PR. 

javate. PF. jujuviir; SB. jujuvat ( = jujavat); PT. ju- 

juvams ; jujuvana. PP. juta. INF. javase. 
jurv consume, I. P. : PR. jurvati ; SB. jurvas ; IPV. jurva ; 

PT. jurvant. AO. is : jurvit. 
jr sing, I. A, : PR. jarate ; SB. jarate j OP. jareta ; IPV. 

jarasva, jaratam ; PT. jaramana. INF. jaradhyai. 
jf , jur waste away, I. P. : PR. jarati ; IPV. jaratam ; PT. 

jarant. VI. P. : PT. jurant. IV. P. : PR. jiryati, juryati ; 

PT. juryant; IPF. ajuryan. PF. jajara; PT. jujurvams. 

AO. is : jarisur. PP. jirna, jurna. cs. jarayati, -te ; 

PT. jarayant and jarayant. 
jna know, IX. : PR. janati ; janimas, janitha, jananti ; 

janit6 ; janate ; SB. janama; janamahai; OP. janlthas; 


IPV. janihi, janitat, janatu; janita, janantu; jamdhvam, 

janatam; PT. janant; janana. IFF. ajanam, ajanat ; 

ajanan; A. 3. pi. ajanata. PP. jajnau; jajne; PT. 

jajnivams and janivams. AO. root : OP. jneyas (Gk. 

yvoirisi); s: ajnasam (B.); ajnasthas ; IN.I. jnesam ; 

sis: ajnasisam. FT. jnasyati, -te (B.) ; jnata (B.). 

PS. jnayate; AO. ajnayi; pp. jnata; GDV. jneya (B.). 

GD. jnatva (B.), -jnaya (B.). INF. jnatum (B.), jnatos (B.). 

cs. jnapayati; AO. ajijnipat (TS.); PS. jnapyate (B.) ; 

pp. jnapta (B.) ; jnapayati (B.). DS. jijnasate. 
jya overpower, IX.: PR. jinati; OP. jiniyat; PT. jinant. 

IV. A. : PR. jiyate. PF. jijyau (B.). AO. sis : ajyasisam 

(B.). FT. jyasyati, -te (B.). PS. jiyate; PP. jita. DS. 
jval flame, I. P. : PR. jvalati (B.). PF. jajvala (B.). AO. 

ajvalit (B.). FT. jvalisyati (B.). PP. jvalita (B.). cs. 
jvalayati (B.). 

tarns shake : PF. tatasr6. PPF. atatamsatam. AO. a : atasat. 
cs. tamsayati, -te ; INF. tamsayadhyai. INT. SB. tantas- 
aite; GDV. -tantasayya. 

taks fashion, I. P. : PR. taksati ; SB. taksama ; INJ. taksat ; 
IPV. taksatam ; taksata, taksantu ; PT. taksant. IPF. 
ataksat. II. P.: PR. tasti(B.), taksati (3. pi.) ; IPV. talhi. 
IPF. ataksma, atasta. V. P. : PR. taksnuvanti (B.). PF. 
tataksa (taksathur, taksur) ; tataksd. AO. is : ataksisur. 
PP. tasta. 

tan stretch, VIII. : PR. tandti ; tanmasi, tanvanti ; tanut6 ; 
SB. tanavavahai; INJ. tamithas; IPV. tanii, tanuhi, 
tanotu; A. tanusva; tanudhvam; pT.tanvant; tanvana. 
IPF. atanuta; atanvata. PF. tatantha, tatana and 
tatana; A. 1. tatand, 3. tatn< and tat6 (\/ta); tatnire 
and tenire ; SB. tatanat ; tatanama, tatanan ; INJ. tatan- 
anta; OP. tatanyur; PT. tatanvams. AO. root: atan; 
A. 2. atathas, 3. atata; atnata (3. pi.); a: atanat; 
INJ. tanat; s: atan and atamsit; atasi (B.) ; atams- 
mahi(B.); is: atanit. FT. tamsyate (B.). PS. tayate; 

1819 C C 


AO. atayi (B.). PP. tata. QD. tatva (B.), tatvaya (VS.), 

-tatya (B.). INF. tantum (B.). 
tap heat, I. : PR. tapati, -te ; SB. tapati ; INJ. tapat ; IPV. 

tapatu ; PT. tapant. IPF. atapat. IV. P. : PR. tapyati (B.). 

PF. 1. tatapa. 3. tatapa; tep6; SB. tatapate; PT. tepana. 

AO. root : PT. tapana ; red. : atitipe (3. s.) ; SB. titipasi ; 

s : atapsit ; atapthas ; INJ. tapsit ; taptarct. FT. tapsyati 

(B.). PS. tapyate ; AO. atapi ; PP. tapta. GD. taptva (B.), 

-tapya. INF. taptos (B.). cs. tapayati, -te (AV.) ; PS. 

tapyate (B.). 
to,m faint, IV. P. : PR. tamyati (B.). PF. tatama (B.). AO. a : 

INJ. tamat. PP. tanta (B.). INF. tamitos (B.). tam- 

ayati (B.). 
tij "be sharp, I. A. : PR. tejate ; PT. tejamana. PF. IPV. titig- 

dhi (B.). PP. tikta. DS. titiksate. INT. t^tikte. 
tu be strong, II. P. : PR. taviti. PF. tutava. PPF. tutos, 

tutot. INT. PT. tavitvat (= tavituat). 
tuj urge, VII. : PR. tunjanti; tunjate (3. pi.); PT. tunjana. 

VI.: PR. tuj6te; PT. tujant. PF. OP. tutujyat; PT. tu- 

tujana and tutujana. PS. tujyate. INF. tujase, tujaye, 

-tiije. cs. PT. tujayant. 
tud thrust, VI. : PR. tudati ; IPV. tuda ; tudantu ; PT. 

tudant. IPF. tudat. PF. tut6da. PP. tunna. 
tur (= tr) pass, VI. : PR. turati, -te; IV. P. : IPV. turya; 

II. P. : OP. turyama. PF. OP. tuturyat ; tuturyama. PP. 

turta (B.). GD. -turya. INF. turvane. cs. turayate. 

DS. tutursati. 
trd split, VII. : PR. trnadmi, trnatti ; trntte (B.) ; IPF. atrnat ; 

atrndan. PF. tatarditha, tatarda; PT. tatrdana. AO. 

root : SB. tardas. PP. trnna (VS.). GD. -trdya. INF. -trdas. 
trp ~be pleased, V. P. : PR. trpn6ti ; SB. trpnavas ; IPV. trpnuhi ; 

trpnutam; trpnuta; VI. P.: PR. trmpati; IPV. trmpa; 

IV. : PR. trpyati. PF. tatrpur ; PT. tatrpana. AO. root : 

PRC. trpyasma ; a : atrpat ; PT. trpant ; red. : atitrpas ; 

atitrpama. co. atarpsyat (B.). PP. trpta. cs. tarpayati, 

-te ; DS. titarpayisati. DS. titrpsati ; SB. titrpsat. 


trs be thirsty, IV. : PR. trsyati, -te ; FT. trsyant. PF. tatrs- 

lir ; PT. tatrsana and tatrsana. AO. root : PT. trsana ; 

a : trsat ; red. : atitrsama ; IN.T. titrsas. PP. trsita. cs. 

tarsayati (B.). 
trh crush, VII. P. : PR. trndhi ; trmhanti ; IPV. trn^dhu ; 

SB. trnahan (AV.) ; PT. trmhant. PF. tatarha. AO. a: 

atrham. PS. trhyate ; PP. trlha, trdha. GD. trdhva. 
tf cross, I. : PR. tarati, -te ; SB. tarathas ; INJ. tarat; OP. 

taret ; IPV. tara ; PT. tarant. IFF. atarat. VI. : PR. tirati, 

-te ; SB. tirati ; INJ. tiranta; OP. tir^ta, -tana (2. pi.); IPV. 

tira ; tirata, tirantu ; tiradhvam ; PT. tirant. IPF. atirat. 

III. : PT. titrat. VIII. A. : tarute. PF. tatara; titirur; 

PT. tatarus- (weak stem) and titirvams. AO. red. : ati- 

taras ; is : atarit ; atarisma and atarima, atarisur ; SB. 

tarisas, tarisat ; INJ. taris, tarit ; OP. tarisimahi. PS. AO. 

atari ; pp. tirna. GD. tirtva. INF. -tiram, -tire ; tara- 

dhyai ; tarisani. cs. tarayati. DS. titirsati (B.). INT. 

tartariti ; tarturyante ; PT. taritrat. 
tyaj forsake : PF. tityaja ; IPV. tityagdhi. PP. tyakta (B). 

GD. -tyajya (B.). 
tras be terrified, I. P. : PR. trasati. AO. red. : atitrasan ; 

is : trasls (B.). PP. trasta (B.). INF. trasas. cs. trasa- 

yati. INT. tatrasyate (B.). 
tra rescue, IV. A. : PR. trayase ; trayadhve, trayante ; 

IPV. trayasva, trayatam ; trayetham, trayetam ; traya- 

dhvam, trayantam ; PT. trayamana. II. A. : IPV. 

trasva ; tradhvam. PF. tatre\ AO. s. : atrasmahi (B.). 

SB. trasate ; trasathe ; OP. trasitham. FT. trasyate (B.). 

PP. trata (B.). INF. tramane. cs. GDV. traya- 

tvis be stirred, II. P. : IPF. atvisur. VI. A. : atvisanta. 

PF. titvis^ ; PT. titvisana. PPF. atitvisanta. PP. tvisita. 

INF. tvis6. 
tsar approach stealthily, I. P. : PR. tsarati. PF. tatsara. 

AO. s. : atsar ; is : atsarisam (B.). GD. -tsarya (B.). 
dams, das bite, I. P.: PR. dasati ; IPV. dasa; PT. dasant. PF. 

cc 2 


PT. dadasvams. PP. dasta. GD. damstva (B.). INT. PT. 

daks be able, I. : PR. daksati, -te ; IPV. daksata ; PT. dak- 

samana. PF. dadaks6 (B.). AO. red. : adadaksat (B.). 

FT. daksisyate (B.). GDV. daksayya. cs. daksayati (B.). 
dagh reach to, V. : PR. OP. daghnuyat (B.). AO. root : INJ. 

dhak (2. 3. s.) ; daghma ; PRO. daghyas (3. s.) ; IPV. 

dhaktam. FT. daghisyante (B.). INF. -daghas (B.), 

-daghos (B.). 
dabh, dambh. harm, I. P. : PR. dabhati ; SB. dabhati ; INJ. 

dabhat. V. P. : PK. dabhnuvanti ; IPV. dabhrmhi. PF. 

dadabha, dadambha ; debhur ; INJ. dadabhanta. 

AO. root : dabhur ; INJ. dabhur. PS. dabhyate ; PP. 

dabdha. GDV. dabhya. INF. -dabhe; dabdhum (B.). 

cs. dambhayati. DS. dipsati; SB. dipsat; PT. dipsant; 

PR. dhipsati (B.). 
das, das lay waste, IV. P. : PR. dasyati ; OP. dasyet. I. P. : 

PR. dasati ; SB. dasat ; INJ. dasat ; PT. dasant. PF. PT. 

dadasvams. AO. a : INJ. dasat ; PT. dasamana ; is : 

dasit. pp. dasta (B.). cs. dasayate ; dasayati. 
dah burn, I. P. : PR. dahati ; SB. dahati. II. P. : PR. 

dhaksi. PF. dadaha (B.). AO. s. : adhaksit ; adhak 

(3. s.); INJ. dhak (3. s.) ; PT. dhaksant and daksant. 

FT. dhaksyati ; PT. dhaksyant. PS. dahyate ; PP. 

dagdha. GD. dagdhva (B.) ; -dahya (B.). INF. -dahas 

(B.). dagdhos (B.), dagdhum (B.). DS. dhiksate (B.). 
1. da give, III. : PR. dadati ; datte ; SB. dadas, dadat ; 

dadan; dadatai (AV.), dadamahe; INJ. dadas, dadat; OP. 

dadyat ; dadimahi, dadiran ; IPV. daddhi, dehi, dattat, 

dadatu ; dattam, dattam ; datta and dadata, dadatana, 

dadatu ; A. datsva ; PT. dadat ; dadana ; IPF. adadam, 

adadas, adadat ; adattam ; adadata, adattana, adadur ; 

A. adatta. I. : dadati ; dadate ; INJ. dadat ; IPV. da- 

datam (3. s.) ; IPF. adadat ; adadanta. PF. dadatha, 

dadau ; dadathur, dadatur ; dada, dadur ; A. dadd, 

dadathe, dadrir6 ; PT. dadvams, dadivams (AV.), dada- 


vams (AV.) ; dadana L AO. root : adas, adat, dat ; 

adama, adur, diir. A. adi, adithas (B.), adita (B.) ; 

adimahi (TS.) and adimahi (VS.) ; SB. das, dati, dat ; INJ. 

dur ; OP. deyam; IPV. datu; datam, datam; data; disva 

(VS.) ; a : adat. s. : adisi ; SB. dasat, dasathas ; INJ. 

desma (VS.) ; is : adadista (SV.). FT. dasyati ; -te (B.) ; 

dadisy< (K.) ; data (B.). PS. diyate ; PT. dadyamana ; 

AO. dayi ; PP. -data, datta, -tta. GDV. d6ya. GD. dattva, 

dattvaya ; -daya, -dadya (AV.). INF. -dai, datave, 

datavai, damane, davane ; -dam (B.), datum ; datos. 

cs. dapayati. DS. PT. ditsant, didasant. 
2. da divide, II. P.: PR. dati ; danti ; IPV. dantu. VI. P. : 

PR. dyami, dyati; dyamasi; IPV. dyatu; dyatam; IV. : 

PR. dayamasi ; IPV. dayasva, dayatam ; PT. dayamana. 

IPF. dayanta. PF. dadir6 (B.). AO. root : adimahi (B.), 

adimahi (VS., K.) ; s : OP. disiya. PS. diyate ; PP. dina ; 

-tta (B.). GD. -daya. 
j. da bind, VI. P. : PR. dyati ; IPF. adyas. PS. AO. dayi ; 

pp. dita. 
das make offering, I. P. : PR. dasati ; SB. dasat ; OP. dasema ; 

IPF. adasat. II. P. : PR. dasti ; PT. dasat. V. P. : PR. 

dasnoti. PF. dadasa. SB. dadasas, dadasati and da- 

dasat; PT. dadasvams, das vams, dasivams (SV.). cs. 

adasayat (B.). 
dis point, VI. : PR. disami. IPV. disatu ; PT. disant; disa- 

mana. PF. didesa ; SB. didesati ; IPV. dididdhi, didestu ; 

didistana. PPF. didista (3. s. A.). AO. root: adista; 

s. : adiksi ; sa : adiksat (B.). PP. dista. GD. -disya. 

INF. -dise. INT. d^disti; IPF. dedisam; adedista; 

dih smear, II. : PR. d^gdhi ; dihanti ; SB. d^hat ; PT. dihana. 

IPF. adihan. AO. s. : adhiksur (B.). PP. digdha. 

1. di/y/, IV. : PR. diyati; -te ; INJ. diyat; IPV. diya. IPF. 
adiyam. INT. INF. d^diyitavai. 

2. di, did! shine : PR. didyati (3. pi.) ; SB. didayat ; 
IPV. didihi and didihi ; PT. didyat ; didyana. IPF. 


adides, adidet. PF. dide"the, didaya ; didiyiir ; SB. 

didayasi- and didayas, didayati and didayat. FT. 

diks ~be consecrated, I. A. : PR. diksate(B.). PF. didiks6 and 

didiksiir (B.). AO. red. : adidiksas (B.) ; is : adiksista (B.). 

FT. diksisyate (B.). PP. diksita. GD. diksitva (B.). cs. 

diksayati (B.). DS. didiksisate (B.). 
dip shine, IV. A. : PR. dipyate. AO. red. : adidipat ; adi- 

dipat (B.) ; INJ. didipas. cs. dipayati. 
div play, IV.: PR. divyati; divyate (B.). PF. did^va. 

pp. dyuta. GD. *divya. 
du, du burn, V. P. : PR, dunoti ; dunvanti ; PT. dunvant. 

AO. is : SB. davisani (or from du go ?). PP. duna. 
dus spoil, IV. P. : PR. diisyati (B.). AO. red. : adudusat ; 

a : dusat (B.) ; is : dosistam (B.). cs. dusayati ; FT. 

duh milk, II. P. : PR. dogdhi ; duhanti ; A. dugdh6 ; duh^te 

and duhat6, duhrate and duhr6; SB. dohat; dohate ; 

OP. duhiyat, duhiyan ; IPV. 3. du. dugdham ; A. 3. s. 

duharn; 3. du. duhatham ; 3. pi. duhram (AV.) and 

duhratam (AV.) ; PT. duhant ; dughana, diihana, and 

duhana ; IPF. adhok ; duhiir ; aduhan (B.) and aduhran 

(AV.). I. A. : PR. d6hate. VI. : IPF. aduhat (TS.). PF. du- 

d6ha, dudohitha; duduhiir ; A. duduhe' ; duduhrd and 

duduhrird; PT. duduhana. AO. s : adhuksata (3. pi.) ; 

INJ. dhuksata (3. pi.); OP. dhuksimahi; sa: adhuksas, 

aduksat and adhuksat ; adhuksan, duksan and dhuk- 

san; A. adhuksata, duksata and dhuksata; INJ. 

duksas ; A. 3. duksata and dhuksata ; pi. dhuksanta ; 

IPV. dhuksasva. PS. duhyate; PT. duhyamana ; PP. 

dugdha. GD. dugdhva (B.). INF. duhadhyai ; dohase ; 

dogdhos (B.). cs. dohayati (B.). DS. duduksati. 
1. dr pierce, II. P. : PR. darsi. IX. P. : OP. drmyat(B.). PF. 

dadara ; PT. dadrvams. AO. root : adar ; s : SB. darsasi, 

darsat ; A. darsate ; OP. darsista. PS. diryate (B.) ; 

PS. dirna (B.). GD. -dirya (B.). cs. darayati; darayati 


(B.). INT. dardarimi, dardariti; SB. dardirat; IPV. 

dardrhi and dadrhi, dardartu; PT. dardrat; daridrat 

(TS.) ; IFF. adardar, dardar (2. 3. s.) ; adardrtam ; 

2. dr heed : AO. adrthas (B.) ; s : drdhvam (B.). PS. dri- 

yate (B.). GD. -drtya. 
drp rave, IV. P. : PR. drpyati. AO. a : adrpat (B.). FT. 

drapsyati (B.) and drapisyati (B.). pp. drpta and 

drs see: PF. dadarsa; A. dadrksd, dadrse; dadrSre, 

dadrtoe (TS.) ; IPV. (3. pi. A.) dadrsram (AV.); PT. 

dadrsvams ; dddrsana. AO. root : adarsam (B.) ; adarsma 

(TS.), ad'rsma (B.), adarsur (B.) ; A. 3. pi. adrsran, 

adrsram; SB. darsati, darsathas, darsan ; INJ. darsam; 

PT. drsana and drsana ; a : adrsan ; INJ. drsan ; OP. drs- 

yam; s: adrak (B.) and adraksit (B.) ; A. adrksata (3. 

pi.) ; SB. drksase ; sa : drksam (K.) ; red. adidrsat (B.). 

FT. draksyati (B.). PS. drsyate ; AO. adarsi and darsi ; 

pp. drsta ; GDV. drs^nya. GD. drstva, drstvaya, -drsya. 

INF. drs6, drsaye ; drastuni. cs. darsayati. DS. 

di drksase. 
drh make firm, I. P. : IPV. drmha ; drmhata ; IPF. adrmhat. 

VI. A. : PK. drmhethe ; IPV. drmhantam ; PT. drmhant. 

IPF. drmhata (3. s.). IV. : IPV. df hya ; drhyasva. 

PF. PT. dadrhana. PPF. adadrhanta. AO. is : adrmhis, 

adrmhit. PP. drdha. cs. drmhayati. 
dyut shine, I. A. : PR. dyotate. PF. didydta ; didyutiir ; 

A. didyut6 ; PT. didyutana. AO. root : PT. dyutant ; 

dyiitana and dyntana ; a: adyutat (B.) ; red. : adidyutat ; 

INJ. didyutas ; s. : adyaut. FT. dyotisyati (B.). PP. 

dyutta. GD. -dyutya (B.). cs. dyutayati (shine), dyota- 

yati (illumine). INT. davidyutati (3. pi.) ; SB. davidyutat ; 

PT. davidyutat ; IPF. davidyot. 
1. dranm, II. P. : IPV. drantu. PF. dadriir ; PT. dadrana. 

AO. s : SB. drasat. cs. drapayati (B.) ; DS. didrapayisati 

(B.). INT. PT. daridrat. 


2. dra sleep, II. P. : PR. drati (B.). AO. sis: adrasit (B.). 

FT. drasyati (B.). PP. drana. 

dru run, I. P. : dravati. PF. dudrava (B.) ; SB. dudravat. 
PPF. adudrot. AO. red. : adudruvat (B.), FT. drosyati 

(B.). PP. druta (B.). GD. drutva (B.) ; -driitya (B.). 

cs. dravayati (flows) ; dravayati. INT. PF. dodrava. 
druh be hostile, IV. P. : PR. driihyati (B.). PF. 1. dudroha, 

2. dudrohitha. AO. a : druhas ; INJ. druhas ; druhan ; 

sa : adruksas (B,). FT. dhroksyati. PP. drugdha. GD. 

-driihya. INF. drogdhavai. DS. dudruksat. 
dvis hate, II, : PR. dv^sti ; dvismas ; SB. dv^sat ; dv^sama ; 

A. dv^sate; IPV. dvestu^ PT. dvisant. PF. didv^sa (B.). 

AO. sa: INJ. dviksat; A. dviksata (3. s.). PP. dvista. 

GDV. dv^sya, -dvisenya. INF. dv^stos (B.). 
dhan run : PF. SB. dadhanat ; OP. dadhanyiir ; PT. dadhau- 

vams. cs. dhan ay an ; A. dhanayante; dhanayanta. 
dhanv run, I. P. : PR. dhanvati ; SB. dhanvati ; IPV. 

dhanva. PF. dadhanv^ ; dadhanvir^. AO. is : adhanv- 

dham, dhma, Now, I. P. : PR. dhamati ; PT. dhamant. 

IPF. adhamat. PS. dhamyate; dhmayate (B.) ; PP. 

dhamita and dhmata. QD. dhmaya (B.). 
1. dha^, III. : PR. dadhami, dadhasi, dadhati; dhat- 

thas ; dadhmasi and dadhmas, dhatta, dadhati ; A. 

dadhe, dhatsS, dhatt^ ; dadhathe, dadhate ; dadhate ; 

SB. dadhani, dadhas, dadhat; dadhathas; dadhama, 

dadhan; A. dadhase, dadhate; dadhavahai; OP. da- 

dhita and dadhita; dadhlmahi; IPV. dhehi and dhattat, 

dadhatu ; dhattam, dhattam ; dhatta and dhattana, 
s dadhatu; A. dhatsva; dadhatam. PT. dadhat; da- 

dhana. IPF. adadham, adadhas, adadhat ; adhattam ; 

adhatta, adadhur; A. adhatthas, adhatta. PF. da- 

dhatha, dadhau; dadhatur; dadhima, dadhiir; A. 

dadhis^, dadh6 ; dadhathe, dadhate ; dadhidhv6, da- 

dhir6 and dadhrd ; IPV. dadhisva; dadhidhvam. AO. 

root : adham, dhas, adhat and dhat ; dhatam, adhatam ; 


adhur ; A. adhithas, adhita ; adhitam ; adhimahi ; SB. 

dhas, dhati and dhat ; dhama ; dhethe, dhaithe ; dha- 

mahe; INJ. dham; dhur; A. dhimahi; OP. dheyam; 

dheyur; IPV. dhatu; dhatam; dhata, dhatana, and 

dhetana, dhantu ; A. dhisva ; a : adhat (SV.), dhat ; 

s : adhisi (B.) ; adhisata (B.) ; SB. dhasathas ; dhasatha ; 

INJ. dhasur ; OP. dhisiya (B.), dhesiya (MS.). FT. dha- 

syati, -te(B.); dhata (B.). PS. dhiyate; AO. adhayi; PP. 

hita, -dhita. GD. dhitva (B.), -dhaya. INF. -dhe, dha- 

tave, dhatavai, dhiyadhyai; -dham; dhatum (B.); 

dhatos. cs. dhapayati; SB. dhapayathas. DS. didhisati, 

-te ; INJ. didhisanta ; OP. didhisema ; didhiseya ; IPV. 

didhisantu ; PT. didhisana ; dhitsati, -te ; GDV. didhi- 

2. dha suck, IV. P. : PR. dhayati. AO. root : adhat. PP. 

dhita. GD. dhitva (B.), -dhiya (B.). INF. dhatave. 

cs. dhapayate ; -ti (B.). 
1. dhav run, I. : PK. dhavati, -te. PPF. adadhavat. AO. 

is : adhavit (B.). cs. dhavayati. 
^. dhav ivasli, I. : PR. dhavati, -te. AO. is : adhavista. 

PP. dhauta. cs. dhavayati, -te (B.). 

dhi think, III. : PR. didhye ; didhyatham and didhitham 
(AV.) ; SB.didhayas; didhayan; pT.didhyat; didhyana. 
IFF. adidhet, didhet; adidhayur; A. adidhita. PF. didh- 
aya ; dldhima, didhiyur and didhyiir ; didhird. PF. 
dhita. INT. dedhyat (TS.). 

dhu shake, V. : PR. dhun6ti ; dhunut6 ; SB. dhunavat ; 
IPV. dhunuhi and dhunii ; dhunuta ; A. dhunusva ; PT. 
dhunvant ; dhunvana. IPF. adhunot ; A. adhunuthas, 
adhunuta. VI. P.: PR. dhuvati; OP. dhuv^t. PF. dudhuvS; 
OP. dudhuvita. PPF. dudhot. AO. root: PT. dhuvana; 
s: A. adhusata (3. pi.). FT. dhavisyati, -te (B.). PS. 
dhuyate ; PP. dhuta. GD. dhutva (B.), -dhuya. INT. 
dodhaviti; PT. dddhuvat and davidhvatj PF. davi- 
dhr hold : PF. dadhartha, dadhara ; dadhrd, dadhrird. 


AO. root : INJ. dhrthas; red.: adidharat; didhar (2. 3. s.); 

INJ. didharat; IPV. didhrtam; didhrta. FT. dharisyate. 

PS. dhriyate ; PP. dhrta. GD. dhrtva (B.), -dhrtya (B.). 

INF. dharmane; dhartari; dhartavai (B.). cs. dhard-j 

yati^ -te; FT. dharayisyati ; PS. dharyate (B.). INT. 

dardharsi ; IFF. adardhar ; dadharti (B.) ; 3. pi. da- 

dhrati(B.); IPV. dadhartu (B.). 
dhrs dare, V, : PR. dhrsnoti ; IPV. dhrsnuhi. PF. dadharsa; 

dadhrsur. SB. dadharsati and dadharsat; A. dadhrs- 

ate ; INJ. dadharsit ; PT. dadhrsvams ; PPF. dadhrsanta. 

AO. a : INJ. dhrsat ; PT. dhrsant ; dhrsamana ; dhrsana 

(AV.) ; is : adharsisur (B.). PP. dhrsta and dhrsita. 

GDV. -dhrsya. GD. -dhrsya (B.). INF. -dhrse ; -dhrsas. 

cs. dharsayati (B.). 
dhya think, IV. P. : PR. dhyayati. PF. dadhyau (B.). 

AO. sis: adhyasisam (B.). PER. FT. dhyata (B.). PP. 

dhyata (B.). GD. dhyatva. DS. didhyasate (B.). 
dhraj, dhraj sweep, I. : PR. PT. dhrajant ; dhrajamana. 

IPF. adhrajan. AO. is : OP. dhrajisiya. 
dhvams scatter, I. P. : PR. dhvamsati, -te(B.). PF. dadhvas^. 

AO. a: dhvasan. PP. dhvasta (B.). cs. dhvasayati; 

dhvamsayati, -te (B.). 
dhvan sound : AO. is : adhvanit. PP. dhvanta. cs. adhvan- 

ayat ; AO. INJ. dhvanayit. 
dhvr injure, I. P. : PR. dhvarati (B.). AO. s : A. adhursata 

(3. pi.). INF. dhurvane. DS. diidhursati. 
naks attain, I. : PR. naksati, -te ; INJ. naksat ; IPV. naks- 

asva; PT. naksant; uaksamana. IPF. anaksan. PF. 

nanaksiir ; nanakse. 
nad sound, I. P. : PR. nadati. cs. nadayati. INT. nanad- 

ati (3. pi.) ; nanadyate (B.) ; PT. nanadat. 
nam bend, I. : PR. namati, -te. PF. nanama ; nem6. PPF. 

nanamas. AO. red. : INJ. ninamas ; s : anan (K.) ; 

A. anamsata (3. pi., B.). SB. namsai, namsante; PT. 

namasana. FT. namsyati (B.). PP. nata; GDV. nantva. 

GD. -natya (B.). INF. -namam, -name. cs. namayati. 


INT. nannamiti ; nannate (3. s.) ; PT. nannamat ; nan- 
namana ; IPF. anannata (3. s.). 

1. nas ~be lost } IV. P. : PR. nasyati ; I. : PR. nasati, -te. 
PF. nanasa; nesur(B.). AO. red. : aninasat; n6sat; INJ. 
ninasas; nsat. FT. nasisyati. PP. nasta. cs. nasa- 
yati; INF. nasayadhyai. 

2. naS attain, I. : PR. nasati, -te. AO. root : anaj (2. 3. s.), 
nat (3. s.) ; anastam ; INJ. nak and nat (3. s.) ; A. namsi ; 
OP. nasimahi ; s : SB. naksat. INF. -nase. DS. inaksasi ; 
INJ. inaksat. 

nas unite, I. A. : PR. nasate ; nasamahe ; INJ. nasanta. 

AO. root: OP. nasimahi. 
nah Und, IV.: PR. nahyati; IPV. nahyatana (2. pi.); PT. 

nahyamana. PF. nanaha. PS. PT. nahyamana; PP. 

naddha. GD. -nahya (B.). 
nath, nadh seek aid, I. A. : PR. nathate (B.) ; PT. nadha- 

mana. PP. nathita ; nadhita. 
nij wash, II. A. : PT. nijana. III. : IPV. ninikta (2. pi.). 

AO. a : anijam ; s : anaiksit ; INJ. niksi. PP. nikta. 

GD. niktva(B.), -nijya(B.). INF. -nije. cs. nejayati(B.). 

INT. nenikt6; TPV. nenigdhi. 
nind, revile, I. P. : PR. nindati ; SB. nindat ; IPV. nindata. 

PF. nindima ; ninidur. AO. root : PT. nidana ; is : 

anindisur ; SB. nindisat. PS. nindyate ; PP. nindita. 

DS. SB. ninitsat. 
ni lead, I. : PR. nayati, -te ; SB. nayati, nayat ; A. nayasai 

(AV.); INJ. nayat; nayanta; IPV. nayatu; A. nayasva ; 

PT. nay ant; nayamana; IPF. anayat. II.: PR. n6i(= 

IPV.) ; netha; IPF. anitam (3. du.). PF. nindtha, ninaya ; 

ninyathur; ninye (B.) ; SB. nimthas; OP. niniyat; IPV. 

nin^tu. AO. s: anaista (2. pi.) ; anesata (3. pi.); SB. 

nesati, n^sat ; n^satha ; INJ. naista (2. pi.) ; A. nesta 

(3. s.); is: anayit (AV.). FT. nesyati; -te (B.) ; nayi- 

syati (B.). PS. niyate ; PP. nita. GD. nitva (B.), -mya. 

INF. nesani; netavai (B.); n6tum (B.), nayitum (B.); 

iietos (B.).' DS. nimsati (B.). INT. neniyate. 


nu praise, I. : PR. navati ; navamahe, navante ; INJ. 

navanta; PT. navant; navamana. IPF. anavanta. II. 

P.: PT. nuvant; IPF. anavan. PPF. anunot, nunot; 

AO. s : A. armsi ; anusatam ; anusata ; INJ. nusata 

(3. pi.) ; is : A. anavista. GDV. navya. INT. nonaviti ; 

normrnas and nomimasi ; SB. nonuvanta ; IPF. navmot ; 

anonavur ; PF. n6nava ; nonuvur. 
nud push, VI. : PR. nudati, -te ; PF. nurmd6 ; nunudrd. 

AO. root : INJ. nutthas ; is : INJ. nudisthas. FT. not- 

syate (B.). PP. nutta; nunna(SV.). INF. -nude ; -nudas. 

INT. anonudyanta (B.). 
nrt dance, IV. P. : PR. nrtyati ; IPV. nrtya, nrtyatu ; PT. 

nrtyant. AO. root: nrtur (PF.?); a: PT. nrtamana ; is: 

anartisur. PP. nrtta. cs. nartayati. 
pac cook, I. : PR. pacati, -te ; SB. pacani, pacati, pacat ; 

INJ. pacat ; IPV. pacata, pacantu. IV. A. : PR. pacyate. 

PF. papaca ; peed. PPF. apeciran. AO. s : SB. paksat. 

FT. paksyati, -te (B.) ; pakta (B.). PS. pacyate. GD. 

paktva. INF. paktave. cs. pacayati, -te (B.). 
pat fly, I. P. : PR. patati ; SB. patati, patat INJ. patat ; 

OP. patet ; IPV. patatu ; PT. patant. IPF. apatat. PF. 

papata ; petathur, petatur ; paptima, paptur ; OP. 

papatyat; PT. paptivams. AO. red. : apaptat and api- 

patat; apaptama, apaptan; INJ. paptas, paptat; paptan; 

IPV. paptata. FT. patisyati ; co. apatisyat (B.). PS. AO. 

apati (B.) ; PP. patita. GD. patitva, -patya (B.). INF. 

pattave ; patitum (B.). cs. patayati, -te ; patayati. 

DS. pipatisati. INT. papatiti ; SB. papatan. 
pad go, IV.: PR. padyate ; padyati (B.) ; IPV. padyasva; 

PT. padyamana ; IPF. apadyanta. PF. papada ; ped6 

(B.). AO. root : apadmahi, apadran ; SB. padati, padat ; 

PRC. padista; red.: apipadama; s: INJ. patsi (1. s.), 

patthas. FT. patsyati (B.). PS. AO. apadi, padi; PP. 

panna. GD. -padya. INF. -padas ; pattum (B.), pattos 

(B.). cs. padayati, -te ; PS. padyate (B.) ; DS. pipada- 

yisati (B.). 


pan admire, I. A. : PR. INJ. pananta. PF. papana (1. s.) ; 

papn(. AO. is : panista (3. s.). PS. panyate ; PP. 

panita. cs. panayati, -te; GDV. panayayya. INT. PT. 

pas see, IV. : PR. pasyati, -te ; SB. pasyani, pasyasi and 

pasyas, pasyat ; pasyama, pasyan ; INJ. pasyat ; OP. 

pasyet ; pasyeta ; IPV. pasya ; pasyasva ; PT. pasyant ; 

pasyamana ; IFF. apasyat ; apasyanta. Cp. spas. 

1. pa drink, I. : PR. pibati, -te ; SB. pibasi, pibati and 
pibat ; pibava, pibathas, pibatas ; INJ. pibat ; IPV. 
pibatu ; pibasva ; pibadhvam ; PT. pibant ; IPF. apibat. 
III. : PR. pipite (B.), pipate (B.) ; OP. pipiya (B.) ; IPF. 
apipita(B.); IPV. pipatu (K.) ; PT. pipana and pipana 
(AV.). PF. papatha, papau ; papathur, papiir; A. 
pap6 ; papir6 ; OP. papiyat ; PT. papivams ; papana. 
AO. root : apam, apas, apat ; apama, apur ; SB. pas ; 
pathas; panti; PEC. peyas (3. s.); IPV. pahi, patu; 
patam, patam ; pata and patana, pantu ; PT. pant ; s : 
INJ. pasta (3. s.). FT. pasyati, -te (B.). PS. piyate ; AO. 
apayi ; PP. pita. GD. pitva, pitvi ; -paya. INF. pitaye, 
patave, patavai ; patos (B.) ; pibadhyai. cs. payayati ; 
DS. pipayayiset (K.). DS. pipasati; pipisati; PT. 

2. pa protect, II. : PR. pami, past, pati ; pathas, patas ; 
patha, pathana, panti ; SB. pat ; patas ; IPV. pahi, 
patu ; patam, patam ; pata, pantu ; PT. pant ; pana ; 
IPF. apam, apas, apat ; apama, apur. AO. s : SB. pasati. 

pi, pi swell, I. A. : PR. payate. II. A. : PT. piyana. V. : 
PR. pinvire ; PT. pinvant, f. pinvati ; pinvana. PF. pi- 
p^tha, pipaya; pipyathur; pipyur ; pipy6 (3. s.) ; SB. 
pipayas, pipayat ; pipayatas ; pipayan ; pipayata ; 
pipayanta ; INJ. pipes ; IPV. pipihi, pipaya ; pipyatam, 
pipyatam ; pipyata PT. pipivams ; pipyana and 
pipyana. PPF. apipe ; apipema, apipyan; apipayat; 
apipayanta. PP. pina (AV.). 

pinv fatten, I. : PR. pinvati, -te ; INJ. pinvat ; pinvanta ; 


IPV. pinva; pinvatam; pinvata; A. pinvasva, pinv- 
atam ; pinvadhvam ; PT. pinvant ; pinvamana ; IFF. 
apinvam, apinvas, apinvat ; apinvatam ; apinvata, 
apinvan; A. 3. s. apinvata. PF. pipinvathur. PP. 
pinvita (B.). cs. pinvayati (B.). Cp. pi sivell. 

pis adorn, VI. : PR. pimsati, -te. PF. pip6sa ; pipisiir ; A. 
pipis6 ; pipisrd. AO. root : PT. pisana. PS. pisyate ; 
pp. pista ; pisita. INT. PT. pdpisat ; p^pisana. 

pis crush, VII. P. : PR. pinasti ; pimsanti ; INJ. pinak (2. 3. 
s.) ; IPV. pinastana ; PT. pimsant ; IPF. pinak. VI. P. : 
IPF. apisan (AV.). PF. pip^sa ; pipis6. AO. sa : apik- 
san (B.). PS. pisyate (B.) ; PP. pista. GD. pistva (B.). 
INF. p^stavai (B.) ; p^stum (B.). 

pid press: PF. pipid^. cs. pidayati. 

pus thrive, IV. P. : PR. pusyati. PF. pup6sa ; OP. pupusyas ; 
PT. pupusvams. AO. root: PRC. pusyasam (B.) ; pus- 
yasma (B.) ; a : OP. pus^yam ; pus6ma. PP. pusta. INF. 
pusyase. cs. posayati. 

pu cleanse, IX. : PR. punami, punati ; pnnanti ; punite ; pu- 
nate (AV.)and punati; IPV. punihi and pumtat, punatu ; 
pumtam ; pumta, pumtana and punata, punantu ; PT. 
punant ; punana ; IPF. apunan. I. A. : PR. pavate ; 
SB. pavate ; IPV. pavasva, pavatam ; pavadhvam, 
pavantam ; PT. pavamana ; IPF. apavathas. PF. pupuv- 
ur (B.) ; pupuv6 (B.). PPF. apupot. AO. is : apavisur ; 
INJ. pavista (3. s.). PS. puyate; PP. puta. GD. putvi; 
putva; -puya (B.). INF. pavitum (B.). cs. pavayat, 
-te (B.), pavayati (B.). 

pr pass, III. P. : PR. piparsi, piparti ; piprthas ; piprtha, 
piprati ; IPV. piprhi and piprtat, pipartu; piprtam; pi- 
prta and pipartana. AO. red. : apiparam, aplparas ; api- 
paran ; INJ. piparas, piparat and piparat ; s : SB. parsati, 
parsat ; IPV. parsa ; is : SB. parisat. INF. parsani. cs. 
parayati ; SB. parayati ; PT. parayant. 

pro mix, VII. : PR. prnaksi ; prncanti ; A. prnc6, prnkte ; 
prncate (3. pi.) ; INJ. prnak (3. s.) ; OP. prncita ; IPV. 


prndhi ( = prngdhi), prnaktu ; prnktam ; PT. prficant ; 

prncana ; IFF. aprnak (3. s.). III. P. : IPV. piprgdhi ; 

piprkta. PF. paprciir (B.) ; SB. paprcasi ; OP. paprcyam, 

paprcyat; PT. paprcana. AO. root_: SB. parcas; OP. 

prcimahi ; PT. prcana ; s : aprak ; A. aprksi, aprkta. 

PS. prcyate ; PP. prkta ; -prgna. INF. -prce ; prcas. 
prnfill, VI. : PR. prnati; SB. prnaithe (du. 2.) ; IPV. prna; 

prnata ; prnasva ; prnadhvam ; IPF. aprnat. INF. prna- 

dhyai. Cp. pr fill. 
pr fill, IX. : PR. prnami, prnasi, prnati ; prnitas ; prnanti ; 

SB. prnati, prnat; OP. prniyat; IPV. prmhi, prnatu ; 

prnitam ; prnita, prnitana ; A. prnisva ; PT. prnant ; 

IPF. aprnas, aprnat. III.: PR. piparmi, piparti; pi- 

prati (3. pi.) ; IPV. pipartu ; piprtam ; pipartana ; IPF. 

apiprata (3. s. = apiprta). PF. OP. pupuryas ; PT. papr- 

vams. AO. root: IPV. purdhi ; PRO. priyasam (AV.) ; 

red. : apupuram (B.) ; INJ. piparat ; IPV. pupurantu ; is : 

puristhas (B.). PS. puryate (B.) ; PP. purnd ; piirta. 

INF. -puras (K.). cs. purayati ; SB. purayati. 
py&fill up, IV. A. : PR. pyayase ; IPV. pyayasva, pyayatam ; 

py ay ant am ; PT. pyayamana. AO. sis : OP. pyasisimahi 

(AV.). PP. pyata. cs. pyayayati ; PS. pyayyate (B.). 
prach ask, VI. : PR. prchati, -te ; SB. prchat ; prchan ; A. 

prchai, PF. papracha ; papracMr (B.). AO. s : aprak- 

sam, aprat ; apraksit. FT. praksyati (B.). PS. prch- 

yate ; PP. prsta ; aov. paprks6nya. INF. -prchani, 

-prche ; prastum. 
prath spread, I. A. : PR. prathate. PF. 2. papratha (= pa- 

prat-tha ?) ; A. paprath6 and paprathe (3. s.) ; SB. 

paprathas, paprathat ; paprathan ; INJ. paprathanta ; 

PT. paprathana. AO. root : PT. prathana ; is : 3. s. A. 

aprathista ; prathista. cs. prathayati, -te. 
pr&fill, II. P. : PR. prasi, PF. papratha, papra and paprau ; 

paprathur, papratur ; papriir ; A. paprs^, papr6 ; PT. 

paprvams. AO. root : aprat ; SB. pras ; s : 3. s. apras. 

PS. AO. aprayi ; PP. prata. 


pri please, IX,: PR. prmati; prmit6; PT. prinant; prmana. 

IPP. aprinat. PF. pipriy6 ; SB. piprayas, piprayat ; IPV. 

piprihi ; piprayasva ; PT. pipriyana. PPF. apiprayam, 

apipres (B.) ; apiprayan. AO. s : apraisit (B.) ; SB. 

pr6sat. PP. prita. GD. pritva (B.). DS. piprisati. 
pruth snort, I. : PR. prothati ; PT. prothant ; prtfthamana. 

GD. -prtithya. INT. PT. pdpruthat. 
prus sprinkle, V. : PR. prusnuvanti ; prusnutS ; SB. prus- 

navat. VI. P. : IPV. prusa ; PT. prusant. IV. P. : IPF. 

aprusyat (B.). IX. P. : PT. prusnant (B.). FT. PT. 

prosisyant. PP. prusita. 
plu float, I. : PR. plavate ; plavati (B.). PF. pupluv6 (B.). 

AO. red. : apiplavam (B.) ; s : aplosta (B.). FT. plosyati, 

-te (B.). PP. pluta. GD. -pluya (K.). cs. plavayati (B.). 

INT. popluyate (B.). 
psa devour, II. P. : PR. psati. PS. apsiyata (B.) ; PP. psata. 

GD. -psaya (B.). 

phan spring-., cs. phanayati. INT. PT. paniphanat. 
bandh bind, IX. : PR. badhnami ; badhnimas, badhnanti ; 

A. badhnate (3. pi.) ; IPV. badhana, badhnatu ; badh- 

nantu ; A. badhnitam (3. s.). IPF. abadhuat ; abadh- 

nan ; A. abadhnita (3. s.). PF. babandha ; bedhur. FT. 

bhantsyati. PS. badhyate; PP. baddha. GD. baddhva; 

baddhvaya (B.); -badhya (B.). INF. -badhe. cs. bandh- 

ayati (B.). 
badh oppress, I. A. : PR. badhate. PF. babadh.6. AO. is : 

INJ. badhista. PP. badhita. GD. -badhya. INF. badhe. 

cs. badhayati. DS. bibhatsate ; bibadhisate (B.). INT. 

babadhe (3. s.) ; badbadh^ ; PT. babadhana ; bad- 

budh ivcike, I. P. : PR. bodhati ; SB. bddhati ; INJ. b6dhat ; 

IPV. bddhatu. IV. : PR. biidhyate ; OP. biidhyema ; 

IPV. budhyasva; biidhyadhvam; PT. budhyamana. PF. 

bubudh^; SB. bubodhas, biibodhati; bubodhatha; 

PT. bubudhana. AO. root: A. 3. pi. abudhran, abu- 

dhram ; IPV. bodhi (2. s.) ; PT. budhana ; a : INJ. 


budhanta ; red. : abubudhat ; s : A. abhutsi ; abhuts- 

mahi, abhutsata; is : SB. bddhisat. FT. bhotsyati(B.). PS. 

AO. abodhi; pp. buddha. GD. -budhya (B.). INF. -biidhe. 

cs. bodhayati ; bodhayate (B.). INT. bobudhiti (B.). 
brh make lig, VI. P. : PR. brhati. I. : PR. brmhati, -te 

(B.). PF. babarha ; PT. babrhana. AO. is : INJ. barhis, 

barhit. cs. bar hay a. INT. SB. barbrhat; IPV. barbrhi. 
bru say, II.: PK. bravimi, bravisi, braviti; brumas, 

bruvanti ; A. bruve\ brus6, brut and bruv6 ; bruvate ; 

bruvate ; SB. bravani and brava, bravasi and bravas, 

bravat ; bravama, bravatha (AV.), bravan ; A. brava- 

vahai, bravaite ; bravamahai ; OP. bruyat ; bruyatam ; 

A. bruvita; bruvimahi; IPV. bruhi and brutat, bravitu ; 

brutam ; bruta and bravitana, bruvantu ; PT. bruvant ; 

bruvana. IPF. abravam, abravis, abravit ; abrutam; 

abravlta, abruvan. 
bhaks eat: AO. red.: ababhaksat (B.) ; cs. bhaksayati; 

bhaksayate (B.) ; PS. bbaksyate (B.). 
bhaj divide, I. : PK. bhajati, -te. II. P. : PR. bhak^i 

(=IPV.). PF. 2. s. babhaktha (B.), 3. s. babhaja; A. 

bhej6; bhejate ; bhejir^; PT. bhejana. AO. red.: abi- 

bhajur (B.) ; s: abhak and abhaksit ; A. abhaksi, 

abhakta ; SB. bhaksat ; INJ. bhak (2. 3. s.) ; OP. bhak- 

siya, bhaksita ; bhaksimahi ; PRC. bhaksista. FT. bhak- 

syati, -te (B.). PS. bhajyate ; PP. bhakta. GD. bhaktva ; 

bhaktvaya ; -bhajya (B.). cs. bhajayati ; PS. bhajyate. 
bhanj break, VII. P. : PR. bhanakti ; IPV. bhandhi, bha- 

naktu ; PT. bhanjant. IPF. abhanas (for abhanak, AV.). 

PF. babhanja. PS. bhajyate. 
bhan speak, I. : PR. bhanati ; bhananti ; INJ. bhananta. 

IPF. bhananta. 
bhas devour, III. : PR. babhasti; bapsati ; SB. babhasat; 

bapsathas ; PT. bapsat. VI. P. : PR. bhasathas. I. P. : 

INJ. bhasat. 
bha shine, II. P. : bhasi, bhati ; bhanti ; IPV. bhahi ; PT. 

f. bhati. FT. bhasyati (B.). 

D d 


bhiks beg, I. A. : PR, bhiksate ; INJ. bhiksanta ; OP. bhik- 
seta ; PT. bhiksamana. PF. bibhiks6 (B.). 

bhid split, VII. : PR. bhinadmi, bhinatsi, bhinatti ; bhind- 
anti ; SB. bhinadas, bhinadat ; INJ. bhinat (2. 3. s.) ; 
OP. bhindyat ; IPV. bhindhi, bhinattu ; bhintta ; PT. 
bhindant ; bhindana. IPF. bhinat (2. 3. s.) ; abhinat 
(3. s.) J abhindan. PF. bibh^da; bibhidur. AO. root: 
abhedam, bh<t (2. 3. s.), abhet (3. s.) ; SB. bhSdati ; INJ. 
bh6t (2. s.) ; PT. bhidant ; a : OP. bhideyam ; s : INJ. 
bhitthas. FT. bhetsyate (B.). PS. bhidyate (B.) ; AO. 
abhedi (B.) ; PP. bhinna. GD. bhittva ; -bhidya. INF. 
bh<ttavai (B.) ; bh^ttum (B.). DS. bibhitsati. 

bM/ear, III. P. : PR. bibheti; bibhyati; INJ. bibh6s ; OP. 
bibhiyat ; IPV. bibhita, bibhitana ; PT. bibhyat ; IPF. 
bibhes, abibhet. I. A. : PR. bhayate ; SB. bhayate ; 
IPV. bhayatam (3. s.) ; IPF. abhayanta ; PT. bhayamana. 
PF. bibhaya (1. s.), bibhaya (B. also bibhaya) ; bibhya- 
tur ; bibhyur ; PT. bibhivams ; PER. PF. bibhayam 
cakara. AO. root : INJ. bh6s (TS.) ; bhema ; PT. bhiy- 
ana; red.: bibhayat ; abibhayur (Kh.) ; abibhayanta; 
s: bhaisis (AY.); abhaisma, abhaisur; PT. bhiyasana 
(AV.). co. abhesyat (B.). PP. bhita. INF. bhiyase. cs. 
bhisayate (B.) ; AO. bibhisas ; bibhisathas. 

1. bhuj enjoy, YIL A. : PR. bhunkt6 ; bhunjate and bhunj- 
at6 ; SB. bhunajamahai ; PT. f. bhunjati. PF. bubhuj6 ; 
bubhujmahe, bubhujrir^. AO. root : SB. bhojate ; INJ. 
bhdjam ; a : OP. bhuj^ma ; IPV. bhuja (TS.). PS. bhuj- 
yate (B.). INF. bhuj6 ; bhojase. cs. bhojayati. 

2. bhuj lend, VI. P. : INJ. bhujat ; IPV. bhuja (VS.). PPF. 
abubhojis. GD. -bhujya (B.). 

bhur quiver, VI. : INJ. bhuranta ; IPV. bhurantu ; PT. 

bhuramana. INT. jarbhuriti; PT. jarbhurat; jarbhiir- 

bhu 6e, I. : PR. bhavati ; bhavate (B.). PF. babhuva, 

babhutha and babhuvitha, babhuva; babhuvathur, 

babhuvatur; babhuvima, babhuva, babhuvur; OP. 


babhuyas, babhuyat ; IPV. babhutu ; PT. babhuvams. 

AO. root : abhuvam, abhus, abhut; abhutam, abhutam ; 

abhuma, abhuta and abhutana, abhuvan ; SB. bhuvani, 

bhuvas, bhuvat; bhuthas, bhutas; bhuvan; INJ. 

bhuvam, bhus, bhut ; bhuma ; OP. bhuyas, bhuyat ; 

bhuyama ; PRO. bhuyasam, 3. bhuyas ; bhuyasma, 

bhuyasta ; IPV. bodhi (for bhudhi), bhutu ; bhutam ; 

bhuta and bhutana ; a : bhiivas, bhuvat ; red. : abu- 

bhuvas. FT. bhavisyati; bhavita (B.). PP. bhuta. 

GDV. bhavya and bhavya ; bhavitva. GD. bhutvi, 

bhutva ; -bhuya. INF. bhuv6, -bhiive, -bhvd ; bhusani ; 

bhavitum (B.) ; bhavitos (B.). cs. bhavayati. DS. bu- 

bhusati. INT. bdbhaviti. 
bhr bear, I. : PR. bharati, -te. III. : PR. bibharmi, bi- 

bharsi, bibharti ; bibhrthas, bibhrtas ; bibhrmasi and 

bibhrmas, bibhrtha, bibhrati ; SB. bibharani, bibharat ; 

OP. bibhryat ; IPV. bibhrhi, bibhartu ; bibhrtam ; 

bibhrta (TS.) ; PT. bibhrat ; IPF. abibhar. PF. jabhartha, 

jabhara ; jabhriir ; A. jabhrs6, jabhr6 ; jabhrir^ ; ba- 

bhara (B.) ; A. babhr6 ; PT. babhrana ; SB. jabharat. 

PPF. ajabhartana. AO. root: PRO. bhriyasam; IPV. 

bhrtam ; s: abharsam, 3. abhar; abharstara ; SB. 

bharsat ; INJ. 3. s. bhar ; is : abharisam. FT. bhari- 

syati ; bharta (B.). co. abharisyat. PS. bhriyate ; SB. 

bhr iy ate ; AO. bhari ; PP. bhrta. GD. -bhrtya. INF. 

bhartum ; bharta ve, bhartavai ; bharadhyai ; bhar- 

mane. DS. bubhursati (B.). INT. jarbhrtas ; bhari- 

bhrati (3. pi); SB. bharibharat ; PT. bharibhrat. 
bhrams fall, I. : PR. INJ. bhramsat. AO. a : INJ. bhrasat. 

PP. -bhrsta ; bhrasta. cs. PT. bhrasayant. 
bhraj shine, I. A.: PR. bhrajate; PT. bhrajamana. AO. 

root: abhrat; PRO. bhrajyasam. PS. AO. abhraji. 
mamh, mah be great, I. : PR. mamhate ; mahe (3. s.) ; OP. 

mahema, maheta ; IPV. mamhatam ; PT. mamhamana. 

IPF. amamhata. PF. mamah6 (1. 3.) ; SB. mamahas ; 

INJ. mamahanta ; IPV. mamahasva, mamahantam ; PT. 
D d 2 


mamahana. PP. mahita (B.). INF. mane", mahaye. cs. 

inahayati, -te ; INJ. mamhayam ; PT. mahayant ; 

majj sink, I. P. : majjati. AO. root : OP. majjyat (B.). FT. 

manksyati, -te (B.). GD. -majjya. cs. majjayati (B.). 
math, manth stir, IX. : PR. mathnami ; mathnit6 (B.) ; 

IPV. mathmta, mathnantu ; PT. mathnant ; IPF. amath- 

nat ; I. manthati, -te ; mathati (AY.). PF. mamatha ; 

methur (B.) ; A. methir6 (B.). AO. root : SB. mathat ; 

is : amanthistam (3. du.) ; amathisata (B.) ; INJ. mathis, 

mathit. FT. manthisyati (B.) ; mathisyati, -te (B.). 

PS. mathyate ; PP. mathita. GD. mathitva (B.) ; -mathya 

(B.). INF. manthitavai ; mathitos (B.). 
mad be exhilarated, I.: PR. madati; -te. III. P.: PR. ma- 

matsi. II. P. : PR. matsi ( IPV.). IV. P. : PR. madyati 

(B.). PF. mamada ; SB. mamadas, mamadat ; mamadan ; 

IPV. mamaddhi, mamattu ; mamattana. PPF. ama- 

madur. AO. root : IPV. matsva ; red. : amimadas ; A. 

amimadanta ; s : amatsur ; A. amatta (3. s. ) ; amatsata 

(3. pi.) ; SB. matsati and matsat; matsatha; INJ. mat- 

sata (3. pi.) ; is : amadisur. PS. PT. madyamana ; PP. 

matta. GDV. -madya. INF. rnaditos (B.). cs. mada- 

yati; madayati, -te; SB. madayase, madayate ; 

madayaite; madayadhve and madayadhvai; INF. 

madayadhyai; PP. madita. 
man tUrik, IV. A. : PR. manyate. VIII. A. : PR, manv^ ; 

manmahe, manvat^ ; SB. manavai, manavate ; INJ. 

manvata (3. pi.) ; OP. man vita ; IPV. A. : manutam (3. s.) ; 

PT. manvana; IPF. amamita (3. s.) ; amanvata (3. pi.). 

PF. men6 (B. ) ; mamnathe, mamnate ; OP. mamanyat ; 

IPV. mamandhi. PPF. amaman (3. s.). AO. i-oot : amata ; 

amanmahi ; SB. manamahe, mananta ; PT. manana ; 

s : A. amamsta ; amamsatam ; amamsata ; SB. 

mamsai, mamsase, mamsate and mamsatai (TS.) ; 

mamsante ; INJ. mamsthas, mamsta and mamsta (AV.) ; 

OP. masiya, mamsisthas, mamsistd; mamsimdhi; 


mamsirata ; IPV. mandhvam (B.). FT. manisy^ ; mam- 
syate (B.). PP. mata. GD. -matya (B.). INF. mantave, 
mantavai; mantos (B.). cs. manayati; OP. manayet. 
DS. mimamsate (AV.), -ti (B.) ; AO. is : amimamsisthas 
(B.). PP. mimamsita (AY.). 

mand exhilarate, I. : PR. mandati, -te. PF. mamanda ; SB. 
mamandat ; PT. f. mamandusi. PPF. amamandur. AO. 
root : mandiir ; PT. mandana ; is : amandit; amandisur ; 
mandista (3. s. A.) ; amandisatam (3. du. A.) ; OP. mandi- 
simahi (VS.). INF. mandadhyai. cs. mandayati ; INF. 

1. mo, measure, III.: PR. mime, minute ; mimate; mimi- 
mahe, mimate ; OP. mimiyas, mimiyat ; IPV. mimihi, 
mimatu ; mimitam, mimitam ; A. mimisva ; mimatham ; 
PT. mimana. IFF. amimlthas, amimita. PF. mamatur ; 
marmir ; mam( (1. 3.) ; mamate ; mamird ; AO. root : 
IPV. mahi ; masva ; PT. mana (TS.) ; s : amasi ; SB, 
masatai (AV.). PS. AO. amayi; PP. mita; GDV. meya 
(AV.). GD. mitva ; -maya. INF. -m6, -mai. 

2. ma bellotv, III. P. : PR. mimati ; niimanti. PF. mimaya ; 
SB. mimayat. PPF. amimet. INF. matavai. INT. PT. 

mi fix, V. P. : PR. min6mi, minoti ; SB. minavama ; INJ. 

minvan ; IPV. minotu. IFF. niinvan. PF. mimaya ; 

mimyur. PS. miyate ; PT. miyamana ; PP. mita. GD. 

-mitya (B.). 
miks mix : PF. mimiksathur, mimiksatur ; mimiks^ ; 

mimiksire. IPV. mimiksva. cs. ineksayati (B.). 
mith alternate, I. : PR. m^thamasi ; A. m^thete. VI. P. : 

PT. mithant. PF. mim^tha. PP. mithita. 
mis mix : DS. mimiksati ; IPV. mimiksa ; mimiksatam, 

mis wink, VI. P. : PR. misati ; misanti ; FT. misant. INF. 

mih shed water, I. : PR. m^hati ; FT. m^hant ; m^ghamana. 


AO. sa : amiksat (B.). FT. meksyati. PP. midha. INF. 

mih6. cs. mehayati. INT. (B.). 
mi damage, IX. : PR. minami, minati ; mimmasi, minanti ; 

SB. minat ; minama ; INJ. minit (AV.) ; minan ; PT. 

minant ; minana. IFF. aminas, aminat ; aminanta. 

IV. A. : PR. miyase, miyate ; OP. mryeta (B.). PF. mimaya ; 

mimaya (AV.). AO. s : INJ. mesi, mesthas, mesta. 

PS. miyate ; AO. amayi (B.) ; PP. mita. INF. m6tos (B.) ; 

-miyam, -miye. INT. FT. m6myana. 
miv push, I. P. : PK. xnivati ; PT. mivant. PP. -muta ; 

mivita (B.). GD. mivya (B.). 
muc release, VI. : PR. muncati, -te ; SB. muncasi, muncat ; 

IPV. muncatu ; A. muncatam ; PT. muncant ; munca- 

inana. IFF. amuncat ; A. amuncata. IV. A. : PR. muc- 

yase ; SB. mucyatai(AV.). PF. nmmucmahe, mumucrd ; 

SB. mumucas ; mumocati, mumocat, mumucat ; IPV. mu- 

mugdhi, mum6ktu ; 2. du. mumuktam, mumocatam ; 

mum6cata; PT. mumucana. PPF. amunmktam. AO. 

root : amok ; amuktam ; A. amugdhvam ; PRO. mucista ; 

a: mucas, amucat; SB. mucati; mucate; INJ. mucas, 

mucat ; IPV. muca ; A. mucadhvam ; s : am auk (B.) ; 

A. amuksi, amukthas; INJ. mauk (VS.); A. muksata 

(3. pi.) ; OP. muksiya. FT. moksyati, -te (B.). PS. 

mucyate; AO. amoci; INJ. m6ci; PP. mukta. GD. 

muktva (B.); -miicya. INF. moktum (B.). DS. mu- 

muksati, -te ; moksate (B.) ; PT. mumuksamana. 
mud be merry, I. A. : PR. m6date. PF. mumoda. AO. root : 

OP. mudimahi ; is : PRC. A. modisisthas. PS. AO. amodi. 

INF. mud6. cs.modayati, -te (B.) ; DS. mumodayisati(B.). 
mus steal, IX. P. : PR. musnati ; PT. musnant ; IFF. amus- 

nas, amusnat ; amusnitam. I. P. : PR. mosatha. AO. 

is : INJ. m6sis. PP. musita. GD. -musya. INF. muse\ 
muh ~be dazed, IV. P. : PR. muhyati. PF. mumoha (B.). 

AO. a : amuhat (B.) ; red. : amumuhat. FT. mohisyati 

(B.). PP. mugdha ; mudha (AV.). INF. muh6. cs. 

mohayati ; GD. mohayitva. 


murch, mur thicken, I. P. : IFF. amurchat. PP. murta (B.). 
cs. murchayati (B.). 

1 . mr die, I. : PR. marati, marate ; maramahe ; SB. marati ; 
marama ; A. marai. PF. mamara ; mamrur ; PT. 
mamrvams. AO. root : amrta ; INJ. xnrthas ; OP. mur- 
lya ; red. : amimarat (B.). FT. marisyati (AV.). PS. 
mriyate ; pp. mrta. GD. mrtva (B.). cs. marayati. 

2. mr crush, IX. P. : IPV. mrnihi ; PT. mrnant. PS. mur- 
yate (B.) ; PP. murna (AV.). INT. IPV. marmartu. 

mrc injure : AO. s : PRC. mrksista. PP. mrkta. cs. marc- 

ayati ; SB. marcayat. 
mrj wipe, II. : PR. marsti ; mrjanti; mrj6; mrjmahe ; IPV. 

marstu ; A. mrksva ; mrddhvam ; PT. mrj ana ; IFF. 

mrsta (8. s. A.) ; amrjata. VII. : OP. mrnjyat (B.) ; IPV. 

mrnajani (B.) ; IPF. mrnjata (3. pi.). PF. mamarja; 

mamrjur; mamrje and mamrj6 ; OP. mam rj it a. AO. sa : 

amrksat ; amrksama ; A. amrksanta ; IPV. mrksatam ; 

red. : amimrjanta (B.) ; s : amarksit (B.) ; is : amarjit 

(B.). FT. mraksyate (B.), marksyate (B.) ; mrasta (B.). 

PS. mrjyate ; PP. mrsta ; GDV. marjya. GD. mrstva ; 

marjitva (B.) ; -mrjya. INF. -mfjas (B.). cs. marjayati, 

-te; marjayati, -te (B.). INT. marmrjyate; marimrj- 

yate (B.); SB. marmrjat; marmrjanta; PT. marmrjat ; 

marmrjana and marmrjana ; marmrjyamana ; IPF. 

marnirjma, marmrjata. 
mrd l>e gracious, VI. : PR. mrdati ; mrdate (B.) ; SB. mrlati 

and mrlat ; IPV. mrla and mrdatat (AV.), mrlatu. PF. 

OP. mamrdyur. cs. mrdayati. 
mrn crush, VI. P. : PR. mrnati ; INJ. mrnat ; IPV. mrna. 

IPF. amrnat. AO. root : mrnyur (K.) ; red. : amimrnan. 
mrd crush: AO. PRC. mrdyasam (B.); FT. mardisyate (B.). 

PS. mrdyate (B.); PP. mrdita. GD. -mrdya (B.). INF. 

marditos (B.). 
mrdh neglect, I. P. : PR. mardhati. VI. : PR. SB. mrdhati. 

AO. root : OP. mrdhyas ; is : SB. mardhisat ; INJ. mardh- 

is ; mardhistam. PP. mrddha. 


mrs touch, VI. : PR. mrsati, -te. FF. mamrsur ; mamrs6 
(B.). AC. sa : amrksat ; INJ. mrksas ; mrksata (2. pi.), 
pp. mrsta. GD. -mrsya. INF. -mrse. cs. marsayati (B.). 
INT. SB. marmrsat ; IND. marimrsyate (B.). 

mrs not heed, IV. : PR. mrsyate. PF. mamarsa. AO. root : 
INJ. mrsthas ; a : INJ. mrsanta ; red. : INJ. mimrsas ; is : 
INJ. marsisthas. INF. -mrse. 

nied be fat } IV. P. : IPV. medyantu. VI. A. : IPV. medatam 
(3. s.). cs. medayati. 

myaks le situated, I. P. : IPV. niyaksa. PF. mimyaksa ; 
mimiksiir ; A. mimiksir6. AO. root : amyak ; PS. 

mrad crush, I. : PR. mradate ; IPV. mrada. FT. mradi- 
syati, -te. INF. -mrade (B.). cs. mradayati. 

mruc, mine set, I. P. : PR. mrocati ; mldcati (B.) ; PT. 
mrocant. PF. mum!6ca (B.). AO. a: amrucat (B.). 
pp. mrukta (B.) ; mlukta. INF. mriica. 

mla relax, IV. P.: PR. mlayati (B.). PP. mlata; mlana 
(B.). cs. mlapayati. 

yaj sacrifice, I. : PR. yajati, -te; SB. yajati, -te; OP. yajeta; 
IPV. yajatu; yajantam; PT. yaj ant; yajamana. IPF. 
ayajat; ayajanta. PF. ije (1. 8. s.), yej6 (3. s.) ; ijathe 
IjirS; PT. ijana. AO. root: IPV. yaksva ; red. : ayiyajat 
(B.) ; s : ayas, ayat ; s : ayaksit ; A. ayasta (3. s.) ; SB. 
yaksat ; du. 2. yaksatas, 3. yaksatam ; A. yaksate ; INJ. 
yat (2. s.) ; A. yaksi (1. s.) ; OP. yakslya ; sa : IPV. yak- 
satam (3. du.). FT. yaksyate ; yaksyati (B.) ; yasta (B.). 
PP. ista. GD. istva. INF. yajadhyai; yajadhyai (TS.) ; 
yastave ; yastum. cs. yajayati (B.). DS. iyaksati, -te ; 
SB. iyaksan; PT. iyaksant; iyaksamana. 

yat stretch, I. : PR. yatati, -te; SB. A. yataite (3. du.); OP. 
yatema ; yatemahi ; IPV. yatatam ; A. yatasva ; yatan- 
tam ; PT. yatant ; yatamana. PF. yetire\ AO. root : 
PT. yatana and yatana ; is : ayatista (B.). FT. yatisyate 
(B.). PP. yatta. GD. -yatya (B.). cs. yatayati, -te; 
PS. yatyate (B.). 


yam stretch out, I. : PR. yachati, -te ; SB. yachat ; OP. 

yachet; IPV. yacha and yachatat, yachatu. IFF. aya- 

chat ; A. ayachathas. PF. yayantha, yayama ; yema- 

thur, yematur ; yemima, yema, yemur ; A. yem6 (8. 

s.) ; yernate ; yemir6 ; PT. yemana. AO. root : yamam ; 

ayanmr; SB. yamas, yamati and yamat; yaman ; A. 

yamase, yamate ; OP. yamimahi ; PRO. yamyas (3. s.) ; 

IPV. yandhi ; yantam ; yanta and yantana ; a : OP. 

yamet ; s : ayamsarn, ay an (3. s.) ; A. ayamsi (B.), 

ayamsta ; ayamsata ; SB. yamsat ; yamsatas ; yamsan ; 

A. yamsate ; INJ. A. yamsi ; PT. yamasana ; is : 

yamista (3. s. A.). FT. yamsyati (B.). PS. yamyate ; 

AO. ay ami (B.) ; PP. yata; GDV. yamsenya. GD. -yatya. 

INF. yamitavai, yantave; yamam; yantum (B.). 

cs. yamayati ; yamayati (B.). DS. yiyamsati (B.). INT. 

yas be heated, III. P. : IPV. yayastu. IV. P. : PR. yasyati. 

PP. yasta; yasita (B.). 
ya go, II. P. : PR. yati ; yanti ; OP. yayam ; IPV. yahi, 

yatu ; yatam ; yata and yatana, yantu ; PT. yant. IFF. 

ay as, ayat ; ayatam ; ayama, ayatana, ayur (B.). PF. 

yayatha, yayau ; yayathur ; yaya, yayiir ; PT. yayi- 

vams. AO. s : ayasam ; ayasur ; SB. yasat ; INJ. yesam ; 

sis : ayasisam, ayasit ; ayasistam ; ayasista, ayasisur ; 

SB. yasisat ; PRC. A. yasisisthas ; IPV. yasistam ; yasista. 

FT. yasyati. PP. yata. GD. yatva (B.) ; -yaya (B.). 

INF. yatave, yatavai (B.) ; -yai. cs. yapayati (B.). 
yac ask, I. : PR. yacati, -te. PF. yayace (B.). AO. is : 

ayacit ; ayacista (B.) ; SB. yacisat ; A. yacisamahe. 

FT. yacisyate. PP. yacita ; yacitva and yacya (B.). 

INF. yacitum. cs. yacayati. 

1. yu unite, VI. : PR. yuvati, -te. II. yauti ; A. yut6 ; 
SB. yavan ; IPV. yutam (3. s. A.) ; PT. yuvana. PF. 
yuyuv^. PER. FT. yuvita (B.). PP. yuta. GD. -yuya. DS. 
yiiyusati. INT. yoyuv6 ; PT. ybyuvat (AV.) ; yoyuvana. 

2. yu separate, III.: PR. yuydti ; SB. yuyavat; INJ. yuyo- 


thas, yuyota; OP. yuyuyatam ; IPV. yuyodhi, yuy6tu ; 

yuyutam and yuyotam ; yuyota and yuyotana. I. P. : 

PR. yiichati ; IPV. yiichantu ; PT. yuchant. AO. root : 

SB. yavanta ; OP. yuyat (B.) ; 3. du. yuyatam (B.) ; PRC. 

yuyas (3. s.) ; red. : INJ. yuyot ; s : yosati and yosat ; 

yosatas ; INJ. yusam (AV.) ; yaus (2. s.) ; yaustam ; 

yausma, yausta, yausur ; A. yosthas (B.) ; is : INJ. 

yavis. PS. AO. ayavi ; PP. yuta. INF. yotave, yotavai ; 

yotos. cs. yavayati ; yavayati. INT. PT. yoyuvat ; 

IPF. ayoyavit; PP. yoyava. 
yuj join, VII. : yunakti ; yunjanti ; yunkte ; yunjate ; 

SB. yunajat ; yunajan ; A. yunajate (3. s.) ; INJ. yunjata 

(3. pi.) ; IPV. yundhi, yunaktu ; yunakta, yufgantu ; A. 

yunksva, yuntam ; 2. du. yunjatham ; yungdhvam ; PT. 

yunjant ; yunjana ; IPF. ayunak and ayunak ; ayunjan ; 

A. ayunjata (3. pi.). PF. yuydja ; yuyujma ; A. yuyuj^ ; 

yuyujr6; SB. A. yuyojate (3. s.); PT. yuyujana. AO. 

root : A. ayuji, ayukthas, ayukta ; ayujmahi, ayug- 

dhvam, yiijata and ayujran ; SB. yojate ; INJ. yojam ; 

A. yukta (3. s.) ; OP. yujyava, yujyatam ; IPV. yuksva ; 

PT. yuj ana ; s. : ayuksi ; ayuksatam (3. du.) ; ayuksata 

(3. pi.). FT. yoksyati (B.) ; yoksyate ; yokta (B.). PS. 

yujyate ; AO. ayoji ; INJ. y6ji ; PP. yukta. GD. yuktva, 

yuktvaya. INF. yuj 6 ; yoktum (B.). 
yudh fight, IV. : PR. yudhyati, -te ; SB. yudhyai. IV. : IPV. 

yiidhya ; PT. yiidhyant ; yudhyamana ; IPF. ayudhyas, 

ayudhyat. I. P. : PR. yddhanti (AV.). II. P. y6tsi 

(= IPV.). PF. yuy6dha; yuyudhiir; A. yuyudhate (3. 

du.). AO. root : SB. y6dhat ; IPV. yodhi ; PT. yodhana ; 

is : ayodhit ; SB. yodhisat ; INJ. yodhis ; IPV. yodhistam. 

FT. yotsyati, -te (B.). PP. yuddha. GDV. yodhya, 

yudh^nya. GD. -yuddhvi. INF. yudh6, yudhaye ; 

yudham. cs. yodhayati. DS. yuyutsati, -te. 
yup obstruct : PF. yuyopa ; yuyopima. AO. red. : ayu- 

yupan (B.). PP. yupita. cs. yopayati. INT. yoyup- 

yate (B.). 


yes le heated, I. P.: PR. y&sati; PT. y6sant. 

ramh hasten, I. : PR. ramhate ; PT. ramhamana. IPF. 

aramhas; A. aramhata (3. s.). PF, PT. rarahana. cs. 

ramhayati, -te. 
raks protect, I. : PR. raksati, -te. PF. raraksa ; PT. ra- 

raksana. AO. is : araksit ; araksit (B.) ; SB. raksisas, 

raksisat. PP. raksita. cs. raksayate (B.). 
raj colour, IV. : IPF. arajyata. PP. rakta (B.). cs. rajayati. 

INT. rarajiti. 
rad dig, I. : PR. radati, -te ; INJ. radat ; IPV. rada ; radantu; 

A. radantam (3. pi.) ; PT. radant. IPF. aradat, radat. 

II. P. : ratsi (=IPV.). pp. rarada. PP. radita. 
radh, randh make subject, IV. P. : IPV. radhya, radhyatu. 

PF. raradhur. AO. root: IPV. randhi (=randdhi); a: 

SB. radhama ; INJ. radham ; red. : SB. riradha ; INJ. 

riradhas, riradhat ; riradhatam ; riradhata ; is : INJ. 

randhis. PP. raddha. cs. randhayati ; SB. randhayasi. 
ran rejoice, I. : PR. ranati ; INJ. rananta ; IPV. rana. IV. 

P. : PR. ranyasi, ranyati ; ranyathas ; ranyanti. PF. 

rarana (1. s.) ; SB. raranas, raranat ; raranata (2. pi.). 
INJ. raran (3. s.) ; IPV. rarandhi; raranta (2. pi.), rarantu. 

PPF. araranur. AO. is : aranisur ; INJ. ranistana. cs. 

rap chatter, I. P. : PR. rapati ; INJ. rapat ; OP. rapema. 

IPF. arapat. INT. rarapiti. 

raps lefull, I. A. : rapsate; rapsante. PF. rarapse. 
rabh, rambh grasp, I. : PR. rabhate. PP. rarabhma ; A. 

rarabh6 ; rebhir6 ; PT. rebhana. AO. s : 3. s. A. arabdha ; 

PT. rabhasana. PP. rabdha. GD. -rabhya. INF. -rabham ; 

-rabhe. cs. rambhayati, -te (B.). DS. ripsate (B.). 
ram rejoice, I. A. : PR. ramate. IX. P. : IPF. aramnas, 

aramnat. AO. red. : ariramat ; SB. riramama ; INJ. 

riraman ; s : A. aramsta (3. s.) ; aramsata (3. pi.) ; INJ. 

ramsthas ; sis : INJ. ramsisam. FT. ramsyate ; -ti (B.). 

PP. rata (B.). GD. ratva (B.). INF. rantos (B.). cs. 

ramayati and ramayati. 


1. ra give, III. : IPV. ririhi ; A. rarasva (AV.) ; raratham 
(3. du.) ; raridhvam; SB. rarate; PT. rarana. II. : PK. 
rasi (=IPV.) ; rate (B.) ; PF. rarima ; rare (1. s.), rarise ; 
rarathe ; PT. rarivams ; rarana. AO. root : aradhvam ; 
IPV. rasva; s: arasma ; arasata (3. pi.) ; SB. rasat ; 
rasan; A. rasate (3. s.) ; OP. rasiya; IPV. A. rasatam 
(3. s.) ; rasatham (2. du.) ; rasantam (3. pi.) ; PP. rata. 

2. ra bark, IV. P. : PR. rayasi ; IPV. raya ; PT. rayant. 

raj rule, I. P. : PR. rajati. II. P. : PR. rasti ; INJ. rat. AO. 

is : arajisur. INF. rajase. cs. rajayati (B.), -te. 
radh succeed, IVy A. : IPV. radhyatam ; PT. radhyamana. 

V. P. : PR, radhnoti (B.). PF. raradha. AO. root : aradh- 

am (B.) ; SB. radhat and radhati ; radhama ; PRO. 

radhyasam ; radhyasma ; red. : ariradhat (B.) ; s : 

aratsis ; is : INJ. radhisi (1. s.). FT. ratsyati. PS. AO. 

aradhi ; PP. raddha ; GDV. radhya. GD. raddhva (B.). 

-radhya (B.). INF. iradhyai. cs. radhayati. 
ri flow, IX. : PR. rinati ; rinithas ; rinanti ; A. rimt^ ; 

rinate ; INJ. rinas ; rinan ; PT. rinant ; rinana. IFF. 

rinas, arinat ; arinitam ; arinita. IV. : PR. riyate ; 

riyante; PT. riyamana. 
ric leave, VII. P. : PR. rinakti ; SB. rinacava ; INJ. rinak 

(3. s.). IPF. arinak (2. s.) ; rinak (3. s.). PF. rirca ; 

riricathur ; A. ririks6, riric^ ; riricathe ; riricr^ ; OP. 

riricyam, riricyat ; PT. _ririkvams ; riricana. PPF. 

arirecit. AO. root : INJ. A. rikthas ; IPV. riktam ; s : 

araik (3. s.) ; A. ariksi ; red. : ariricat (B.). FT. reksyate 

(B.). PS. ricyate ; IPF. aricyata ; AO. areci ; PP. rikta. 

cs. recayati (B.). 

rip smear : PF. riripur. PP. ripta. Cp. lip. 
ribh sing, I. P. : PR. r^bhati ; rdibhanti ; PT. r^bhant. IPF. 

r6bhat. PF. rir^bha. PS. ribhyate. 
ris tear, VI. : PR. risamahe ; IPV. risantam ; PT. risant. 

pp. rista. 
ris le hurt, IV. : PR. risyati ; SB. risyas, risyati and risyat ; 

OP. risyet ; risyema. I. P. : SB. rdsat ; INJ. rdsat. AO. 


a : arisan ; SB. risama, risatha and risathana ; PT. risant 
and risant ; red. : INJ. ririsas, ririsat ; ririsata (2. pi.) ; 
OP. ririses; PRC. A. ririsista and ririsista (3. s.). PP. 
rista. INF. ris ; risas. cs. resayati ; INF. risayadhyai. 
DS. ririksati. 

rih lick, II. : PR. redhi ; rihanti ; 3. pi. rihate and 
rihate" ; PT. rihant ; rihana (VS.) and rihana. PF. PT. 
ririhvams. PP. ridha. INT. rerihyate ; PT. r^rihat ; 
re" rihana. Cp. lib. 

1. ru cry, VI. P.: PR. ruvati ; INJ. ruvat; IPV. ruva; PT. 
ruvant. II. (B.) rauti ; ruvanti. PF. ruruvir< (B.). 
AO. is : aravit ; aravisur. PP. ruta. INT. r6raviti ; PT. 
r6ruvat ; rdmvana (B.) ; IPF. aroravit. 

2. ru break : AO. is : ravisam. PP. ruta. INT. PT. r6ruvat. 
rue shine, I. : PR. r6cate. PF. rur6ca ; ruruciir ; ruruc6 

(3. s.) ; INJ. rurucanta; OP. rurucyas ; PT. rurukvams; 

rurucana. AO. root : PT. rucana ; red. : arurucat ; A. 

arurucata (3. s., B.) ; is : A. arocista (3. s.) ; OP. rucisiya 

(AV.) and rocisiya (B.). PS. AO. aroci. PP. rucita (B.). 

INF. ruc6. cs. rocayati ; -te (B.). INT. PT. rorucana. 
ruj break, I. P. : PR. rujati. PF. rurojitha, rurdja. AO. 

root: INJ. r6k; red.: arurujatam (2. du.). PP. rugna. 

GD. ruktva (B.) ; -riijya (B.). INF. -riije. 
rud iveep, II. P. : PR. roditi ; rudanti ; SB. rodat (Kh.) ; 

PT. rudant. 'IFF. arodit (B.). AO. a: arudat. cs. 

1. rudh obshuct, VII. : PR. runadhmi, runaddhi ; A.rundhe' 

(= runddhe") ; rundhate (3. pi.) ; SB. A. runadhamahai ; 

IPV. rundhi ( runddhi) ; A. rundham (= runddham, 

3. s.) ; PT. rundhana; IPF. A. arundhata (3. pi.). PF. 

rurodhitha ; A. rurudhr^. AO. root : arodham ; arudh- 

ma ; a : arudhat ; arudhan ; INJ. rudhat ; PT. rudh- 

ant ; s : araut ; arautsit (B.) ; A. arutsi (B.), aruddha 

(B.). FT. rotsyati, -te (B.). PS. rudhyate ; PP. ruddha. 

GD. -riidhya. INF. -riidham, rundham (B.), -rodham 

(B.); roddhos (B.). DS. riirutsate (B.). 


2. rudh grow, I. P. : PR. rddhati ; INJ. rodhat. 

rup break, IV. P. : PR. riipyati (B.). AO. red. : arurupat. 

pp. rupita. cs. repay ati (B.). 
ruh ascend, I. : PR. r6hati, -te. PF. rurohitha, ruroha ; 

ruruhiir. AO. root : PT. ruhana ; a : aruham, aruhas, 

aruhat ; ' aruhama, aruhan ; SB. ruhava ; INJ. ruham, 

ruhat ; OP. ruh^ma ; IPV. ruha ; ruhatam ; sa : ruksas, 

aruksat; aruksama. FT. roksyati (B.). PP. rudha. 

GD. rudhva, -riihya. INF. -ruham ; r6hisyai (TS.) ; 

r6dimm (B.). cs. rohayati ; -te (B.) ; ropayati (B.). 

DS. ruruksati. 
rej tremble. I. : PR. r6jati, -te; INJ. rejat; r^janta (3. pi.) ; 

PT. rejamana ; IPF. arejetam (3. du.) ; arejanta. cs. 

lap prate, I. P. : PR. lapati ; PT. lapant. FT. lapisyati (B.). 

pp. lapita. cs. lapayati ; -te (B.). INT. lalapiti. 
labh take, I. A. : PR. labhate. PF. lebhirS ; PT. lebhana. 

AO. s (B.) : A. alabdha ; alapsata. FT. lapsyati, -te (B.). 

PS. labhyate (B.) ; PP. labdha. GD. labdhva ; -labhya 

(B.). cs. lambhayati, -te (B.). DS. lipsate; lipsate (B.) ; 

PS. lipsyate (B.). 
likh scratch, VI. : PR. likhati; -te (B.). PF. lilekha (B.). 

AO. red. : alilikhat (B.) ; is : INJ. 16khis. PP. likhita. 

GD. -likhya (B.). 
lip smear, VI. P. : PR. limpati. PF. lilepa, lilipiir (B.). 

AO. s : alipsata (3. pi.). PS. lipyate (B.) ; PP. lipta. GD. 

-lipya (B.). 

lih licit, II. :_PR. le"dhi (B.). cs. lehayati. INT. PP. lelihita(B.). 
li cling, I. A. : PR. layate ; IPV. layantam. PF. Iily6 (B.) ; 

lilyiir ; -lay am cakre. AO. s : alesta (B.). PP. Una. 

cs. lapayati (B.). INT. lelayati; PF. lelaya. 
lup 'break, VI. P. : PR. lumpati ; OP. lumped. PS. lupyate ; 

PP. lupta. GD. -liipya. cs. lopayati, -te (B.). 
lubh desire, IV. P. : PR. liibhyati. AO. red. : aiuJubhat 

(B.). PP. lubdha (B.). cs. lobhayati ; DS. lulobha- 

yisati (B.). 


lu cut (B.), IX. P. : PR. lunati. V. P. : PR. luntfti. PP. 

vaks increase (= 2. uks) : PP. vavaksitha, vavaksa ; va- 

vaksatur ; vavaksiir ; A. vavakse ; vavaksire\ PPF. 

vavaksat. cs. vaksayati. 
vac speak, III. P. : PR. vivakmi, vivakti ; IPV. vivaktana. 

PF. uvaktha, uvaca and vavaca; ucima, uciir; A. 

ucis6 ; PT. ucana. AO. root : PRO. ucyasam (B.) ; red. : 

avocat ; SB. v6ca, vocasi, v6cati and v6cati ; vocama ; 

A. vocavahai; INJ. vocam, v6cas, vdcat; vocan; A. 

v6ce ; vocanta ; OP. voc^yam, voc^s, voc6t ; voc^tam ; 

voc6ma, voc^yur ; A. voc^ya ; voc^mahi ; IPV. vocatat, 

vocatu ; vocatam ; vocata. FT. vaksyati ; co. avaksyat 

(B.) ; vakta (B.). PS. ucyate; AO. avaci; PP. ukta; 

GDV. vacya. GD. uktva(B.) ; -ucya(B.). INF. vaktave; 

-vace ; vaktum (B.) ; vaktos (B.). cs. vacayati (B.). 

DS. vivaksati, -te (B.). INT. IPF. avavacit. 
vaj he strong ; cs. strengthen : PR. vajayamas, -masi ; A. 

vajayate ; IPV. vajaya ; PT. vajayant. 
vane move crookedly, I. P. : PR. vancati. PF. vavakr6. PS. 

vat apprehend, I. : PR. OP. vatema ; PT. vatant. AO. red. : 

avivatan. cs. vatayati. 
vad speak, I. : PR. vadati, -te ; SB. vadani, vadasi and 

vadas, vadati ; vadathas ; vadama, vadan ; INJ. vadat ; 

OP. vadet ; A. vadeta ; IPV. vada, vadatu ; ^A. vadasva ; 

vadadhvam ; PT. vadant. IPF. avadan ; A. avadanta. 

PF. udima; ud6 (B.). AO. root: PRC. udyasam (B.); is: 

avadisam ; avadisur ; A. avadiran (AV.) ; SB. vadisas ; 

INJ. vadisur. FT. vadisyati ; -te (B.). PS. udyate ; PP. 

udita. GD. -udya (B.). INF. vaditum(B.) : vaditos (B.). 

cs. vadayati, -te (B.) ; PS. vadyate (B.). DS. vivadisati 

(B.). INT. vavaditi; IPV. vavaditu; PT. vavadat; A. 

vavadyate (B.). 
vadh slay, I. P. : OP. vadheyam, vadhet ; IPV. vadha. 

AO. root : PRC. vadhyasam ; OP. vadhyat (B.) ; is : a- 


vadhisam and vadhim, avadhis, a vadhit and vadhit ; 

avadhisma ; SB. vadhisas ; INJ. vadhis, vadhit ; vadh- 

ista and vadhistana (2. pi.), vadhisur ; A. vadhisthas ; 

IPV. vadhistam (2. du.). 
van tvin, VIII. : PR. vandsi, vanoti ; vanuthas ; A. vanve, 

vanut6 ; SB. vanavat ; A. vanavase ; INJ. vanvan ; OP. 

vanuyama ; IPV. vanvantu ; A. vanusva, vanutam ; 

vanudhvam, vanvatam ; PT. van van t ; vanvana ; IFF. 

avanos ; avanvan ; A. avanvata. VI. and I. : PR. 

vanati and vanati; A. vanase, vanate ; SB. vanati; 

vanas ; vanava ; A. vanamahai ; INJ. vanas ; A. vanta 

(= vananta) ; OP. vands ; van6ma ; van^mahi ; IPV. 

vanatam ; vanata ; A. vanatam (3. s.). PF. vavantha, 

vavana ; vavamna ; A. vavn6 ; SB. vavanat ; IPV. va- 

vandhi ; PT. vavanvams. AO. root : vamsva ; SB. vam- 

sat ; vamsama ; A. vamsate ; INJ. vamsi ; OP. vamsi- 

mahi and vasimahi ; is : SB. vanisat ; A. vanisanta. 

PRC. vanisista ; sis : OP. vamsisiya. PP. -vata. INF. 

-vantave. cs. vanayantu. DS. vivasati ; SB. vivasat. 
vand greet, I. A. : PR. vandate. PF. vavanda ; vavandima ; 

A. vavand^ ; vavandir^. AO. is : OP. vandisimahi. 

PS. AO. vandi; PP. vandita; GDV. vandya. INF. 

vap strew, I. : PR. vapati, -te. PF. tipathur ; A. upis6, 

up6 (3. s.). AO. s: avapsit (B.). FT. vapsyati (B.). 

PS. upyate ; AO. vapi ; PP. upta. GD. -lipya. cs. 

vapayati (B.). 
vam vomit, II. : SB. vaman. IPF. avamit ; avamat (B.). 

PF. uvama (B.). AO. s : avan (B.). PP. vanta (B.). 
valg leap, I. P. : PR. valganti. IPF. avalgata (2. pi.). PT. 

vas desire, II. : PR. vasmi, vaksi, vasti ; usmasi and smasi, 

usanti ; IPV. vastu ; PT. usant ; usana. I. P. : PR. 

yasanti ; SB. vasama ; INJ. vasat ; IPF. avasat. III. P. : 

PR. vavaksi; vivasti; IPV. vivastu. PF. vavasiir; A. 

vavas6; PT. vavasana. 


1. vas shine-, VI. P. : PR. uchati; SB. uchat ; uchan; INJ. 
uchat ; OP. uch6t ; IPV. ucha, uchatu ; uchata, uchantu ; 
PT. uchant; IPF. auchas auchat. PF. uvasa; usa (2. 
pi.), usur; PT. f. ususi (TS.). AO. root: avas (2. 3. s.) ; 
A. avasran ; s : avat (3. s.). co. avatsyat (B.). PP. usta. 
INF. vastave. cs. vasayati. 

2. vas wear, II. A. : PK. vaste ; vasathe ; vasate (3. pi.) ; 
INJ. vasta (3. s.) ; vasata (3. pi.) ; OP. vasimahi ; IPV. 
vasisva, vastam (3. s.) ; vasatham (TS.); PT. vasana; 
IPF. avasthas ; avasta. PF. vavas6 ; PT. vavasana. 
AO. is ; avasista (3. s.). cs. vasayati, -te ; FT. vas- 

3. vas dwell, I. : PR. vasati ; vasate (B.). PF. usatur ; 
usima ; PT. usivams ; vavasana. PER. -vasam cakre (B.). 
AO. root : vasana ; red. : avivasat ; s : avatsis. FT. 
vatsyati (B.). GD. usitva(B.); -usya(B.). DS. vivatsati 
(B.). cs. vasayati, -te ; PS. vasyate (B.). 

van carry, I. : PR. vahati, -te. PF. uvaha ; uhathur, uha- 
tur; uhiir; A. uhis ; uhire. AO. root: OP. uhita; IPV. 
volham (2. du.), volham; A. vodhvam ; PT. lihana; s: 
avat, vat ; avaksur ; SB. vaksas, vaksati and vaksat ; 
vaksathas, vaksatas ; vaksan ; INJ. vaksit. FT. vak- 
syati ; vodha (B.). PS. uhyate ; PP. udha. GD. udhva 
(B.) ; -uhya. INF. vodhum ; vddhave, vodhavai (B.) ; 
-vahe ; vahadhyai. cs. vahayati (B.) ; INT. vani- 
vahyate (B.). 

1. va llotv, II. P. : PR. vami, vati ; vatas ; vanti ; IPV. 
vahi, vatu ; PT. vant ; IPF. avat. IV. P. : PR. vayati ; 
vayatas ; vayanti. PF. vavau (B.). AO. sis : avasit (B.). 
cs. vapayati. 

2. va weave, IV. : PR. vayati ; vayate (B.) ; IPV. vaya ; 
vayata; PT. vayant; IPF. avayat; avayan. PF. uvur. 
FT. vayisyati. PS. uyate (B.) ; PP. uta. INF. 6tum ; 
otave, otavai; vatave (AV.). 

vajaya desire booty, den. : PR. PT. vajayant. 
vanch desire, I. P. : IPV. vanchantu. 
1819 E e 


vas bellow, I. P. : PR. vasati. IV. A. : PR. vasyate. PF. 

vavasir6 and vavasrS ; PT. vavasana. PPF. avavasitam 

(3. du.) ; avavasanta. AO. red. : avivasat ; avivasan ; 

A. avivasanta; is: A. avasisthas (B.). INT. PT. va- 

vas*at. cs. vasayati. 
vie sift, VII. P. : PR. vincanti ; IPV. vinaktu ; PT. vincant ; 

IPF. avinak. III. P. : PR. viveksi. PF. PT. vivikvams. 

PS. vicyate ; PP. vikta (B.). 
vij tremble, VI. : PR. vijante ; IPV. vijantam ; PT. vijamana ; 

IPF. avije. PF. vivijr6. AO. root : INJ. A. vikthas, 

vikta; red.: INJ. vivijas. PS. vikta. cs. vejayati (B.). 

INT. vevijyate ; PT. v^vijana. 

1. vid know, II. P. : PR. vidmas ; SB. v6das, v^dati and 
v6dat ; v^dathas ; OP. vidyam, vidyat ; vidyatam ; 
vidyama, vidyiir ; IPV. viddhi and vittat, v6ttu ; vittam. 
IPF. avedam, avet and v6t ; avidur (B.). PF. v6da (1. 3.), 
vSttha ; vidathur ; vidma, vida, vidiir ; A. vidmahe 
(B.), vidrd ; PER. vidam cakara (B.) ; PT. vidvams. AO. 
is: avedit (B.); PER. vidam akran (B.). FT. vedisyati, 
-te (B.); vedita (B.). PP. vidita. GD. viditva. INF. 
vidmane ; v^ditum (B.) ; v6ditos (B.). cs. vedayati, 
-te. DS. vividisati (B.). 

2. vid find, VI. : PR. vindati, -te. II. vitse\ vid6 (3. s.) ; 
vidr6 ; IPV. viddhi ; A. 3. s. vidam (AV.) ; PT. vidana 
and vidana. PF. viv^ditha, viv6da ; vividathur ; vi- 
vidiir; A. vivid6, vivits6; vividr6 and vividrirS; SB. 
vividat ; PT. vividvams. AO. a : avidam, avidas, 
avidat; avidama, avidan; A. avidanta; SB. vidas, 
vidat; vidathas; vidatha; INJ. vidam, vidas, vidat; 
vidan; A. vidata(3. s.) ; vidanta; OP. vid^yam, vid6t ; 
vid^ma ; A. vid6ya ; PRC. videsta (AV.) ; IPV. vidatam ; 
PT. vidant ; s : A. avitsi. FT. vetsyati, -te (B.). PS. 
vidyate; AO. avedi, v6di ; PP. vitta; vinna. GDV. 
vidayya. GD. vittva, -vidya (B.). INF. vid6, v6ttave ; 
v6ttos (B.). DS. vivitsati (B.). INT. SB. veVidama. PT. 
v6vidat; v^vidana. 


vidh worship, VI. : SB. vidhati ; IN.T. vidhat ; vidhan ; A. 

vidhanta ; OP. vidhdma ; vidh^mahi ; PT. vidhant ; 

IFF. a vidhat. 
vip tremble, I. : PR. v^pate ; PT. v^pamana ; IFF. avepanta. 

PF. viviprd. AO. root : PT. vipana ; red. : avivipat ; is : 

avepista (B.). cs. vepayati, vipayati. 
vis enter, VI. : PR. visati, -te. PF. viv^sa (1. 3.), viv^sitha ; 

vivisur and (once) vivesur; A. vivisrS ; OP. vivisyas; 

PT. vivisivams (TS.), -visivams (AV.). PPF. avivesis. 

AO. root : A. avisran ; s : aviksmahi, aviksata (3 pi.) ; 

is: INJ. v6sit ; sa : aviksat (B.). FT. veksyati (B.). 

pp. vista. GD. -visya. INF. -visam; v^stavai (B.). cs. 

vesayati, -te. 
vis le active, III. : PR. viveksi, vivesti ; vivistas ; vivis- 

mas ; SB. vivesas ; IPV. vividdhi ; IPF. avives and viv^s 

(2. s.), viv6s (3. s.). I. P. : PT. v^sant ; IPF. avesan. 

PF, viv^sa ; vivisur. PPF. avivesis. AO. is : v^sisas. 

FT. veksyati, -te (B.). PS. visyate (B.) ; PP. vista. GD. 

vistvi ; -visya. INF. -vise. INT. ve>esmi ; vevisyate 

(B.) ; OP. vevisyat ; PT. v^visat ; vdvisana. 
vist, vest wrap, I. P. : IPV. v^statam (3. du.). PP. vistita. 

cs. vestayati, -te (B.). 
vi enjoy, II. : v^mi, v^si, v^ti ; vithas ; vyanti ; SB. 

vayati ; IN.T. v6s ; IPV. vihi, vihi and vitat, v6tu ; vitam ; 

vyantu; PT. vyant; vyana. IPF. avyan. PF. vivaya; 

vivy6. AO. s. : SB. ve"sat. PS. viyate. PP. vita. INF. 

vitaye. INT. vSveti ; veviyate. 
vid make strong : cs. SB. vilayasi ; IPV. vilayasva. pp. 

1. vr cover, V. : PR. vrn6ti ; A. vrnve" ; vrnvate and vrn- 

vat6 ; PT. vrnvant ; IPF. avrnos, avrnot ; A. avrnvata 

(3. pi.); PR. urndmi, urn6ti; urnuthas, urnutas; A. 

urnus6, urnut6 ; INJ. urnot ; IPV. urnuhi and urnu, ur- 

notu ; urnuta, urnuvantu ; A. urnusva ; PT. urnuvant ; 

urnvana ; IPF. aurnos, aurnot. I. : PR. varathas ; A. 

varate ; varethe ; varante ; SB. varate ; INJ. varanta. 


IX. : IFF. avrnidhvam (AV.). PF. vavartha, vavara ; 

vavriir ; A. vavr6 ; PF. vavrvams. PPF. avavarit. AO. 

root: vam (= varam), avar and var (2. 3. s.) ; avran ; 

A. a vrta ; INJ. var (2. 3. s.) ; vran ^ IPV. vrdhi ; vartam ; 

varta ; vrana ; red. : avivaran ; A. avivarata (3. s.) ; s : 

SB. varsathas ; is : avarit (B.). PS. AO. avari ; PP. vrta. 

GD. vrtva, vrtvi ; vrtvaya ; -vrtya. INF. vartave. cs. 

varayati, -te ; _DS. vivarayisate (B.). INT. avarivar. 
2. vr choose, IX. A. : PB, vrn6, vrmse", vrmte' ; vrnimahe, 

vrnate ; INJ. vrnita (3. s.) ; OP. vrnita ; IPV. vrnisva ; 

vrmdhvam, vrnatam ; PT. vrnana ; IPF. avrni, avrnita ; 

avrnimahi. PF. vavrs^ ; vavrmahe. AO. root : avri, 

avrta; SB. varas, varat; varanta; INJ. vrta (3. s.) ; OP. 

vurita (3. s.) ; PT. urana ; s : avrsi ; avrdhvam (B.), avr- 

sata. FT. varisyate (B.). PP. vrta. GDV. varya ; varenya. 
vrj twist, VII. : PR. vrnaksi, vrnakti ; vrrijanti ; A. vrfij, 

vrnkt6 ; vrnjate ; vrnjate ; SB. vrnajan ; IPV. vrndhi, 

vrnaktu ; vrnkta, vrnjantu ; A. vynksva. IPF. avrnak 

(2. 3. s.) ; avrnjan. PF. vavrjur ; A. vavrj6 ; OP. vavrj- 

yiir ; IPV. vavrktam (2. du.) ; PT. f. vavarjiis-i ; (a-)varjusi 

(AV.). AO. ro'ot : vark (2. 3. s.), avrk (AV.) ; avrjan ; 

A. avrkta ; SB. varjati ; varjate ; INJ. vark ; OP. vrj yam ; 

vrjyama ; PRC. vrjyas (3. s.) ; IPV. varktam (2. du.) ; 

s : avarksis (B.) ; A. avrksmahi ; INJ. A. vrksi ; sa : 

avrksam. FT. varksyati, -te (B.). PS. vrjyate; PP. 

vrkta. GD. vrktvi ; -vrjya. INF. -vf je ; vrjadhyai ; 

vrrijase. cs. varjayati. DS. vivrksate (B.). INT. PT. 

varivrjat ; cs. PT. varivarjayant (AV.). 
vrt^wrw, I. A. : vartate. PF. va varta and vavarta; vavrtur; 

A. vavrt6; SB. vavartati, vavartat and vavrtat; OP. 

vavrtyam, vavrtyas, vavrtyat ; IPV. vavrttana (2. pi.) ; 

PT. vavrtvams. PPF. avavrtran; A. avavrtranta. AO. 
>. root : avart ; A. avrtran ; SB. vartat ; IPV. varta 

(= vartta, 2. pi.); a: avrtat; red.: avivrtat; s: A. 

avrtsata. FT. vartsyati ; vartita (B.). co. avartsyat (B.). 

pp. vrtta. GD. -vrtya. INF. -vfte; -vftas (B.). cs. 


vartayati, -te ; PS. vartyate (B.) ; INF. vartayadhyai. 

DS. vivrtsati; -te (B.). INT. varvarti (= varvartti) and 

varivarti (= varivartti) ; varvrtati (3. pi.) ; A. varivrt- 

yate (B.) ; IFF, avarivar (3. s.) ; avarivur (3. pi.), 
vrdh grow, I. : PR. vardhati, -te. PF. vavardha ; va- 

vrdhatur ; vavrdhur ; A. vavrdh6 ; vavrdhate ; SB. 

vavrdhati ; A. vavrdhate ; OP. vavrdhithas ; IPV. 

vavrdhasva ; PT. vavrdhvams ; A. vavrdhana. PPF. 

vavrdhanta. AO. a : avrdham, avrdhat ; vrdhama, 

avrdhan ; PT. vrdhant ; vrdhana ; red. : avivrdhat ; 

avivrdhan ; A. avivrdhadhvam, avivrdhanta ; s : PT. 

vrdhasana ; is : OP. vardhisimahi. PP. vrddha. INF. 

vrdhd ; vrdhase ; vavrdhadhyai (PF.). cs. vardha- 

yati, -te. INT. GDV. vavrdh^nya. 
vrs rain, I. P. : PR. varsati ; IPV. varsantu ; PT. varsant. 

VI. A. : vrsasva ; vrs^tham (2. du.). PF. IPV. vavrsasva; 

PT. vavrsana. AO. s : avarsis, avarsit. FT. varsisyati 

(B.) ; vrasta(MS.). PP. vrsta. GD. vrstvi ; vfstva (B.) ; 

-varstos (B.). cs. varsayati. 
vrh tear, VI. P. : PR. vrhati ; INJ. vrhat ; OP. vrh^va ; IPV. 

vrha and vrhatat ; vrhatam ; vrhata ; IPF. avrhas. PF. 

vavarha. AO. sa: avrksat (B.). PS. vrhyate (B.) ; AO. 

varhi ; pp. vrdha (B.). GD. -vrhya. INF. -vrhas. 
ven long, I. P.: PR. v6nati; INJ. v^nas; IPV. v6natam 

(2. du.) ; PT. v^nant. IPF. avenat. 
vyac extend, III. P. : PR. viviktas (3. du.) ; INJ. vivyak (3. 

s.). IPF. avivyak; aviviktam (3. du.) ; avivyacur. PF. 

vivyaktha, vivyaca. PPF. vivyacat ; A. vivyacanta. 
vyath waver, I. : PR. vyathate. AO. red. : vivyathas (B.) ; 

is : SB. vyathisat ; INJ. vyathisthas ; vyathismahi. pp. 

vyathita. INF. vyathisyai (B.). cs. vyathayati ; AO. 

vyathayis (AV.). 
vyadh pierce, IV. P. : PR. vidhyati. PF. vivyadha (B.) ; 

PT. vividhvams. AO. s : vyatsis (B.). PP. viddha. INF. 

-vidhe. cs. vyadhayati (B.). DS. vivyatsati (B.). 
vya envelope, IV. : PR. vyayati, -te ; OP. vyayeyam ; IPV. 


vyayasva ; PT. vyayant. IFF. avyayam, avyayat. PF. 

vivyathur ; A. vivy6 ; PT. vivyana ; PER. PF. -vyay am 

cakara (B.). AO. a: avyat; avyata (2. pi.); A. avyata 

(3. s.) and vyata. PS. viyate (B.) ; PP. vita. GD. 

-viya (B.). 
vraj proceed, I. P. : IPV. vrajata (2. pi.); PT. vrajant. PF. 

vavraja. AO. is : avrajit (B.). FT. vrajisyati (B.). PP. 

vrajita (B.). GD. -vrajya (B.). cs. vrajayati (B.). 
vrasc cut up, VI. P. : PR. vrscati ; SB. vrscat ; INJ. vrscas ; 

IV. : vrsca, vrscatu ; PT. vrscant. IPF. avrscat and 

vrscat. PS. vrscyate ; PP. vrkna. GD. vrstva ; vrktvi. 
sams praise. I. : PR. samsati, -te. PP. sasamsa (B.) ; sa- 

sams6 (B.). AO. root: IPV. sasta (2. pi.) ; is: asamsisam, 

asamsit; SB. samsisas, samsisat; INJ. samsisam. FT. 

samsisyati (B.). PS. sasyate ; AO. samsi ; PP. sasta ; 

GDV. samsya; samstavya(B.). GD. sastva (B.). INF. -sase. 
sak be able, V. P. : PR. saknbmi, sakndti ; saknuvanti ; 

SB. saknavama. IPF. asaknuvan. PF. sasaka ; sekima, 

seka, 6ekiir. AO. root : SB. sakas, sakat ; OP. sakyarn ; 

IPV. sagdhi, saktam; a: asakam, asakat; asakan; 

INJ. sakan ; OP. sakdyam ; sak6ma. FT. saksyati, -te 

(B.). INF. saktave. DS. siksati, -te. 

1. sad prevail : PF. sasadiir ; A. sasadmahe, sasadr6 ; PT. 

2. s&dfall: PF. sasada (B.) ; sediir (B.). FT. satsyati. 
sap curse, I. : PR. sapati ; sap ate (AV.) ; SB. sapatas (3. 

du.); PT. sapant. IPF. asapata (2. pi.). PF. sasapa; 
sepd (1. 3. s.), sepisS. AO. s : INJ. sapta (2. pi.). PP. 
sapta (B.). cs. sapayati. 

1. sam, ^im labour, IV. P. : samyati (B.) ; simyati; IPV. 
simyantu ; PT. simyant. PF. sasam ; SB. sasamate 
(3. s.) ; PT. sasamana. AO. is : A. asamisthas, asamista. 
pp. samita (B.). 

2. sam, be quiet, IV. (B.) : PR. samyati, -te. PF. sasama 
(B.) ; semur (B.). AO. a : asamat (B.) ; red. : aslsamat. 
pp. santa. cs. samayati. 


a sharpen, III. : PR. sisami, sisati ; sisimasi ; A. sislte ; 

IPV. sisihi, sisatu; sisitam, sisltam ; sisita (2. pi.); PT. 

sisana. IPF. sisas, asisat; A, sisita (3. s.). PP. PT. 

-sasana. PP. sita. GD. -saya. 
sas order, II. : sasmi, sassi ; A. sast6 ; sasmahe, sasate ; 

SB. sasan ; IPV. sadhi ; sastana, sasatu ; PT. sasat ; 

sasana. IPF. asasam ; A. asasata (3. pi.) . pp. sas"asa; 

Sa^asur ; INJ. sasas; IPV. sasadhi. AO. root: SB. s"a&as; 

a : A. sisamahi ; INJ. sisat ; PT. sisant. PP. s"ista ; GD. 

-^isya (B.). 
siks (= DS. of sak) be helpful: PR. siksati, -te ; SB. siksas, 

siksat ; siksan ; INJ. siksat ; OP. sikseyam ; ^iksema ; 

IPV. siksa, siksatu ; siksatam ; FT. siksant ; A. siks- 

amana. IFF. asiksas; asiksatam. 
^is leave, VII. P. : PR. sinasti (B.). PF. sisisd (B.). AO. a : 

sisas. FT. seksyati, -te (B.). PS. sisyate ; AO. ssi ; 

PP. sista. GD. -^isya (B.). 
si lie, II. A. : PR. s<se, saye (3. s.) ; sayate (3. du.) ; 

s^mahe, sere and senate ; OP. sayiya, sayita (3. s.) ; IPV- 

3. s. s6tam and say am (AV.) ; PT. sayana; IPF. aseran. 

I. : PR. sayate ; sayadhve, sayante ; IPF. asayat ; asay- 

atam ; A. asayata (3. s.). PF. sisy( (B.) ; sisyir^ (B ) ; 

PT. sasayana. AO. s : SB. ssan ; is : A. asayisthas. FT. 

sayisyati, -te (B.) ; sayitase (B.). INF. sayadJtiyai. 
sue gleam, I. : PR. sdcati, -te. PF. sus<5ca ; OP. A. susuclta 

(3. s.) ; IPV. susugdhi ; PT. susukvams ; susucana. AO. 

a: asucat; PT. sucant; A. sue am an a ; red.: ^u^ucas ; 

INJ. susucas; susucan; is: INJ. s6cis; PS. asoci. INF. 

sucadhyai. cs. socayati; PT. sucayant. INT. SB. s"<5- 

sucan ; A. sosucanta ; PT. sosucat ; sdsucana. 
sudh, sundh purify, I. P. : PR. sundhati ; IPV. sundhata 

(2. pi.). IV. P. : PR. sudhyati (B.). PP. Suddha. cs. 

sundhayati ; sodhayati (B.). 
subh, sumbh beautify, I. A. : PR. s6bhate; PT. sobhamana; 

siimbhate; PT. sumbhamana; VI. P.: PR. sumbhati; 

SB. sumbhati; IPV. sumbha; sumbhata, sumbhantu; 


PT. sumbhamana. AO. root : FT. subhana ; sumbhana ; 

red. : asiisubhan ; asusubhanta (B.). PP. sumbhita ; 

subhita (B.). INF. subbe" ; sobhase ; siibham. cs. 

subhayati, -te ; sobhayati. 
sus dry, IV. P. : PR. susyati ; IPV. siisya, siisyatu ; 

stisyantu. GD. -siisya (B.). cs. sosayati. 
su, sva swett, IV. P.: PR. PT. svayant. PF. siisuvur; A. 

susuv6 ; SB. susuvat ; susavama ; OP. susuyama ; PT. 

susuvams ; A. susuvana. AO. a : asvat (B.) ; s : PT. 

savasana. INF. susani ; svayitum (B.). 
srdh be defiant, I. : PR. sardhati ; sardhate (B.) ; INJ. sardhat ; 

IPV. sardha; PT. sardhant. cs. sardhayati. 
sf crush, IX. : PR. srnami, srnasi, srnati ; srnimasi ; IPV. 

srnlhi, srnatu ; srnitam ; srnantu ; PT. srnana. IPF. 

asrnat. PF. sasr6. AO. is : asarit. FT. sarisyate (B.). 

PS. siryate ; AO. sari ; pp. sirna ; -sirta. GD. -sirya (B.). 

INF. saritos. 
snath pierce, II. P. : SB. snathat; IPV. snathihi. AO. red. : 

sisnatham, asisnat and sisnathat ; INJ. sisnathas ; is : 

IPV. snathistam; snathistana. PP. snathita. INF. 

-snathas. cs. snathayati, -te. 
sya coagulate, IV.: PR. syayati (B.). PS. siyate(B.); PP. 

sita ; sina. cs. syayayati (B.). 
srath slacken, IX. : PR. srathnit^ ; PT. srathnana. IPF. 

srathnas ; asrathnan. PF. sasratli^. AO. red. : si- 

srathas, sisrathat; IPV. sisrathantu. PP. srthita. cs. 

srathayati, -te. 
sram l)e iveary, IV. P. : PR. sramyati. PP. sasramur ; PT. 

sasramana. AO. a: asramat ; INJ. sramat; is: A. 

asrami sthas ; INJ. sramisma. PP. sranta. GD. -sramya 

sra (sn, sr) boil, IX. : PR. srmanti ; sriiiise" ; IPV. srmihi ; 

srinita and srmitana ; PT. srinant ; A. srinana. IPF. A. 

asrmita (3. s.). PP. srata; srta. cs. srapayati; PS. 

srapyate (B.) ; AO. asisrapat (B.). 
sri resort, I. : PR. srayati ; -te. PF. 1. sisraya, 8. sisraya; 


A. sisriyd ; OP. sisrita (8. s.) ; FT. sisriyana. PPF. asiSret ; 

asisrayur. AO. root : asres, asret ; asriyan ; red. : 

asisriyat ; s : asrait (AV.). FT. srayisyati, -te (B.). 

PS. sriyate (B.) ; PP. srita ; AO. asrayi. INF. srayitavai 

(B.). cs. srapayati (VS.). 
sris clasp, I.: SB. sre"sama. AO. a: INJ. srisat. INF. 

sri mix, IX. : PR. srmati ; srmite. PP. srita. INF. 

sru hear, V. : PR. srnomi, srn6ti ; srnvanti ; A. srnvis6, 

srnut6 and srnv6 ; srnvir6 ; SB. srnavas, srnavat ; 

srnavama, srnavan ; OP. srnuyat ; srnuyama ; IPV. 

srnudhi, srnuhi and srnu, srnotu; srnutam; srnuta 

and srnota, srnotana, srnvantu ; srnusva ; PT. srnvant ; 

IPF. asrnavam, a^rnos ; asrnvan. PF. 1. susrava, 8. 

susrava ; A. susruv6 (3. s.) ; SB. susravat ; OP. susru- 

yas ; susruyatam ; PT. susruvams. PPP. asusravur ; 

A. asusravi (1. s.). AO. root : asravam, asrot ; asravan 

(AV.) ; SB. sravat ; sravathas, sravatas ; PRO. sruyasam, 

sruyas (3. s.) ; IPV. srudhi, srotu ; srutam;, sruta and 

srota, sruvantu ; a : INJ. sriivat ; red. : asusravat ; 

asusruvat (B.) ; s: asrausit (B.). FT. srosyati (B.). PS. 

smyate ; AO. asravi, sravi ; PP. sruta ; GDV. sriitya ; 

sravayya. GD. srutva; -srutya. cs. sravayati, srava- 

yati. DS. susrusate. 

srus hear, I. : INJ. srosan ; IPV. sr6santu ; PT. srosamana. 
svanc spread, I. A. : IPV. svancasva ; PT. svancamana. PF. 

A. SB. sasvacai. cs. svancayas. 
svas blow, II. : PR. svasiti ; A. susd ; IPV. svasihi ; PT. 

svasant and susant ; A. susana ; IPF. asvasit (B.). I. : 

PR. svasati, -te (AV.). PP. svasita (B.). INF. -svasas. 

cs. svasayati. INT. PT. sasvasat. 
svit le bright : AO. root : asvitan ; PT. svitana ; red. : asi- 

svitat ; s : asvait. 
sthiv spew, I. P. : PR. sthivati. IPF. asthivan. PF. tisth6va 

(B.). PP. sthyuta (B.). 


sagh be equal to, V. P. : IFF. asaghnos. AO. root : SB. 

saghat ; PRC. saghyasam (B.). 
sac accompany, I. A. : PE. sacate. III. : PR. sisaksi ; sisakti; 

sascati (3. pi.); INJ. A. sascata (3. pi.); IPV. sisaktu; 

sisakta ; PT. sascat and sascat. I. : PR. sascasi ; A. 

sa6ce (1. s.) ; INJ. sascat; IPV. sascata (2._ pi.) ; IFF. 

asascatam (2. du.). PP. sascima, sascur ; A. sascirS ; 

secir6 (AV.) ; FT. sascivams. AO. root : IPV. saksva ; 

FT. sacana ; s : A. asaksata (3. pi.) ; SB. saksat ; INJ. 

saksata (3. pi.) ; OP. saksimahi. INF. sacadhyai ; 

saj, sanj, hang, I. P. : PR. sajati. IFF. asajat, PF. sasanja 

(B.) ; sejur (B.). AO. s : A. asakta. PS. sajyate (B.) ; AO. 

asanji (B.) ; PP. sakta. GD. -sajya (B.). INF. sanktos 

(B.). DS. sisanksati (B.). 
sad sit, I. P. : PR. sidati ; SB. sidati ; INJ. sidan ; OP. 

sidema ; IPV. sidatu ; FT. sidant. IFF. asidat. PF. 

sasattha, sasada; sedathur, sedatur; sedima, seda, 

sediir ; A. sedir6 ; OP. sasadyat ; PT. sediis-. AO. a : 

asadat ; asadan ; INJ. sadas, sadat ; OP. sadema ; IPV 

sada, sadatu ; sadatam, sadatam ; sadata, sadantu ; 

A. sadantam ; FT. sadaut ; red. : asisadan ; s : SB. 

satsat. FT. satsyati (B.). PS. sadyate (B.) ; AO. asadi, 

sadi ; PP. satta ; sanna (AV.) ; GDV. sadya. GD. -sadya. 

INF. -sade ; -sadam ; sattum (B.). cs. sadayati, -te ; 

PS. sadyate (B.). 
san gain, VIII. P. : PR. sanoti ; SB. sanavani, sanavat ; 

sanavatha ; OP. sanuyam ; samiyama ; IPV. sanuhi, 

sanotu ; sanvantu. IFF. asanos, asanot ; asanvan. PF. 

sasana ; FT. sasavams. AO. a : asanam, asanat ; asan- 

ama, asanan ; INJ. sanam, sauat ; OP. saneyam, san^t ; 

IPV. sana ; PT. sanant ; is : asanisam ; SB. sanisat ; A. 

sanisamahe, sanisanta ; IPV. sanisantu. FT. sanisyati. 

PP. sata. GDV. sanitva. INF. sanaye; sataye. DS. 

sisasati. INT. A. sanisnata (3. pi.). 


sap serve, I. : PR. sapati, -te. PF. sepiir. AO. red. : INJ. 

saparya honour, den. : PR. saparyati ; SB. saparyat ; OP. 

sapary^ma; IPV. saparya; PT. saparyant. IPF. asap- 

aryan. AO. asaparyait (AY.). GDV. saparySnya. 
sas sleep, II. P. : PR. sasti ; sastas ; IPV. sastu ; sastam ; 

sasantu ; PT. sasant ; IPF. asastana. III. P. : PR. 

sasasti and sasasti. 
sah prevail, I. : PR. sahate ; PT. sahant and sahant ; A. sah- 

amana. PF. sasaha; A. sasahis^, sasahej SB. sasahas, 

sasahat ; OP. sasahyat ; sasahyama ; PRC. A. sasahisthas ; 

PT. sasahvams and sahvams ; A. sasahana and sehana. 

AO. root : OP. sahyas ; sahyama ; PRC. sahyas (3. s.) ; PT. 

sahana ; s : asaksi and saksi ; saksmahi (B.) ; SB. sak- 

sati and saksat ; saksama ; A. saksate ; OP. saksiya ; 

IPV. saksva ; PT. saksant ; A. sahasana ; is : asahista ; 

OP. sahisivahi ; sahisimahi and sahisimahi. FT. sak- 

syate (B.). PP. sadha. GD. -sahya. INF. sahadhyai ; 

-saham (B.). DS. siksati, -te. 
sa bind, VI. : PR. syati, -te ; IPV. sya, syatu ; syatam, 

syatam ; A. syasva ; syadhvam. IPF. asyat. AO. root : 

asat; SB. sat; OP. simahi ; IPV. sahi; a: OP. s6t (VS.). 

pp. sita. GD. -saya. INF. -sai ; satum (B.). 
sadh succeed, I. : PR. sadhati, -te. AO. red. : SB. sisadhati ; 

sisadhama; INJ. sisadhas. cs. sadhayati. 
si bind, IX. P. : PR. sinati ; sinithas ; IPV. sinatu. PF. 

sisaya ; INJ. siset. AO. root : IPV. sitam. INF. s^tave. 
sic pour, VI. : PR. sincati, -te. PF. sise*ca ; sisicatur ; 

sisiciir ; sisic^. AO. a : asicat ; asican ; SB. sicamahe. 

FT. seksyati (B.). PS. sicyate ; AO. aseci (B.) ; PP. sikta. 

GD. siktva (B.) ; -sicya. INF. s&ktavai (B.). 

1 . sidh repel, I. P. : PR. sadhati. PF. sise'dha. AO. is : 
asedhis. PP. siddha (B.). GD. -sidhya. INF. se"ddhum 
(B.). INT. PT. s&sidhat. 

2. sidh succeed, IV. P. : I>R. sidhyati. PP. siddha (B.). 
siv sew, IV. : PR. ii'v. sivyatu ; A. sivyadhvam ; PT. 

sivyant. PP. syuta. GD. -sivya. 


su press, V. : PR. sunoti ; sunutas ; sunutha, sunvanti ; 

A. sunv6 ; sunvir6 ; SB. sunavat ; sunavama ; A. su- 

navai ; IPV. sumi, sunotu ; sunuta and sunota, sun6- 

tana; A. sunudhvam; PT. sunvant; sunvana. PF. 

susava ; susutna ; PT. susuvams ; susvana. PPF. asu- 

savur and asusuvur (B.). AO. root : IPV. s6tu ; sutam ; 

sota, sotana ; PT. suvana, svana. FT. savisyati (B.) ; 

sota (B.). PS. suyate ; AO. asavi; PP. suta; GDV. 

s6tva. GD. -siitya (B.). INF. sotave; s6tos. 
su generate, impel, VI. P. : PR. suvati ; SB. suvati ; IPV. 

suva, suvatat, suvatu ; suvatam ; suvantu ; PT. suvant ; 

IPF. asuvat. II. A. : PR. suve, sute ; suvate (3. du.) ; 

siivate (3. pi.) ; INJ. suta (3. s.) ; PT. suvana ; IPF. asuta. 

PF. sasuva ; susuv6. PPF. asusot (MS.) ; asusavur (B.). 

AO. is : asavit ; asavisur ; SB. savisat ; INJ. savis. FT. 

sosyati, -te (B.); PT. susyant. PS. suyate; PP. suta. 

GD. sutva (B.) ; -siitya (B.). INF. sutave, sutavai ; savi- 

tave. INT. sdsaviti. 
sudput in order: PF. susudima; SB. siisudas, susudat and 

siisudati ; susudatha ; IPV. susudata (2. pi.). AO. red. : 

asusudanta. cs. sudayati, -te ; SB. sudayati. 
sr flow, III. : PR. sisarsi, sisarti ; A. sisrate (3. pi.) ; IPV. 

sisrtam; A. sisratam (3. pi.). PT. sisrat. PF. sasara; 

sasrva(B.) ; sasriir ; A. sasr6 ; sasrathe ; PT. sasrvams ; 

sasrana. AO. a : asaram, asaras, asarat ; asaran ; IPV. 

sara ; s : SB. sarsat. FT. sarisyati. PS. AO. asari (B.) ; 

PP. srta (B.). GD. srtva (B.) ; srtya (B.). INF. sartave, 

sartavai. os. sarayati, -te. DS. sisirsati (B.). INT. 

sarsr6 (3. s.) ; PT. sarsrana. 
srj emit, VI.: PR. srjati, -te. PF. sasarja; A. sasrj6; 

sasrjmahe, sasrjrir^ ; OP. sasrjyat ; PT. sasrjana. PPF. 

asasrgram (3. pi.). AO. root : asrgran, asrgram ; PT. 

srjana ; s : sras (2 J s., AV.), asrak (3. s.), asrat (B.) ; 

asrastam (2. du.) ; A. asrksi, asrsta ; asrksmahi, asrk- 

sata ; SB. sraksat ; INJ. srastam ; A. srksatham (2. du.). 

FT. sraksyati (B.). PS. srjyate ; AO. asarji ; PP. srsta. 


GD. srstva ; -sjya (B.). cs. sarjayati, -te (B.). DS. 

sisrksati, -te(B.). 
srp creep, I. P, : PR. sarpati. PF. sasarpa (B.). AO. a : 

asrpat; INJ. srpat; s: A. asrpta (B.). FT. srapsyati 

(B.) and sarpsyati (B.). PP. srpta(B.). GD. srptva (B.) ; 

-stfpya. INF. srpas (B.). DS. sisrpsati. INT. sari- 

srpyate (B.). 

sev attend upon, I. A. : PR. s6ve, s^vate ; IPV. se>asva. 
skand leap, I. P. : PR. skandati ; SB. skandat ; IPV. skanda ; 

PT. skandant ; IFF. askandat. PF. caskanda. AO. root : 

skan (3. s.); s: askan (B.) and askantsit (B.). FT. 

skantsyati (B.). PP. skanna. GD. -skandya (B.) and 

-skadya (B.). INF. -skade, -skadas." cs. skandayati. 

INT. SB. caniskadat ; IPF. kaniskan (3. s.). 
skabh or skambh prop, IX. : PR. skabhnati ; PT. skabh- 

nant ; A. skabhana (B.). . PF. caskambha ; skambhatur ; 

skambhur; PT. caskabhana. PP. skabhita. GD. skabh- 

itvi. INF. -skabhe. 
sku tear, II. P. : PR. skauti (B.). V. P. : PR. skundti. 

PS. skuyate ; PP. skuta. INT. coskuyate. 
stan thunder, II. P. : IPV. stanihi; INJ. stan (3. s.). I. P.: 

IPV. stana. AO. is : astanit. cs. stanayati. INT. IPV 

stabh or stambh prop, IX. : stabhnami ; IPV. stabhana ; 

IPF. astabhnas, astabhnat. PF. tastambha ; tastabhur ; 

PT. tastabhvams ; tastabhana. PPF. tastambhat. AO. s : 

astampsit (B.) ; is : astambhit, stambhit. PP. stabhita ; 

stabdha (B.). GD. stabdhva, -stabhya (B.). 
stu praise, II. : PR. staumi (AV.) ; st6si, stauti (AV.) ; 

stumasi, stuvanti ; A. stus6 ; SB. stavat ; stavama, 

stavatha ; A. stavai ; INJ. staut ; OP. A. stuvita ; stuv- 

imahi ; IPV. stuhi, stautu ; PT. stuvant ; stuvana, 

stavana and stavana ; IPF. astaut. I. A. : stavate and 

stave (3. s.) ; INJ. stavanta ; OP. staveta ; PT. stavamana. 

PF. tustava ; tustuviir ; A. tustuv6 ; SB. tustavat ; PT. 

tustuvams; tustuvana. PPF. atustavam. AO. s: astau- 


sit (B.) ; A. astosi, astosta ; astodhvam, astosata ; 

SB. stosani, stosat ; st6sama ; IN.T. stosam ; is : astavit 

(B.). FT. stosyati, -te (B.) ; stavisyati, -te. co. astosyat. 

PS. stuyate; AO. astavi; PP. stuta; GDV. stus^yya. 

GD, stutva; -stutya (B.). INF. stavadhyai, sttftave ; 

stotum (B.). cs. stavayati (B.). 
stubh praise, I. P. : PR. stpbhati ; IPV. stobhata, stobh- 

antu ; PT. stobhant. II. A. : PT. stubhana. PP. stubdha 

(B.). cs. stobhayati. 
str strew, IX. : PR. strnami ; strnithana, strnanti ; A. 

strnitd ; INJ. strmmahi ; IPV. strmhi ; strnitam (2. du.) ; 

strnita ; A. strnitam (3. s.) ; PT. strnant ; strnana ; IPF. 

astrnat; astrnan. V.: PR._ strnosi ; strnut6. PF. 

tastara (B.) ; tastariir (B.) ; A. tistir^ (3. s.) ; tastrird ; 

PT. tistirana. AO. root : astar ; A. astrta (B.) ; SB. 

starate ; staramahe ; INJ. star (2. s.) ; s : astrsi (B.) ; 

OP. strsiya ; is: astaris. FT. starisyati, -te (B.). PS. 

striyate (B.) ; AO. astari ; PP. strta ; stirna. GD. 

stirtva (B.) ; -stirya (B.). INF. -stire, strnisani ; stari- 

tave (AV.) ; startave (B.), startavai (B.) ; staritavai (B.), 

-staritavai (B.). DS. tistirsate (B.) ; tusttirsate (B.). 
stha stand, I. : PR. tisthati, -te. PF. tasthau ; tasthathur, 

tasthatur; tasthima, tasthur; A. tasth6, tasthisd, 

tasth6 ; tasthir6 ; PT. tasthivams ; tasthana. AO. root : 

astham, asthas, asthat ; asthama, sthata, asthur ; A. 

asthithas, asthita; asthirau; SB. sthas, sthati and sthat ; 

sthatas ; INJ. stham, sthat ; sthiir ; OP. stheyama ; IPV. 

sthatam (2. du.); sthata; PT. sthant; a: asthat (AV.) ; 

s: asthisi (B.) ; asthisata (3. pi.) ; INJ. sthesam (VS.). 

FT. sthasyati. PS. sthiyate (B.); PP. sthita. GD. -sthaya. 

INF. sthatum (B.) ; sthatos (B.). cs. sthapayati, -te ; 

AO. atisthipam, atisthipas, atisthipat ; INJ. tisthipat. 

DS. tisthasati (B.). 
sna lathe, II. P. : PR. snati ; IPV. snahi ; PT. snant. PP. 

snata. GDV. snatva. GD. snatva ; -snaya. INF. snatum 

(B.). cs. snapayati; -te (B.) ; snapayati (AV.). 


spas see : PF. paspase ; PT. paspasana. AO. root : aspasta 

(3. s.). PP. spasta. cs. spasayate. 
spr win, V. : PR. sprnvatd ; SB. sprnavama ; IPV. sprnuhi. 

PF. paspara (B.). AO. root : aspar (2. s.) ; SB. sparat ; 

INJ. spar (2. s.) ; IPV. sprdhi ; s : asparsam. PP. sprta. 

GD. sprtva. INF. sparase. 
sprdh contend, I. A. : PR. spardhate ; PT. spardhamana. 

PF. A. pasprdhate (3. du.) ; pasprdhrS ; PT. pasprdhana. 

PPF. apasprdhetham (2. du.). AO. root : A. asprdh- 

ran ; PT. sprdhana. GD. -sprdhya. INF. spardhifrum. 
sprs touch, VI. : PR. sprsati, -te. PF. SB. pasparsat. AO. 

red.: SB. pisprsati; INJ. pisprsas; s: aspraksam (B.) ; 

sa: asprksat. PP. sprsta. GD. sprstva (B.); -sprsya 

(B.). INF. -spfse; sprsas (B.). cs. sparsayati (B.), -te. 
sprh le eager : cs. sprhayanti ; OP. sprhayet. IPF. asprh- 

ayam. GDV. sprhayayya. 
sphur jerk, VI. : PR. sphurati ; A. sphurate (B.) ; SB. 

sphuran; INJ. sphurat; IPV. sphura; sphuratam (2. 

du.) ; PT. sphurant. IPF. asphurat. AO. is : spharis 


sphurj rumble, I. P. : PR. sphurjati. cs. sphurjayati. 
smi smile, I. : PR. smayate ; INJ. smayanta ; PT. smaya- 

mana. PF. sismiy6 ; PT. sismiyana. 
smr remember, I. : PR. smarati, -te. PS. smaryate (B.) ; 

pp. smrta. 
syand move on, I. A. : PR. syandate. PF. sisyadiir ; A. 

sisyad. AO. red. : asisyadat ; asisyadauta ; s : asyan 

(3. s.). FT. syantsyati (B.). PS. AO. syandi (B.); PP. 

syanna. GD. syanttva (B.) ; syattva (B.), -syadya (B.). 

INF. -syade ; syanttum (B.) ; cs. syandayati (B.) ; INF. 

syandayddhyai. INT. PT. sanisyadat. 
sras, srams/a^, I. A.: PR. sramsate (B.). PF. sasramsur 

(B.). AO. root: asrat (VS.); a: OP. srasema; red.: 

asisrasan ; is : asramsisata (B.). PP. srasta. GD. 

-sramsya (B.). INF. -srasas. cs. sramsayati. 
sridh blunder, I. P. : PR. sr^dhati ; IPV. sr^dhata ; PT. 


sre'dhant. IFF. asredhan. AO. a : IN.T. sridhat ; PT. 

sru flow, I. : PR. sravati. PF. susrava ; susruvur ; INJ. 

susrot. PPF. asusrot. AO. is : asravis (B.). PP. sruta. 

INF. sravitave ; sravitavai. cs. sravayati ; -te (B.). 
svaj embrace, I. : PR. svajate ; SB. svajate, svajatai (AV.) ; 

INJ. svajat; IPV. svajasva; svajadhvam. PF. sasvaj6; 

sasvajate (3. du.); PT. sasvajana. PPF. asasvajat. PP. 

svakta (B.). INF. -svaje. 
svad, svad siveeten, I. : PR. svadati, -te ; A. svadate ; SB. 

svadati ; IPV. svada ; svadantu ; A.svadasva. AO. red.: 

INJ. sisvadat. PP. svatta. INF. -sude. cs. svadayati, 

-te ; PP. svadita. 
svan sound : AO. is : asvanit ; INJ. svanit. cs. svanayati ; 

pp. svanita. INT. SB. sanisvanat. 
svap sleep, II. P. : PR. IPV. svaptu ; PT. svapant. I. P. : PR. 

svapati. PF. susupur ; INJ. susupthas (B.) ; PT. susup- 

vams; susupana. AO. red. : sisvapas and sisvap (2. s.). 

FT. svapsyati (B.) ; svapisyami. PP. supta. GD. suptva. 

INF. svaptum (B.). cs? svapayati. 
svar sound, I. P. : PR. svarati. PF. INJ. sasvar (3. s.). AO. 

s: asvar (3. s.) ; asvarstam (3. du.) ; is: asvaris (B.). 

INF. svaritos (B.). cs. svarayati. 
svid s^veat, I. A.: PR. sv<date. PF. PT. sisvidana. PP. 

svinna. cs. svedayati (B.). 
ban strike, II. : PR. hamni, hamsi, hanti ; hathas, hatas ; 

hanmas, hatha, ghnanti ; SB. hanas, hanati and hanat ; 

hanava ; hanama ; hanatha (AV.), hanan ; INJ. ban 

(3. s.); OP. hanyat, hanyama; ipv.jahi, hantu ; hatam, 

hatam; hata and nan tana, ghnantu; PT. ghnant. I.: 

PR. jighnate ; -ti (B.). PF. jaghantha, jaghana ; jaghna- 

thur ; jaghnima, jaghnur ; A. jaghn6 (B.) ; SB. jaghan- 

at ; PT. jaghanvams ; jaghnivams (B.). AO. is : ahanit 

(B.). FT. hanisyati ; -te (B.). PS. hanyate ; PP. hata ; 

GDV. hantva. GD. hatva, hatvi ; hatvaya ; -hatya. 

INF. hantave, hantavai ; hantum. cs. ghatayati (B.). 


DS. jighamsati; AO. ajighamsis (B.). INT. janghanti ; 
SB. janghanani, janghanas, janghanat; janghanava; 
A. janghananta ; IPV. janghanihi ; PT. janghanat ; 

bar be gratified, IV. : PR. haryati ; SB. haryasi and haryas ; 
IPV. harya ; PT. haryant. IPP. aharyat ; A. aharyathas. 

1. ha leave, III. P. : PR. jahami, jahasi, jahati ; jahati ; 
SB. jahani ; jahama ; OP. jahyat ; jahyiir ; IPV. jahitat, 
jahatu ; jahitam ; jahita ; PT. jahat. IPF. ajahat ; 
ajahatana, ajahur. pr. jaha; jahatur; jahiir. AO. 
root: ahat (B.) ; s: ahas (3. s.) ; A. ahasi, ahasthas ; 
INJ. hasis ; sis : INJ. hasistam, hasistam ; hasista, 
hasisur. FT. hasyati ; hasyate (B.). PS. hiyate ; AO. 
ahayi ; PP. hma ; hana (B.) ; jahita. GD. hitva, hitvi, 
hitvaya; -haya (B.). INF. hatum (B.). cs. Ao.jihipas. 

2. ha go forth, III. A. : PR. jihite ; jihate ; jihate ; INJ. 
jihita; IPV. jihisva, jihitam (3. s.) ; jihatham (2. du.) ; 
jihatam (3. pi.) ; PT. jihana. IPF. A 1 ajihita ; ajihata. 
PF. jahir6. AO. red.: jijananta; s: A. ahasata (3. pi.); 
INJ. hasthas. FT. hasyate (B.). PP. hand (B.). GD. 
-haya. INF. hatum. cs. hapayati. DS. jihisate. 

hi impel, V. : PR. hinomi, hinosi, hin6ti ; hinmas and 
hinmasi, hinvanti; A. hinv^ (1. 3.); hinvate and 
hinvir^ ; SB. hinava ; INJ. hinvan ; IPV. hinuhi, hinutat, 
hinii ; hinotam ; hinuta, hi not a and hin6tana, hinv- 
antu; PT. hinvant; hinvana; IPF. ahinvan. PF. 
jighaya (B.) ; jighyur (B.). AO. root: ahema, ahetana, 
any an ; IPV. heta ; PT. hiyana ; a : ahyam ; s : ahait 
(3. s., AV.) ; ahaisit (B.) ; A. ahesata (3. pi.). PP. hita. 
GDV. h^tva. INF. -hyd. 

hims injure, VII. : hinasti; himsanti ; A. hinpste (AV.) ; 
IPV. hinastu ; OP. himsyat (B.) ; PT. himsana ; IPF. 
ahinat (3. s., B.). I. : PR. himsati, -te (B.). PF. jihims- 
ima. PPF. jihimsis. AO. is : INJ. himsisam, himsis, 
himsit ; himsistam (2. du.) ; himsista, himsisur. FT. 
himsisyati, -te (B.). PS. himsyate ; PP. himsita ; GDV. 

1819 F f 


himsitavya. GD. himsitva. INF. himsitum (B.), hims- 

itos (B.). DS. jihimsisati (B.). 
hid le hostile, I. : PT. helant ; A. helamana ; hidamana 

(*B.). PF. jihila (1. s.), jihida (AV.) ; A. jihil< ; jihilire" ; 

PT. jihilana. AO. red.: ajlhidat ; is: A. hidisatam 

(TA.). PP. hidita. cs. PT. helayant. 
hu sacrifice, III. : PR. juhomi, juhoti ; juhumas, juhvati ; 

A. juhv6, juhutS ; juhvate ; SB. juhavama ; OP. juhuyat ; 

juhuyama; juhudhi (B.), juhotu; juhuta and juh6ta, 

juhotana ; A. juhudhvam ; PT. juhvat ; juhvana ; IPF. 

ajuhavur; A. ajuhvata. PF. juhv6; juhur6; juhvir6 

(B.) ; per. juhavam cakara (B.). AO. s : ahausit (B.). 

FT. hosyati. PS. huyate ; AO. ahavi ; PP. huta. GD. 

hutva (B.). INF. h6tavai ; ho turn (B.), h6tos (B.). 
hu call, I. A. : PR. havate ; INJ. havanta ; PT. havamana. 

VI. : PR. huv6 (1. 3.) ; huvamahe ; INJ. huvat ; OP. 

huv^ma ; A. huv6ya ; PT. huvant ; IPF. ahuve ; ahuv- 

anta. III. : PR. juhumasi and juhumas. II. : PR. 

hut6 ; humahe. PF. juhava ; A. juhv6 ; juhur6 ; 

juhuvir6 (B.). AO. root : A. ahvi ; ahumahi ; INJ. 

h6ma ; a : ahvam, ahvat ; ahvama ; A. ahve ; ahvanta ; 

s : A. ahusata (3. pi.). PS. huyate ; PP. huta ; GDV. 

hdvya. GD. -huya (B.). INF. havitave; huvadhyai. 

DS. jiihusati (B.). INT. jdhavimi, jdhaviti; SB. A. 

johuvanta; IPV. johavitu; IPF. ajohavit; ajohavur. 

1. hr take, I. : PR. harati, -te ; SB. harani, harat ; harama, 
haran ; OP. haret ; harema ; IPV. hara ; ha rata, harantu ; 
PT. harant. IPF. aharat. PF. jahara, jahartha (B.) ; 
jahriir ; A. jahr6 (B.). AO. root: ahrthas (B.) ; s: 
dharsam, ahar (3. s.) ; A. ahrsata(3. pi.). FT. harisyati, 
-te (B.); harta (B.) ; co. aharisyat (B.). PS. hriyate; 
pp. hrtd. GD. hrtva (B.) ; -hrtya. INF. harase ; hartavai 
(B.); hartos (B.) ; hartum (B.). cs. harayati, -te (B.). 
DS. jihirsati. 

2. hr l>e angry, IX. A. : PR. hrnis6, hrnit6 ; INJ. hrnithas ; 
IPV. hrnltam (3. s.) ; PT. hrnana. 


hrs fee excited, I. : PR. harsate ; IPV. harsasva ; PT. harsant ; 

harsamana. PP. PT. jahrsana. PP. hrsita. cs. harsa- 

yati, -te. INT. SB. jarhrsanta ; PT. jarhrsana. 
hnu hide, II. : PR. hnutas ; A. hnuve". PP. hnuta. GDV. 

hri fee ashamed. III. P. : PR. jihreti. AO. root : PT. -hrayana. 

PP. hrita (B.). 
hva call, IV. : PR. hvayati ; hvaye ; SB. hvayamahai ; OP. 

hvayetam (3. du.) ; IPV. hvaya, hvayatu ; hvayantu ; 

A. hvayasva ; hvayetham (2. du.) ; hvayantam ; PT. 

hvayamana. IPF. ahvayat; ahvayanta. AO. ahvasit 

(B.). FT. hvayisyati, -te (B.). INF. hvayitavai (B.) ; 

hvayitum (B.). 
hvr fee crooked, I. A. : PR. hvarate. IX. P. : PR. hrunati. 

III. : SB. juhuras; A. juhuranta; INJ. juhurthas; PT. 

juhurana. AO. red. : jihvaras ; INJ. jihvaras ; jihvara- 

tam (2. du.) ; s: INJ. hvar (2. s.), hvarsit; is: hvarisur. 

pp. hvrta, hrutd. cs. hvarayati. 




1. The main principle governing Vedic metre 1 (the source 
of all later Indian versification) 2 is measurement by number 
of syllables. 3 The metrical unit here is not the foot in the 
sense of Greek prosody, but the foot (pada) or quarter^ in 
the sense of the verse or line which is a constituent of the 
stanza. Such verses consist of eight, eleven, twelve, or 
(much less commonly) five syllables. The verse is further 
more or less regulated by a quantitative rhythm (unaffected 
by the musical accent) in which short and long syllables 
alternate. Nearly all metres have a general iambic rhythm 
inasmuch as they show a preference for the even syllables 
(second, fourth, and so on) in a verse being long rather than 
short. In every metre the rhythm of the latter part of the 
verse (the last four or five syllables), called the cadence, is 
more rigidly regulated than that of the earlier part. Verses 
of eleven and twelve syllables are characterized not only by 
their cadence, but by a caesura after the fourth or the fifth 
syllable, while verses of five and eight syllables have no 
such metrical pause. 

1 Called chandas in the RJ. itself. 

2 Except the two metres Arya and Vaitaliya which are measured 
by morae. 

3 This seems to have been the only metrical principle in the Indo- 
Iranian period, because in the Avesta the chai-acter of a verse depends 
solely on the number of syllables it contains, there being no quanti- 
tative restriction in any part of it. 

4 A figurative sense (derived from foot = quarter of a quadruped) 
applicable because the typical stanza has four lines. 


Verses combine to form a stanza or re, the unit of the 
hymn, which generally consists of not less than three or 
more than fifteen such units. The stanzas of common 
occurrence in the RV. range, by increments of four syllables, 
from twenty syllables (4 x 5) to forty-eight (4x12) syllables 
in length. 1 A stanza may consist of a combination of 
metrically identical or of metrically different verses ; and 
either two or three stanzas may further be combined to form 
a strophe. 

a. The following general rules of prosody are to be noted. 1. The 
end of a verse regularly coincides with the end of a word 2 because 
each verse in a stanza is independent of the rest in structure. 2. Tho 
quantity of the first and last syllables of a verse is indifferent. 
3. A vowel becomes long by position if followed by two consonants. 
One or both of these consonants may belong to the following word. 
The palatal aspirate oh and the cerebral aspirate Ih (dh) count as 
double consonants. 4. One vowel is shortened before another ; 3 
e and o are also pronounced e and 6 before a. 5. The semivowels 
y and v, both within a word and in Sandhi, have often to be pro- 
nounced as i and u ; e. g. siama for syama ; suar for svar ; vi usah 
for vy usah ; vid&thesu anj&n for vid&thesv anjan. 6. Contracted 
vowels (especially I and u) must often be restored ; e. g. ca agn&ye 
for cagnaye ; vi indrah for vindrah ; &vatu utaye for avatutaye ; a 
indra for e"ndra. 7. Initial a when dropped after e and o must 
nearly always be restored. 8. The long vowel of the gen. pi. ending 
am, and of such words as dasa, sura, and e (as jyd-istha for jygstha) 
or ai (as &-ichas for Sichas) must often be pronounced as equivalent 
to two short syllables. 9. The spelling of a few words regularly 
misrepresents their metrical value ; thus pavaka must always be pro- 
nounced as pavaka, mrlaya as mflaya, and suvan& nearly always as 

1 There are also several longer stanzas formed by Adding more 
verses and consisting of 52, 56, 60, 64, 68, and 72 syllables ; but all 
these are rare : only two stanzas of 68 and one of 72 are found in 
the RV. 

2 No infringement of this rule occurs in any metre of the RV. but 
the comparatively rare Dvipada Viraj (4 x 5), in which three exceptions 
are met with. 

3 The vowels I, u, e when Pragrhya (25, 26), however, remain long 
before vowels. When a final long vowel is the result of Sandhi, it 
also remains long ; t&sma adat for tasmai adat. 


I. Simple Stanzas. 

2. The Vedic hymns consist chiefly of simple stanzas, 
that is, of such as are formed of verses which are all 
metrically identical. Different stanzas are formed by com- 
bining three, four, five, or six identical verses. The 
following is an account of the various types of verse and of 
the different simple stanzas formed by them. 

A. Verse of eight syllables. This is a dimeter verse 
consisting of two equal members of four syllables each, the 
opening and the cadence. In the opening the first and 
third syllable are indifferent, while the second and fourth 
are preferably long. When the second is short, the third 
is almost invariably long. In the cadence the rhythm is 
typically iambic, the first and third syllables being almost 
always short, while the second is usually long (though it is 
not infrequently short also). Thus the prevailing scheme of 
the whole verse is ^ - ^ j^-w^ 

a. Even after every admissible vowel restoration a good many verses 
of this type exhibit the anomaly (which cannot be removed without 
doing violence to the text) of having one syllable too few ; e. g. tm 
tua vayam pito. There are also here a veiy few instances of one or 
even two syllables too many ; e. g. agnim lie | bhujSrn yavi | stham 
and vaydm t&d as j ya sambhrtam | v&su. 

3. a. The Gayatri l stanza consists of three 2 octosyllabic 
verses ; 3 e. g. 

1 Next to the Tristubh this is the commonest metre in the RV., 
nearly one-fourth of that Samhita being composed in it ; yet it has 
entirely disappeared in Classical Sanskrit. The Avesta has a parallel 
stanza of 3 x 8 syllables. 

2 The first two Padas of the Gayatri are treated as a hemistich in 
the Samhita text, probably in imitation of the hemistich of the 
Anustubh and the Tristubh ; but there is no reason to believe that in 
the original text the second verse was more sharply divided from the 
third than from the first. 

3 By far the commonest variation from the normal type is that in 
which the second syllable of the cadence is short (w w \j Jsi). This 
occurs about as often in the first verse of Gayatiis as in the second 
and third combined. 


agnim lie purdhitam w w - w w | 

yajnasya de vam rtvijam w |^-w^| 

hdtaram ra | tnadhatamam || | w w w || 

a. A comparatively rare but sufficiently definite variety 
of Gayatrl x differs from the normal type by having a decided 
trochaic rhythm in the cadence, 2 while the iambic rhythm 
of the opening is more pronounced than usual ; e. g. 

tuam no ag | ne mahobhih | w w - - w w | 
pahi visva | sya arateh |- w | ^ ! 

uta dvis6 | martiasya || ^ w j ^ w | 

b. The Anustubh 3 stanza consists of four octosyllabic 
verses, divided into two hemistichs ; e. g. 

a yas te sar | pirasute | - | w ^ | 

agne sam as | ti dhayase j| ^ | ^ w |j 

aisu dyumnam uta sravah | w | w w o | 

a cittam mar | tiesu dhah. || | w - ^ - || 

a. In the latest hymns of the RV. there begins a tendency to 
differentiate the first from the second verse of an Anustubh hemistich 
by making the end of the former trochaic, while the cadence of the 
latter becomes more strictly iambic. Although in these hymns 
the iambic cadence of the first verse is still the most frequent 
(25 per cent.) of all varieties, it is already very nearly equalled by the 
next commonest (23 per cent.), which is identical with the normal 
and characteristic cadence of the first verse in the epic Anustubh 4 
(sloka). The scheme of the whole hemistich according to this 

innovation 5 then is : i=i L \ ^ i=i||isi i^ |o wJsi|| e.g. 

kesi vis& | sya patrena || yad rudrena | pibat sah& |j 

1 The only long series of such trochaic Gayatrls occurs in RV. viii. 
2, 1-39. 

2 The trochaic Gayatrl is commonest in Mandalas i and viii, which 
taken together contain about two-thirds of the total number of 
examples in the RV. 

3 The frequency of this metre is about one-third that of Gayatrl in 
the RV., but in the post-Vedic period it has become the predominant 
metre. The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 4 x 8 syllables. 

4 Where the iambic cadence in the first verse has entirely dis- 

6 This is the regular type of the Anustubh in the AV. 


c. The Pankti stanza consists of five octosyllabic verses l 
divided into two hemistichs of two and of three verses 
respectively. In origin it seems to be an extension of the 
Anustubh by the addition of a fifth verse. This is indicated 
by the fact that in hymns consisting entirely of Panktis the 
fifth verse of every stanza is (except in i. 81) regularly a 
refrain (e. g. in i. 80). The following is an example of 
a Pankti stanza : 

ittha hi soma in made j brahma cakara vardhanam || 
savistha vajrinn ojasa | prthivya nih sasa ahim | arcann 
anu svarajiam || 

d. In about fifty stanzas of the KV. the number of 
octosyllabic verses is increased to six and in about twenty 
others to seven, generally by adding a refrain of two verses 
to an Anustubh (e.g. viii. 47) or to a Pankti (e.g. x. 133, 
1-3). The former is called Mahapankti (48), the latter 
6akvari (56). 

4. B. Verses of eleven syllables differ from those of 
eight in consisting of three members (the opening, the break, 
and the cadence). They also contrast with the latter in two 
other respects : their cadence is trochaic 2 ( w ) and 
they have a caesura, which follows either the fourth :>> or the 
fifth syllable. The rhythm of the syllables preceding the 
caesura is prevailingly iambic, being - - - 4 or - - -. 5 
The rhythm of the break between the caesura and the 
cadence is regularly w <u or w w G | . Thus the scheme of 

1 The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 5 x 8 syllables. 

a The only irregularity here is that the first syllable of the cadence 
may be short when it coincides with the end of a word. 

8 This appears to have been the original position of the caesura 
because the parallel verse of the Avesta has it there and never after 
the fifth syllable. 

4 Identical with the opening of the octosyllabic verse. 

6 The fourth syllable here is sometimes short : the fifth is then 
always long. 

6 The first of these two syllables is sometimes, but rarely, long in 
the old hymns of the RV. } still more rarely in the later hymns, and 
hardly ever in B. 


the whole normal verse of eleven syllables is : 

(ft) ^ - ^ -, w w - - w - * or 

(b) | ^ - ^ - ^, w ^ | - w - * | 

a. Apart from corruptions or only seeming irregularities (removable 
by restoration of vowels) several verses of this type have one syllable 
too many or too few ; l e. g. ta no vidvamsa, manma vo | cetam 
adya 52 (12); tarn im giro, jana | yo na patnih 8 (10). Occasionally 
two syllables are wanting after the caesura or the verse is too long by 
a trochee added at the end ; e. g. ti u sd no, [. .] ma | ho yajatrah (9) ; 
ayam s& hota, [w o] yo dvijanma (9) ; rathebhir yata, rsti | madbhir 
asva i parnaih (18). 

5. The Tristubh stanza, the commonest in the BV., 4 
consists of four verses of eleven syllables r> divided into two 
hemistichs. The following are hemistichs of each type : 

(a) anagastv6, aditi | tve" turasah | imam yajnam, da- 

dhatu | srosamanah || 
(6) asmakam santu, bhuva nasya gopah pibantu 

somam, ava | se nd adya || 

a. A few Tristubh stanzas of only two verses (dvipada) occur 
(e.g. vii. 17). Much commoner are those of three verses (viraj), the 
first two of which (as in the Gayatrl stanza) are treated in the 
Samhita text as a hemistich ; the whole of some hymns is composed 
in this three-line metre (e. g. iii. 25). Fairly frequent are also 
Tristubh stanzas of five verses 6 divided into two hemistichs of two 
and three verses respectively. They are always of isolated occurrence, 
appearing generally at the end of (Tristubh) hymns, but never form- 
ing an entire hymn. 

1 This anomaly also appears in the metre of later Vedic texts and of 
Pali poetry. 

2 The extra syllable in such cases is perhaps due to the verse being 
inadvertently continued after a fifth syllable caesura as if it were 
a fourth syllable caesura. 

3 The deficiency of a syllable in such cases may have been partly 
due to the similarity of the decasyllabic Dvipada Viraj (8) with which 
Tristubh verses not infrequently interchange. 

4 About two-fifths of the RV. are composed in this metre. 

6 The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 4x11 syllables with caesura 
after the fourth syllable. 

6 These are accounted Atijagatl (52) or Sakvarl stanzas by the 
ancient metricians when the filth verse is a repetition of the fourth. 
If it is not a repetition it is treated in the Samhita text as a separate 
verso (as v. 41, 20 ; vi. 63, 11) and is called an ekapada by the 


6. C. The verse of twelve syllables is probably an 
extension x of the Tristubh verse by one syllable which gives 
the trochaic cadence of the latter an iambic character. 2 
The rhythm of the last five syllables is therefore w - w ^. 
The added syllable being the only point of difference, the 
scheme of the whole verse is : 

(a) , 



a. Several examples occur of this type of verse (like the Tristubh) 
having one, and occasionally two, syllables too many or too few ; e.g. 
ma no martaya, ripave vajinivasu (13) ; rodasl a, vada | ta ganasri- 
yah (11) ; sa drlhe" cit, abhf tr | natti vajam ar | vata (14) ; piba 
somam, [w w] e | na satakrato (10). 

7. The Jagati stanza, the third in order of frequency in 
the RV., consists of four verses of twelve syllables divided 
into two hemistichs. The following hemistich gives an 
example of each of the two types of verse : 

ananud.6, vrsabh6 d6dhato vadhah | 
gambhira rsvo, asam | astakaviari || 

a. There is an eleven syllable variety of the Jagati verse which is 
sufficiently definite in type to form entire stanzas in two hymns of 
the RV. (x. 77, 78). It has a caesura after both the fifth and the 

seventh syllable, its scheme being ^. L w , , u w !sd [ 

The following hemistich is an example : 

abhrapruso nd, vaca, prusa v&su | 

havismanto na, yajni,, vijanusah || 

8. D. The verse of five syllables resembles the last rive 
syllables of the Tristubh verse in rhythm, its commonest 
form being w o ^, and the one next to it in frequency 

1 It is probably not Indo-Iranian, because though a verse of 
12 syllables occurs in the Avesta, it is there differently divided (7+5). 

2 As the Gayatri verse is never normally found in combination 
with the Tristubh, but often with the Jagati verse, it seems likely 
that the iambic influence of the Gayatr! led to the creation of the 
Jagati, with which it could form a homogeneous combination. 

3 That is, its first syllable is less often long than short 


The Dvipada Viraj stanza 1 consists of four such verses 
divided into two hemistichs ; 2 e. g. 

pari pra dhanva | indraya soma ] 
svadiir mitraya j pusn6 bhagaya || 

a. Owing to the identity of the cadence a Dvipada 
hemistich :j not infrequently interchanges in the same stanza 
with a Tristubh verse ; * e. g. 

priya vo nama huve 5 turanam | 

a yat trpan, maruto | vavasanah || 

b. The mixture of Dvipada hemistichs with Tristubh 
verses led to an entire hymn (iv. 10) being composed in a 
peculiar metre consisting of three pentasyllabic verses 6 
followed by a Tristubh ; e. g. 

agne tarn adya \ asvam na stomaih [ kratum na bhadram | 
hrdisprsam, rdhia ma 7 ta 6haih || 

II. Mixed Stanzas. 

9. The only different verses normally used in combination 
to form a stanza are the Gayatri and the Jagatl. The 
principal metres thus formed are the following : 

a. Stanzas of 28 syllables consisting of three verses, the 
iirst two of which are treated as a hemistich : 

1 This stanza is somewhat rare, occurring in the RV. not much more 
than a hundred times. 

2 The otherwise universal rule that the end of a verse must coincide 
with the end of a word is three times ignored in this metre (at the 
end of the first and third verses). 

3 With this metre compare the defective Tristubh verse of ten 
syllables (4 a). 

4 This interchange occurs especially in RV. vii. 34 and 56. 

5 Here the verb, though the first word of the verse (App. Ill, 19 6), 
is unaccented. This is because the end of the first and the third 
verse in this metre has a tendency to be treated like a caesura rather 
than a division of the stanza. Cp. note 2. 

6 These three verses are treated as a hemistich in the Samhita text. 

7 The verb is accented because in the Samhita text it is treated as 
the first word of a separate verse. 


1. Usnih: 8 8 12 ; e.g. 

agne vaja | sya gomatah | 

isanah sa haso yaho || 

asme" dhehi, jatave | do mahi sravah | 

2. Purausnih : 1288; e.g. 

apsu antar, amrtam apsii bhesajam | 
apam uta | prasastaye || 
de>a bhava | ta vajinah || 

3. Kakubh : 8 12 8 ; e. g. 

adha hi in | dra girvanah | 

upa tva kaman, mahah sasrjmahe || 

tid6va yan ta udabhih || 

b. Stanzas of 36 syllables consisting of four verses divided 
into two hemistichs : Brhati 88128; e. g. 

sacibhir nah | saclvasu 

dcvii naktam | dasasyatam || 

ma vam ratir, upa da | sat kada cana 

asmad ratih kada cana || 

c. Stanzas of 40 syllables consisting of four verses divided 
into two hemistichs : Satobrhati 12 8 12 8 ; e. g. 

janaso agnim, dadhi j re sahovrdham | 
havismanto vidhema te || 
sa tvam no adya, suma ] na ihavita 
bhava vaje | su santia || 

10. There are besides two much longer mixed stanzas of 
seven verses, 1 each of which is split up into three divisions 
of three, two, and two verses respectively in the Samhita 

a. Stanzas of 60 syllables consisting of six Gayatri 
verses and one Jagatl: Atisakvari 8 8 8, 8 8, 12 8 ; 2 e. g. 

1 These are the composition of a very few individual poets. 

2 Only about ten examples of this metre occur in the KV. 


susuma ya | tam adribhih 

gosrita mat | sara 

somaso mat ! sara 

a raj ana | divisprsa 

asmatra gan tam lipa nah || 

ime vam mitra, -varu na gavasirah | 

s6mah sukra gavasirah | 

1). Stanzas of 68 syllables consisting of four GayatrT and 
three Jagatl verses : Atyasti 1 12 12 8, 8 8, 12 8 ; e. g. 

sa no ne"distham, dadrs ana a bhara | 

agne dev^bhih, saca | nah sucetiina 

maho rayah | sucetiina || 

mahi savi stha nas krdhi | 

samcakse bhu | j6 asiai || 

mahi stotrbhyo, magha | van suviriam | 

mathir ugr6 | na savasa || 

a. Besides the above mixed metres various other but isolated 
combinations of Gayatri and Jagatl verses occur in the RV., chiefly in 
single hymns. There are stanzas of this kind containing 20 syllables 
(12 8) ; 2 32 syllables (12 8, 12) ; 3 40 syllables (12 12, 8 8) ; 4 44 syllables 
(12 12, 12 8) 5 ; 52 syllables (12 12, 12 8 8). G 

0. 1. Tristubh verses are quite often interspersed in Jagatl stanzas, 
but never in such a way as to form a fixed type of stanza or to make 
it doubtful whether a hymn is a Jagatl one. 7 This practice probably 
arose from the interchange of entire Tristubh and Jagatl stanzas in 
the same hymn bringing about a similar mixture within a single 
stanza. 2. An occasional licence is the combination of a Tristubh 
with a Gayatri verse in the same stanza. This combination appears 
as a regular mixed stanza (11 8, 8 8) in one entire hymn (RV. x. 22). 8 
3. The combination of a Tristubh verse with a Dvipada Viraj hemistich 
has already been noted (8 a). 

1 This is the only comparatively common long metre (of more than 
48 syllables) in the RV., where more than 80 Atyasti stanzas occur. 

2 RV. viii. 29. 3 RV. ix. 110. ' * RV. x. 93. 
' RV. viii. 85. RV. v. 87. 

7 But the intrusion of Jagatl verses in a Tristubh hymn is 
exceptional in the RV., though very common in the AV. and later. 

8 Except stanzas 7 and 15, which are pure Anustubh and Tristubh 


III. Strophic Stanzas. 

11. Two or three stanzas are often found strophically 
combined in the BV., forming couplets or triplets. 

A. Three simple stanzas (called trca) in the same metre 
are often thus connected. Gayatrl triplets are the com- 
monest ; less usual are Usnih, Brhati, or Pahkti triplets ; 
while Tristubh triplets are rare. A hymn consisting of 
several triplets often concludes with an additional stanza in 
a different metre. 

a. It is a typical practice to conclude a hymn composed in one 
metre with a stanza in another. A Tristubh stanza at the end of 
a Jagat! hymn is the commonest ; a final Anustubh stanza in Gayatrl 
hymns is much less usual ; but all the commoner metres are to some 
extent thus employed except the Gayatrl, which is never used in 
this way. 

B. Two mixed stanzas in different metres are often com- 
bined, the RV. containing about 250 such strophes. This 
doubly mixed strophic metre, called Pragatha, is of two 
main types : 

1. The Kakubha Pragatha is much the less common 
kind of strophe, occurring only slightly more than fifty 
times in the EV. It is formed by the combination of a 
Kakubh with a Satobrhatl stanza : 8 12, 8 + 12 8, 128; e. g. 

a no asva | vad asvina | 

vartir yasistam, madhu | patama nara || 

gdmad dasra | hiranyavat || 

supravargam, suviryam | susthii variam 

anadhrstam j raksasvina || 

asminn a vam, ayane vajinivasu | 

visva vama | ni dhimahi || 

2. The Barhata Pragatha is a common strophe, occurring 
nearly two hundred times in the KV. It is formed by the 
combination of a Brhati with a Satobrhatl stanza : 8 8, 12 8 + 
12 8, 12 8 ; e. g. 


dyumni vam st6mo asvina 

krivir na s6 | ka a gatam || 

madhvah. sutasya, sa di | vi priy6 nara | 

patam gaurav | iv^rine || 

pibatam gharmam, madhu | mantam asvina 

a barhih si datam nara || 

ta mandasana, mami | so durona a 

ni patam v6 | dasa vayah || 

a. Of these two types there are many variations occurring in 
individual hymns, chiefly by the addition of one (8), two (12 8), 
three (12 8 8), or once (vii. 96, 1-3) even four verses (12 12 8 8). 



1. The accent is marked in all the texts of the four Vedas 
as well as in two Brahmanas, the Taittirlya (including its 
Aranyaka) and the Satapatha (including the Brhadaranyaka 

The Vedic, like the ancient Greek, accent was a musical 
one, depending mainly on pitch, as is indicated both by its 
not affecting the rhythm of metre and by the name of the 
chief tone, udatta raised. That such was its nature is, 
moreover, shown by the account given of it by the ancient 
native phoneticians. Three degrees of pitch are to be dis- 
tinguished, the high, properly represented by the udatta, 
the middle by the svarita (sounded), and the low by the 
anudatta (not raised). But in the Kigveda the Udatta, 
the rising accent, has secondarily acquired a middle pitch, 
lower than the initial pitch of the Svarita. The Svarita is 
a falling accent representing the descent from the Udatta 
pitch to tonelessness. In the Rigveda it rises slightly 
above Udatta pitch before descending : here therefore it has 
something of the nature of a circumflex. It is in reality 
always an enclitic accent following an Udatta, though it 
assumes the appearance of an independent accent when the 
preceding Udatta is lost by the euphonic change of a vowel 
into the corresponding semivowel (as in kva = kiia). In 
the latter case it is called the independent Svarita. The 
Anudatta is the low tone of the syllables preceding an 

2. There are four different methods of marking the accent 
in Vedic texts. The system of the Kigveda, which is 


followed by the Atharvaveda, the Vajasaneyi Samhita, the 
Taittirlya Samhita and Brahmana, is peculiar in not marking 
the principal accent at all. This seems to be due to the fact 
that in the RV. the pitch of the Udatta is intermediate 
between the other two tones. Hence the preceding Anudatta, 
as having a low pitch, is indicated below the syllable bearing 
it by a horizontal stroke, while the following Svarita, which 
at first rises to a slightly higher pitch and then falls, is 
indicated above the syllable bearing it by a vertical stroke ; 
e. g. agnina = agnina ; viryam = viryam (for viriam). 
Successive Udattas at the beginning of a hemistich are 
indicated by the absence of all marks till the enclitic Svarita 
which follows the last of them or till the Anudatta which 
(ousting the enclitic Svarita) follows the last of them as 
a preparation for another Udatta (or for an independent 
Svarita) ; e. g. tav a yatam = tav a yatam ; tavet tat 
satyam 1 = ta v6t tat satydm. On the other hand, all 
successive unaccented syllables at the beginning of a 
hemistich are marked with the Anudatta ; e. g. vaisvanaram 
=vaisvanaram. But all the unaccented syllables following 
a Svarita remain unmarked till that which immediately 
precedes an Udatta (or independent Svarita) ; e. g. imam 
me gange yamune sarasvati sutudri = imam me gange 
yamune sarasvati sutudri. 

a. Since a hemistich of two or more Padas is treated as 
a unit that consists of an unbroken chain of accented and 
unaccented syllables, and ignores the division into Padas, 
the marking of the preceding Anudatta and the following 
Svarita is not limited to the word in which the Udatta 
occurs, but extends to the contiguous words not only of the 
same, but of the succeeding Pada ; e. g. agnina rayim 
asnavat posam eva dive-dive = agnina rayim asnavat j 

1 Here the enclitic Svarita, which would rest on the syllable sa if 
the following syllable were unaccented, is ousted by the Anudatta, 
which is required to indicate that the following syllable tyam has the 

1819 G g 


p6sam eva dive~-dive ; sa nah piteva sunave $gne supa- 
yano bhava = sa nah piteVa sunave" 'gne supayano 
bhava. 1 

?>. When an independent Svarita 2 immediately precedes an 
Udatta, it is accompanied by the sign of the numeral 1 if 
the vowel is short and by 3 if it is long, the figure being 
marked with both the Svarita and the Anudatta ; e.g. 
apsviantah = apsii antah ; rayo $ vanih = ray6 'vanih 
(cp. 17, 3).' 

3. Both the Maitrayanl and the Kathaka Samhitas agree 
in marking the Udatta with a vertical stroke above (like the 
Svarita in the RV.), thereby seeming to indicate that here 
the Udatta rose to the highest pitch ; e. g. agnina. But 
they differ in their method of marking the Svarita. The 
Maitrayanl indicates the independent Svarita by a curve 
below ; e. g. viryam = viryam ; but the dependent Svarita 
by a horizontal stroke crossing the middle of the syllable or 
by three vertical strokes above it ; while the Kathaka 
marks the independent Svarita by a curve below only if an 
unaccented syllable follows, but by a hook below if the 
following syllable is accented ; e. g. viryam = viryam 
badhnati ; viryam = viryam vyacaste ; the dependent 
Svarita has a dot below the accented syllable. 3 The Anudatta 
is marked in both these Samhitas w r ith a horizontal stroke 
below (as in the RV.). 4 

4. In the Samaveda the figures 1, 2, 3 are written above 
the accented syllable to mark the Udatta, the Svarita, and 

1 In the'Pada text on the other hand, each word has its own accent 
only, unaffected by contiguous words, The two above hemistichs 
there read as follows : agnina rayim asnavat posam eva dive^ dive ; 
sah nah pita $iva sunave agne su^upayanah bhava. 

2 * As in kva = kua, viryam = viriam. 

8 In L. v. Schroednr's editions of these two Samhitas the Udatta 
and the independent Svarita only are marked. 

4 When the text of any of the Samhitas is transliterated in Roman 
characters, the Anudatta and the enclitic Svarita are omitted as 
unnecessary because the Udatta itself is marked with the sign of the 
acute ; thus agnina becomes agnina. 


the Anudatta respectively as representing three degrees of 

a i 2 

pitch ; e. g. barhisi = barhisi (barhisi). The figure 2 is, 
however, also used to indicate the Udatta when there is no 

3'2 _, 

following Svarita ; e. g. gira = gira (gira). When there 
are two successive Udattas, the second is not marked, 
but the following Svarita has 2r written above; e.g. 

31 2r 

dviso martyasya (dvis6 martyasya). The independent 
Svarita is also marked with 2r, the preceding Anudatta 

3k 2r 

being indicated by 3k ; e. g. tanva = tanva. 

5. The Satapatha Brahrnana marks the Udatta only. 
It does so by means of a horizontal stroke below (like the 
Anudatta of the KV.) ; e. g. purusah. = purusah. Of two 
or more successive Udattas only the last is marked ; e. g. 
agnir hi vai dhur atha = agnir hi vai dhur atha. An 
independent Svarita is thrown back on the preceding 
syllable in the form of an Udatta ; e. g. manusyesu = 
manusyesu for manusyesu. The Svarita produced by 
change to a semivowel, by contraction, or the elision of 
initial a is similarly treated ; e. g. evaitad = eVaitad for 
evaitad (= eva etad). 

6. Accent of single words. Every Vedic word is, as 
a rule, accented and has one main accent only. In the 
original text of the RV. the only main accent was the Udatta 
which, as Comparative Philology shows, generally rests on 
the same syllable as it did in the Indo-European period ; 
e. g. ta-ta-s stretched, Gk. ra-ro-y ; janu n. Jcnee, Gk. yovv ; 
a-drs-at, Gk. e'-tSpa/c-e ; bhara-ta, Gk. ^epe-re. 1 But in the 
written text of the RV. the Svarita appears to be the main 
accent in some words. It then always follows a y or v 
which represents original i or u with Udatta ; e. g. rathyam 

1 But (pfpopfvo-s (bharamanas) by the secondaiy Greek law of 
accentuation which prevents the acute from going back farther than 
the third syllable from the end of a word. 



= rathiam 1 ; svar 2 = siiar n. light ; tanvam = tanuam. 3 
Here the original vowel with its Udatta must be restored in 
pronunciation except in a very few late passages. 

7. Double Accent. One form of dative infinitive and 
two types of syntactical compounds have a double accent. 
The infinitive in tavai, of which numerous examples occur 
both in the Samhitas and the Brahmanas, accents both the 
first and the last syllable ; e. g. 6-tavai to go j apa-bhar- 
tavai to take away. Compounds both members of which 
are duals in form (186 A 1), or in which the first member 
has a genitive ending (187 A 6 a), accent bothmembers ; e. g. 
mitra-varuna Mitra and Varuna ; brhas-pati lord of prayer. 
In B. a double accent also appears in the particle vava. 

8. Lack of Accent. Some words never have an accent ; 
others lose it under certain conditions. 

A. Always enclitic are : 

a. all cases of the pronouns ena he, she, it, tva another, 
sama some-, and the following forms of the personal pro-, 
nouns of the first and second persons : ma, tva ; me, te ; 
nan, vam ; nas, vas (109 a), and of the demonstrative 
stems i and sa : im (111 n. 3) and sim (180). 

&. The particles ca and, u also, va or, iva like, gha, ha 
just, cid at all, bhala indeed, samaha somelwiv, sma just, 
indeed, svid probably. 

B. Liable to loss of accent according to syntactical 
position are : 

a. vocatives, unless beginning the sentence or Pada. 

&. finite verbs in principal clauses, unless beginning the 
sentence or Pada. 

c. oblique cases of the pronoun a, if unemphatic (replacing 
a preceding substantive) and not beginning the sentence or 
Pada; e.g. asya janimani his (Agni's) Urths (but asya 
usasah of that dawn). 

1 Ace. of rathi charioteer. 

2 In the TS. always written suvar. 
8 Aec. of tanu body. 


d. yatha as almost invariably when, in the sense of iva 
like, it occurs at the end of a Pada ; e. g. tayavo yatha like 
thieves ; kam indeed always when following mi, su, hi. 

1. Accentuation of Nominal Stems. 

9. The most important points to he noted here are the 
following : 

A. Primary Suffixes : 

a. Stems in-as accent the root if neut. action nouns, but 
the suffix if masc. agent nouns ; e. g. ap-as n. ivork, but 
ap-as active. The same substantive here, without change 
of meaning, sometimes varies the accent with the gender ; 
e. g. raks-as n., raks-as m. demon. 

b. Stems formed with the superlative suffix istha accent 
the root ; e. g. yajistha sacrificing best. The only exceptions 
are jyestha eldest (but jyestha greatest) and kanistha youngest 
(but kanistha smallest). 1 When the stem is compounded 
with a preposition, the latter is accented ; e. g. a-gamistha 
coming best. 

c. Stems formed with the comparative suffix lyams 
invariably accent the root ; e. g. jav-iyams swifter. When 
the stem is compounded with a preposition, the latter is 
accented ; e. g. prati-cyaviyams pressing closer against. 

d. Stems formed with tar generally accent the root when 
the meaning is participial, but the suffix when it is purely 
nominal ; e. g. da- tar giving (with ace.), but da-tar giver. 

e. Stems in man when (neut.) action nouns, accent the 
root, but when (masc.) agent nouns the suffix ; e. g. kar-man 
n. action, but dar-man, m. breaker. The same substantive 
here varies, in several instances, in accent with the meaning 
and gender (cp. above, 9 A a) ; e. g. brahman n. prayer, 
brahman m. one ivlio prays ; sad-man, n. seat, sad-man, m. 
sitter. When these stems are compounded with prepositions, 

1 These two exceptions arise simply from the desire to distinguish 
the two meanings of each of them. See below (16, footnote 2). 


the latter are nearly always accented ; e. g. pra-bharman, 
n. presentation. 

B. Secondary Suffixes: 

a. Stems in -in always accent the suffix : e. g. asv-in 
possessing horses. 

&. Stems in tama, if superlatives, hardly ever accent the 
suffix (except puru-tama very many, ut-tama highest, 6a6vat- 
tama most frequent), but if ordinals, the final syllable of the 
suffix ; e. g. ata-tama hundredth. 

c. Stems in ma, whether superlatives or ordinals, regularly 
accent the suffix; e.g. adha-ma lowest; asta-ma eighth: 
except anta-ma next (but twice anta-ma). 

2. Accentuation of Compounds. 

10. Stated generally, the rule is that iteratives, possessives, 
and governing compounds accent the first member, while 
determinatives (Karmadharayas and Tatpurusas), and regu- 
larly formed co-ordinatives accent the last member (usually 
on its final syllable). Simple words on becoming members 
of compounds generally retain their original accent. Some, 
however, always change it : thus visva regularly becomes 
vi6va ; others do so in certain combinations only : thus 
purva prior becomes purva in purva-citti f. first thought, 
purva-piti f. first draught, purva-huti first invocation ; 
me"dha sacrifice shifts its accent in medha-pati lord of 
sacrifice and medha-sati f. reception of the sacrifice, and 
vira hero in puru-vira possessed of many men and su-vira 
heroic. An adjective compound may shift its accent from 
one member to another on becoming a substantive or a 
proper name ; e. g. sii-krta ivell done, but su-krta, n. good 
deed ; a-raya niggardly, but a-raya m. name of a demon. 

a. Iteratives accent the first member only, the two words 
being separated by Avagraha in the Pada text, like the 
members of other compounds ; e.g. ahar-ahar day after day ; 
yad-yad whatever ; yatha-yatha as in each case ; adya-adya, 
svah-svah on each to-day, on each to-morrow ; pra-pra forth 
and again ; piba-piba drink again and again. 


6. In governing compounds the first member, when it is 
a verbal noun (except siksa-nara helping men) is invariably 
accented ; e. g. trasa-dasyu. terrifying foes, name of a man ; 
present or aorist participles place the accent, wherever it 
may have been originally, on their final syllable ; e. g. 
tarad-dvesas overcoming (tarat)/bes. When the first member 
is a preposition, either that word is accented, or the final 
syllable of the compound it it ends in a ; e. g. abhi-dyu 
directed to heaven, but adhas-pad-a under the feet ; anu-kama 
according to wish (kama). 

c. Bahuvrlhis normally accent their first member ; e. g. 
raja-putra having kings as sons (but raja-putra son of a king) ; 
visvato-nmkha facing in all directions ; saha-vatsa accom- 
panied ~by her calf. 

a. But about one-eighth of all BahuvrJhis accent the second member 
(chiefly on the final syllable). This is commonly the case when the 
first member is a dissyllabic adjective ending in i or u, invariably in 
the RV. when it is puru or bahu much ; e. g. tuvi-dyumnd, having great 
glory ; vibhu-kratu having great strength ; puru^putr& having many sons ; 
bahv-anna having much food. 1 This also is the regular accentuation 
when the first member is dvi two, tri three, dus ill, su well, or the 
privative particle a or an ; 2 e. g. dvi-p&d two-footed, tri-nabhi having 
three naves, dur-m&iiman ill-disposed, su-bh&ga ivell- endowed, a-dant 
toothless, a-phala lacking fruit (phala). 

d. Determinatives accent the final member (chiefly on the 
final syllable). 

1. Ordinary Karmadharayas accent the final syllable ; 
e. g. prathama-ja first-born, pratar-yuj early yoked, maha- 
dhana great spoil. But when the second member ends in 
i, man, van, or is a gerundive (used as a n. substantive), 
the penultimate syllable is accented ; e.g. dur-grbhi hard to 
hold ; su-tarrnan crossing well ; raghu-patvan swift-flying ; 
purva-p6ya, n. precedence in drinking. 

1 The later Samhitas tend to follow the general rule j e.g. purti- 
naman (J5V.) many-named. 

2 Bahuvrlhis formed with a or an are almost invariably accented 
on the final syllable as a distinction from Karmadharayas (which 
normally accent the first syllable, as d-manusa inhuman} ; e. g. a-matrd 


a. The first member is, however, accented under the following 
conditions. It is generally accented when it is an adverbial word 
qualifying a past participle in ta or na or a verbal noun in ti ; e. g. 
dur-hita faring ill ; sadhd-stuti joint praise. It is almost invariably 
accented when it is the privitive particle a or an 1 compounded with 
a participle, adjective, or substantive ; e. g. an-adant not eating, 
6,-vidvams not knowing, 6-krta not done, d-tandra unwearied, a-kumara 
not a child. The privative particle is also regularly accented, when it 
negatives a compound ; e. g. fin-asva-da not giving a horse, &n-agni- 
dagdha not burnt icith fire. 

2. Ordinary Tatpurusas accent the final syllable ; e. g. 
gotra-bhid opening the cow-pens, agnim-indha fire-kindling, 
bhadra-vadin uttering auspicious cries ; uda-megha shower 
of water. But when the second member is an agent noun 
in ana, an action noun in ya, or an adjective in i, or van, 
the radical syllable of that member is accented ; e. g. deva- 
madana exhilarating the gods ; ahi-hatya n. slaughter of the 
dragon ; pathi-raksi protecting the road ; soma-pavan Soma- 

a. The first member is, however, accented when it is dependent on 
past passive participles in ta and na or on action nouns in ti ; e. g. 
dev&-hita ordained by the gods, dh&na-sati acquisition of wealth. It is 
usually also accented, if dependent on p&ti lord ; e. g. grhd-pati lord of 
the house. Some of these compounds with pati accent the second 
member with its original accent ; some others in the later Samhitas, 
conforming to the general rule, accent it on the final syllable ; 
thus apsara-pati (AV.) lord of the Apsarases, ahar-pati (MS.) lord of day, 
nadi-pati (VS.) lord of rivers. 

/3. A certain number of Tatpurusas of syntactical origin, having 
a genitive case-ending in the first member nearly always followed by 
pati, are doubly accented ; e. g. bfhas-pati lord of prayer. Other arc 
apam-n&pat son ofivaters, nara-s&msa (for ndram-sdmsa) praise of men, 
6unah-se"pa Dog's tail, name of a man. The analogy of these is 
followed by some Tatpurusas without case-ending in the first member : 
saci-pati lord of might ; t&nu-napat son of himself (tanu) ; nf-samsa 
praise of men. 

1 Sometimes, however, the first syllable of the second member is 
accented ; e. g. a-jara unaging ; a-mitra m. enemy (non-friend : mitra) ; 
a-mfta immortal (from mrt&). 


e. Regularly formed Dvandvas (186 A 2. 3) accent the 
final syllable of the stem irrespective of the original accent 
of the last member ; e. g. ajavayah m. pi. goats and sheep ; 
aho-ratrani days and nights ; ista-purtam n. what is sacrificed 
and presented. 

a. The very rare adverbial Dvandvas accent the first member: 
&har-divi l day by day, saydm-pratar ecening and morning. 

/?. Co-ordinatives consisting of the names of two deities, each dual in 
form (Devata-dvandvas), accent both members ; e. g. indra-varuna 
Indra and Varwia ; surya-masa Sun and Moon. A few others, formed 
of words that are not the names of deities, are similarly accented ; 
e. g. turvasa-yadu Turvasa and Yadu ; matara-pit&ra mother andfather. z 

3. Accent in Declension. 

11. a. The vocative, when accented at all (18), invariably 
has the acute on the first syllable ; e. g. pitar (N. pita), 
de>a (N. deva-s). The regular vocative of dyii (dyav) is 
dyaus, i. e. diaus (which irregularly retains the s of the 
nom. : cp. Gk. Zed), but the accent of the N., dyaus, 
usually appears instead. 

b. In the a and a declensions the accent remains on the 
same syllable throughout (except the vocative) ; e. g. deva-s, 
deva-sya, deva-nam. This rule includes monosyllabic 
stems, pronouns, the numeral dva, and radical a stems ; 
e. g. from ma : maya, ma-hyam, may-i ; from ta : ta-sya, 
t6-sam, ta-bhis ; from dva : dva-bhyam, dvayos ; from 
ja m. f. offspring : ja-bhyam, ja-bhis, ja-bhyas, ja-su. 

a. The cardinal stems in a, panca, naVa, dasa (and its compounds) 
shift the accent to the vowel before the endings bhis, bhyas, su, and 
to the gen. ending nam ; asta shifts it to all the endings and saptd to 
the gen. ending; e. g. pafica-bhis, panca-nam ; saptd-bhis, sapta-nam; 
asta-bbis, asta-bhyds, asta-nam. 

1 This is perhaps rather an irregular iterative in which the first 
member is repeated by a synonym. 

a Occasionally these compounds become assimilated to the normal 
type by losing the accent and even the inflexion of the first member ; 
e. g. indragni Indra and Agni, indra-vayu Indra and Vayu. 


)8. The pronoun a this, though sometimes conforming to this rule 
(e. g. a-smai, d-sya, a-bhis), is usually treated like monosyllables not 
ending in a ; e. g. a-sya, e-sam, a-sam. 

c. When the final syllable of the stem is accented, the 
acute is liable to shift (except in the a declension) to the 
ending^ in the weak cases. 

1. In monosyllabic stems (except those ending in a) this 
is the rule; 1 e.g. dhi f. thought: dhly-a, dhi-bhis, dhi- 
nam ; bhu f. earth : bhuv-as, bhuv-6s ; nau f. ship : nav-a, 
nau-bhis, nau-su (Gk. vav-<ri) ; dant, in. tooth : dat-a, 
dad-bhis. 1 

There are about a dozen exceptions to this rule : go COM;, dy6 sky ; 
nf man, str star ; ksdm earth ; t&n succession, r&n joy, van ivood ; vi m. 
bird ; vfp rod ; svar light ; e. g. gaV-a, gaV-am, g6-bhis ; dyav-i, ; n&r-e, nf -bhis, nr-su (but nar-am and nr-nam) ; stf-bhis ; 
ksam-i ; t&n-a (also tan-a) ; rfi,n-e, r&m-su ; vam-su (but van-am) ; 
vi-bhis, vf-bhyas (but vl-nam) ; G. vip-as ; sur-as (but sur-6) ; also the 
dative infinitives badh-e to press and vah-e to convey. TJie irregular 
accentuation of a few other monosyllabic stems is due to their being 
reduced forms of dissyllables ; these are dru wood (daru), snii summit 
(sanu). svan dog (Gk. KVOJV}, yu.n (weak stem of yuvan young} e. g. 
dru-na ; snu-su ; ^lina, sv6,-bhis ; yun-a. 

2. When the final accented syllable loses its vowel either 
by syncope or change to a semivowel, the acute is thrown 
forward on a vowel ending ; e. g. from mahiman greatness : 
mahimna ; agni /ire : agny-6s ; dhenii cow : dhenv-a ; 
vadhu bride : vadhv-ai (AV.) ; pitf father: pitr-a. 

a. Polysyllabic stems in f, u, f and, in the KV.. usually those in f, 
throw the acute on the ending of the gen. pi. also, even though the 
final vowel of the stem here retains its syllabic character; e.g. 
^ dhenu-nam, datf-nam, bahvi-nam (cp. 11 6 a). 

3. Present participles in at and ant throw the acute 
forward on vowel endings in the weak cases ; e. g. tud-ant 
striking : tudat-a (but tudad-bhis). This rule is also 

1 At the end of a compound a monosyllabic stem loses this accentua- 
tion ; e. g. su-dhf wise, sudbi-nam. 


followed by the old participles mahant great and brhant 
lofty ; e. g. mahat-a (but mahad-bhis). 

4. In the KV. derivatives formed with accented -anc 
throw the acute forward on vowel endings in the weak cases 
when the final syllable contracts to ic or uc ; e.g. praty-anc 
turned towards: pratic-a(but pratyak-su) : anv-anc following : 
anuc-as ; but pro&o forward: prac-i. 1 

4. Verbal Accent. 

12. a. The augment invariably bears the acute, if the 
verb is accented at all (19) ; e. g. impf. a-bhavat ; aor. 
a-bhut ; plup. a-jagan ; cond. a-bharisyat. The accentua- 
tion of the forms in which the augment is dropped (used 
also as injunctives) is as follows. The imperfect accents the 
same syllable as the present ; e. g. bharat : bharati ; bhinat : 
bhinatti. The pluperfect accents the root ; e. g. cakan 
(3. s.) : namamas, tastambhat ; tatananta ; but in the 
3. pi. also occur cakrpanta, dadhrsanta. 

The aorist is variously treated. The s and the is forms 
accent the root ; e. g. vam-s-i (van ivin) ; sams-is-am. The 
root aorist (including the passive form) accents the radical 
vowel in the sing, active, but the endings elsewhere ; e. g. 
3. s. vark (\/vrj); pass. v6d-i ; 2. s. mid. nut-thas. The 
aorists formed with -a 2 or -sa accent those syllables; e.g. 
ruham, vidat ; budhanta ; dhuk-sa-nta. The reduplicated 
aorist accents either the reduplicated syllable ; e. g. ninasas, 
piparat, jijanan ; or the root, as piparat, sisnathat. 

b. Present System. The accent in the a conjugation 
(as in the a declension) remains on the same syllable 
throughout: on the radical syllable in verbs of the first and 
fourth classes, on the affix in the sixth (125) ; e. g. bhavati ; 
nahyati ; tudati. 

1 In the other Samhitas, however, the accent is generally retained 
on the stem ; thus the AV. forms the f. stem pratic-i (RV. pratic-f). 

2 Iii the a aorist several forms are found accenting the root ; e. g. 
aranta, sadatam, sdnat. 


The graded conjugation accents the stem in the strong 
forms (126), but the endings in the weak forms. In the 
strong forms the radical syllable is accented in the second l 
and the reduplicative syllable in the third class ; 2 and the 
stem affix in the fifth, eighth, seventh, and ninth classes ; 
e. g. as-ti, as-a-t, as-tu ; bibhar-ti ; kr-no-ti, kr-nav-a-t ; 
man-av-a-te ; yu-na-j-mi, yu-naj-a-t; grh-na-ti, grbh- 
na-s (2. s. sub.); but ad-dhi, ad-yur; bi-bhr-masi ; 3 
kr-nv-6, kr-nu-hi ; van-u-yama, van-v-antu ; 4 yunk-t6, 
yunk-sva; gr-ni-masi, gr-ni-hi. 

c. Perfect. The strong forms (the sing. 1. 2. 3. ind. and 
8. impv. act. and the whole subjunctive) accent the radical 
syllable, the weak forms (cp. 140) the endings ; e. g. cakara ; 
jabhar-a-t, vavart-a-ti; mum6k-tu ; but cakr-ur, cakr- 
mahe ; vavrt-yam ; mu-mug-dhi. The participle accents 
the suffix ; e. g. cakr-vams, cakr-ana. 

d. Aorist. The injunctive is identical in accentuation 
(as well as form) with the unaugmented indicative (see 
above, 12). 

a. The root aor. accents the radical syllable in the subjunctive ; 
e. g. kr-a-t, srav-a-tas, gam-a-nti, bhaj-a-te ; but the endings in 
the opt. and impv. (except the 3. s\ act.), 5 and the suffix in the 
participle ; 6 e.g. as-yam, as-I-m&hi ; kr-dhi, ga-tani, bhu-td (but 3. s. 
srd-tu), kr-svd ; bhid-dnt, 

1 Eleven verbs of this class accent the root throughout : as sit, 
id praise, ir set in motion, is rule, caks see, taks fashion, tra protect, nims 
kiss, vas ivear, si lie, su bring forth ; e. g. saye, &c. 

Occasionally the 2. s. impv. mid. accents the root in other verbs 
also ; e. g. ySk-sva (\/yaj). 

2 Four verbs, ci note, mad exhilarate, yu separate, hu sacrifice, accent 
the radical syllable ; e. g. juho-ti. A few other verbs do so in isolated 
forms ; e. g. bibh&r-ti (usually bibhar-ti). 

3 In the third class the reduplicative syllable is accented in the 
weak forms also if the ending begins with a vowel; e.g. bi-bhr-ati. 

* In the second, fifth, seventh, eighth, and ninth classes the final syl- 
lable of the 3. pi. mid. is irregularly accented in rihatS (beside rih&te) ; 
krnv-ate, vrnv-ate", sprnv-ate", tanv-ate", manv-ate" ; bhunj-ate" (beside 
bimnj-dte) ; "pun-at6, rin-ate". 

6 The radical syllable (in its strong form) is also in several instances 
accented in the 2. pi. act. ; e.g. kar-ta beside kr-td; gan-ta, g&n-tana 
beside ga-td, &c. 

6 In the mid. part, the root is, in several instances, accented ; e. g. 
dyiit-ana. ' 


/3. The s and is aor. accent the root in the subjunctive but the 
endings in the opt. and impv. ; e. g. yak-s-a-t (\/yaj), b6dh-is-a-t ; 
but bhak-s-Iyd (-v/bhaj), dhuk-s-I-mahi (Vduh), edh-is-i-yd (AV.) ; 
avid-dhi, avis- tarn. 1 The s aor. accents the root in the act. part., 
but nearly always the suffix in the irregularly formed middle ; 2 e. g. 
d&k-s-ant (\/dah), arca-s-an&. 

7. The a aorist accents the thematic vowel throughout the moods 
(as in the unaugmented indicative) and the part. ; e. g. vidat ; 
vid6yam ; ruhd-tam ; trp&nt, guh&-mana. 3 

8. The sa aor. accents the suffix in the impv. : dhak-sd-sva (>\/dah.). 
The same accentuation would no doubt appear in the subjunctive and 
optative, but no examples of those moods (nor of the part.) occur. 

e. In the reduplicated aor. the treatment of the subj. and opt. is 
uncertain because no normally formed accented example occurs ; but 
in the impv. the ending is accented ; e. g. jigr-t&m, didhr-tfi,. 4 

e. Future. The accent in all forms of this tense remains 
on the suffix sya or i-sya ; e. g. e-syami ; kar-i-syati ; 

/. Secondary conjugations. As all these (except the 
primary intensive) belong to the a conjugation, they accent 
the same syllable throughout. The causative (168) accents 
the penultimate syllable of the stem, as krodh-aya-ti enrages ; 
the passive, the secondary intensive (172), and the denomina- 
tive (175), accent the suffix ya ; e. g. pan-ya-te is admired ; 
rerih-ya-te licks repeatedly ; gopa-ya-nti they protect:' The 
desiderative (169) accents the reduplicative syllable ; e. g. 
pi-pri-sa-ti desires to please. The primary intensive agrees 
with the third conjugational class in accenting the reduplica- 
tive syllable in the strong forms, but the endings with 
initial consonant in the weak forms of the indie, act. ; e. g. 
j6-havi-ti, jar-bhr-tas, but 3. pi. varvrt-ati ; in the mid. 
ind. the reduplicative syllable is more frequently accented 

1 No accented impv. forms occur in the s. aor. In the sis aor. the 
only accented modal form occurring is the impv. : ya-sis-tam. 

2 Neither the is nor the sis aor. forms participles. 

8 But the root 'is accented, in several imperatives and participles, 
e. g. sana, sadatam, khyata ; sadant, d&samana. 

4 No participial form occurs in this aor. 

8 A certain number of unmistakable denominatives, however, have 
the causative accent ; e. g. mantra- yati takes counsel (mantra). 


than not ; e. g. t^-tik-te, less often ne-nik-te\ In the subj. 
and part, the reduplicative syllable is regularly accented ; 
e. g. jan-ghan-a-t, jan-ghan-a-nta ; ce"kit-at, c6kit-ana. 
The accentuation of the imperative l was probably the same 
as that of the present reduplicating class (12 &) ; but the 
only accented forms occurring are in the 2. s. act., as 
jagr-hi, carkr-tat. 

5. Accent of Nominal Verb Forms. 

13. a. Tense Participles when compounded with one or 
more prepositions retain their original accent (while the 
prepositions lose theirs) ; e. g. apa-gachant going away, 
vi-pra-yantah advancing, pary-a-vivrtsan ivisliing to turn 
round] apa-gacha-mana ; apa-jaganvams, apa-jagm-ana. 

a. A single preposition, or the first of two, not infrequently 
becomes separated by the interposition of one or more words or by 
being placed after the participle. It is then treated as independent 
and recovers its accent ; e. g. apa drlhani d&rdrat bursting strongholds 
asunder ; a ca para ca pathibhis c&rantam wandering hither and thither 
on his paths ; mddhu bibhrata upa bringing sweetness near ; pra vayam 
uj-jlhanah flying up to a branch ; avasrjrm upa bestowing. Occasionally 
an immediately preceding preposition is not compounded with the 
participle and is then also accented ; e. g. abhf daksat burning around 
vi vidvan 2 discriminating ; abhf a-cdrantah approaching. 

&. On the other hand, the past passive participle, 3 when 
compounded with one or more prepositions, generally loses 
its accent ; e. g. ni-hita deposited.* When there are two 
prepositions the first remains unaccented ; e. g. sam-a-krtam 
accumulated ; or the first may be separated and independently 
accented ; e. g. pra yat samudra ahitah when dispatched 
forth to the ocean. 

1 No accented form of the optative occurs. 

2 Probably in distinction from vividvan simple reduplicated 
participle of vid find. 

8 Which itself is always accented on the final syllable ; e. g. ga-td, 
pati-ta", chin-nS. 

* In several instances, however, it retains its accent ; e. g. nis-krtfi 
prepared. This is the case with prepositions that are not used 


c. Gerundives in ya (or tya) and tva accent the root ; 
e. g. caks-ya to be seen, srii-t-ya to be heard, carkr-tya to le 
praised, vak-tva to be said ; those in ayya, enya, amya 
accent the penultimate of the suffix ; e. g. pan-ayya to be 
admired, iks-enya worthy to be seen, up a-jiv- aniya (AV.) to 
be subsisted on ; while those in tavya accent the final 
syllable : jan-i-tavya (AV.) to be born. When compounded 
with prepositions (here always inseparable) gerundives nearly 
always retain the accent of the simple form ; e. g. pari- 
caks-ya to be despised ; abhy-a-yams6nya to be drawn near ; 
a-mantraniya (AV.) to be addressed. 

14. Infinitives are as a rule accented like ordinary cases 
that would be formed from the same stem. 

a. Dative infinitives from stems in i, ti, as, van accent 
the suffix ; those in dhyai, the preceding thematic a ; and 
those formed from the root, the ending ; e. g. drsay-e to see, 
pitay-e to drink, caras-e 1 to move, da-van-e 2 to give, 
tur-van-e ?> to overcome ; iy-a-dhyai 4 to go ; drs-6 to see. 

a. When radical infinitives are compounded with prepositions the 
root is accented ; e.g. sara-fdh-e to kindle, abhi-pra-cks-e 6 to see. 

b. The dative infinitive from stems in man, the accusative 
and the abl. gen. from roots, and all from stems in tu 
accent the root ; e. g. da-man-e to give ; 6 subh-am to shine, 
a-sad-am to sit down ; ava-pad-as to fall down ; da-turn 
to give, gan-tos to go, bhar-tav-e to bear, gan-tav-ai 7 to go. 

a. When compounded, infinitives from tu stems accent the preposi- 
tion ; 8 e. g. sa"m-kar-tum to collect ; nf-dha-tos to put down ; dpi-dha- 

1 In these the root is sometimes accented, as c&ks-as-e to see. 

2 This infinitive also appears with independently accented preposi- 
tions ; pro, dav&ne and abhi prd dav&ne. 

3 The root is once accented in dhur-vane to injure. 

4 In these the root is sometimes accented ; e. g. g&ma-dhyai. 

6 The regular accentuation of monosyllabic stems when compounded : 
cp. lie, 1. 

6 But vid-m&n-e to know. 

7 With a secondary accent on the final syllable : cp. above, 7. 

8 But when the preposition is detached the infinitive retains its 
accent ; e. g. pra" daSuse datave to present to the worshipper. 


tav-e to cover up apa-bhar-tav&L * to be taken away. When there are two 
prepositions the first may be separate and independently accented ; 
e. g. anu pr6-volhum to advance along, vi pr&-sartave to spread. 

15. Gerunds formed with tvl, tva, tvaya accent the 
suffix, but when they are compounded with prepositions 
(here always inseparable) and formed with ya or tya, they 
accent the root ; e. g. bhu-tva having become, ga-tvi and 
ga- tvaya having gone ; sam-grbh-ya having gathered, upa- 
srii-tya (AV.) having overcome. 

16. Case forms used as adverbs frequently shift their 
accent to indicate clearly a change of meaning. 2 The 
accusative neuter form is here the commonest ; e. g. dravat 
quickly, but dravat running ; aparam later, but aparam as 
n. adj. ; uttaram higher, but uttaram as n. adj. ; adverbs in 
vat e. g. pratna-vat as of old, but the ace. n. of adjectives 
in vant do not accent the suffix. Examples of other cases 
are : div-a ~by day, but div-a through heaven ; aparaya for 
the future, but aparaya to the later ; sanat from of old, 
but sanat from the old. 

6. Sandhi Accent. 

17. 1. When two vowels combine so as to form a long 
vowel or diphthong, the latter receives the Udatta, if either 
or both the original vowels had it ; e. g. agat = a agat ; 
nudasvatha = nudasva atha ; kve*t = kva it ; s nantarah 
= na antarah. 

a. But the contraction of i i is accented as i, 4 the enclitic Svarita 
(f 1) having here ousted the preceding Udatta ; e. g. diviva 6 = divi Iva. 6 

1 Ketaining the secondary accent on the final syllable. 

2 Such a shift is found in nouns to indicate either a simple change 
of meaning, e. g. jye"stha greatest, but jyesthfi, eldest ; or a change of 
category also, e.g. gomati rich in cows, but gomati name of a river; 
rajaputrd son of a king, but rajaputra having sons as kings. 

3 Eut when a Svarita on a final vowel is followed by an unaccented 
initial vowel, it of course remains, e. g. kvey atha = kva iyatha. 

4 In the KV. and AV., but not in the Taittirlya texts, which follow 
the general rule. 

5 RV. and AV., but diviva in the Taittirlya texts. 

8 This is the praslista or contracted Svarita of the Prati^akhyas. 


2. When i and u with Udatta are changed to y and v, 
a following unaccented vowel receives the Svarita ; 1 e.g. 
vy &nat = vi anat. Here the Svarita assumes the appear- 
ance of an independent accent ; but the uncontracted form 
with the Udatta must almost invariably be pronounced in 
the KV. 

3. When accented a is elided it throws back its Udatta 
on unaccented e or o ; e. g. sunav6 vjgne = sunave agne ; 
v6 {vasah = vo avasah. But when unaccented a is elided, 
it changes a preceding Udatta to Svarita ; 2 e. g. s6 jdhamah. 
= s6 adhamah. 3 

7. Sentence Accent. 

18. The vocative, whether it be a single word or a 
compound expression, can be accented on its first syllable 

a. It retains its accent only at the beginning of a sentence 
or Pada,* that is, when having the full force of the case it 
occupies the most emphatic position ; e. g. agne, supayan6 
bhava Agni, be easy of access ; urjo napat sahasavan 5 
mighty son of strength. This rule also applies to doubly 
accented dual compounds ; e. g. mitra-varuna 6 Mitra 
and Varuna. Two or more vocatives at the beginning of 
a sentence are all accented ; e. g. adite, mitra, varuna 
Aditi, Mitra, Varuna. Two accented vocatives are 
sometimes applicable to the same person ; e. g. urjo nap ad, 

1 This is the ksaipra or quickly pronounced Svarita of the PratiSakhyas. 

2 This is the abhinihita Svarita of the Prati^akhyas. 

3 Here the Svarita (6 a) has ousted the preceding Udatta. 

4 This applies to the second as well as the first Pada of a hemistich, 
indicating that both originally had a mutually independent character, 
which is obscured by the strict application of Sandhi and the absence 
of any break in marking the accent, at the internal junction of the 
Padas of a hemistich. 

8 The corresponding nom. would be urjo napat s&hasava, 
6 The nom. is mitra- v&runa. 


bhadrasocise son of strength, propitiously bright one (both 
addressed to Agni). 1 

b. When it does not begin the sentence or Pada, the 
vocative, being unemphatic, loses its accent ; e. g. upa tva w 
agne div6-dive | dosavastar 2 dhiya vayam | namo 
bharanta 6masi to thee, Agni, day l)y day, illumincr of 
darkness, bringing homage with prayer we come ; a raj ana 
maha rtasya gopa ^hither (come), ye tivo sovereign guardians 
of great order rt6na mitra-varunav | rtavrdhav rtasprsa 
through Latv, law-loving, law-cherishing Mitra and Varuna ; ^ 
yad indra brahmanaspate 5 abhidroham caramasi | 
/, Indra, Brahmanaspati, we commit an offence. 

19. The verb is differently accented according to the 
nature of the sentence. 

A. The finite verb in a principal sentence is unaccented ; 
e. g. agnim lie pur6hitam I praise Agni the domestic priest. 

This general rule is subject to the following restrictions : 

a. A sentence being regarded as capable of having only 
one verb, all other verbs syntactically connected with the 
subject of the first are accented as beginning new sentences ; G 
e, g. t6sam pahi, srudhi havam drink of them, hear our 
call', taranir ij jayati, kse"ti, pusyati the energetic man 
conquers, rules, thrives; jahi prajam nayasva ca slay the 
progeny and bring (it) hither. 

b. The verb is accented if it begins the sentence or if. 

1 Here the second voc. is accented as in apposition, whereas if it 
were used attributively it would be unaccented as in hdtar yavistha 
sukrato youngest wise priest. 

2 Accented because the first word of the Pada. 

8 This might represent two vocatives addressed to the same persons; 
their accented foim would then be : rajana, maha rtasya gopa. 

4 Here the rule that the whole of the compound voc. must be 
unaccented overrides the rule that the first word of the Pada must 
be accented, i.e. here ftavrdhav. 

K An example of two independent unaccented vocatives. 

6 A subject or object coming between two such verbs is generally 
counted to the first. 


though not beginning the sentence, it coincides with the 
beginning of a Pada ; e. g. saye vavris, carati jihvayadan | 
rerihyate yuvatim vispatih san the covering lies (there) ; 
he (Agni) moves eating with his tongue ; he kisses the maiden, 
being the lord of the house ; atha te antamanam | vidyama 
sumatmam then may we experience thy highest favours. 

c. Vocatives being treated as extraneous to a sentence, 
a verb immediately following an initial one, becomes the 
first word of the sentence and is accordingly accented ; e. g. 
agne, jusasva no havih Agni, enjoy our sacrifice. Thus 
the sentence indra, jiva ; surya, jiva ; de>a, jivata Indra, 
live ; Surya, live ; gods, live contains three accented 
verbs as beginning three sentences, while the three preceding 
vocatives are accented as bsing at the head of those sen- 
tences, though syntactically outside them. 

.d. Sometimes the verb when emphatic, though not 
beginning the sentence, is accented if followed by the 
particles id or cana ; e. g. adha sma no maghavafi carkr- 
tad it then be mindful of us, bountiful one ; na deva 
bhasathas cana (him) gods, ye two never consume. 

B. The verb of a subordinate clause (introduced by the 
relative ya and its derivatives, or containing the particles 
ca and c6d if- n6d lest, hi for, kuvid whether) is always 
accented ; e. g. yam yajnam paribhur asi what offering thou 
protectest ; grhan gacha grhapatni yatha^asah go to the 
house that thou mayest be the lady of the house ; indras ca 
mrlayati no, na nah. pascad agham nasat if Indra be 
gracious to us, no evil will hereafter reach us ; tvam hi balada 
asi for thou art a giver of strength. The relative may govern 
two verbs ; e.g. y6na surya jyotisa badhase tamo, jagac 
ca visvam udiyarsi bhanuna the light with which thou, 
Sun, drivest away the darkness and arousest all the world 
with thy beam. 

The rule is stibject to the extension that principal clauses in 
form may be accented as subordinate in sense under the following 
conditions : 



a. The first of two clauses, if equivalent to one introduced by 'if 
or ' when ' is occasionally accented ; e. g. sam asvaparnas c&ranti no 
n&ro, asmakam indra rathfno jayantu when our men winged with steeds 
come together, may our car-fighters, Indra, win victory. 

6. The first of two antithetical clauses is frequently accented, 1 
especially when the antithesis is clearly indicated by corresponding 
words like anya-anya, e'ka-e'ka, ca-ca, va-va ; e. g. prfi,-pra w anye" 
yanti, p&ry any& asate while some go on, others sit down ; sam ca w idh&sva 
agne, pr ca bodhaya^enam both be kindled, Agni, and waken this man's 
knowledge. When the verb of two such clauses is the same, it usually 
appears (accented) in the first only ; e. g. dvipac ca sarvam no raksa, 
catuspad yc ca nah svm protect both every biped of ours and whatever 
quadruped is our own. 

7. The verb of the second clause is accented if it is a 1. pers. 
subjunctive or 2. pers. imperative 2 with a final meaning, and the 
verb of the first clause is a 2. pers. impv. of a-f i, gam, or ya go ; e. g. 
6ta, dhfyam krnavama come, we ivill offer prayer ; tuyam a gahi, kanvesu 
sti. saca piba come quickly, beside the Kanvas drink thy fill. In B. the verb of 
the first clause is an impv. of either a-i or pra-i ; e. g. e'hi^ida'm 
patava (&B.) come, we will nowfiy thither ; pr^ta tad esyamo yfi,tra^imam 
dsura vibhajante come, we ivill go thither where the Asuras are dividing this 
earth (&B.). The second verb is, however, in similar passages not 
infrequently left unaccented in B. 

Verbal Prepositions. 

20. A. In principal clauses the preposition, which is 
detached and usually precedes but sometimes follows the 
verb, is accented ; e. g. a gamat may lie come gavam apa 
vrajam vrdhi unclose the stable of the Une-, jayema sam 
yudhi sprdhah we would conquer our adversaries in fight ; 
gamad vajebhir a sa nah. may he come to us with booty. 

a. When there are two prepositions, both are independent 
and accented ; e. g. upa pra yahi come forth ; pari spaso ni 
sedire the spies have sat down around ; agne vi pasya 
brhata abhi ray a Agni, look forth towards (us) with ample 

1 This accentuation is more strictly applied in B. than in V., and 
among the Samhitas least strictly in the RV. 

2 In B. the accented verb is either a subjunctive or a future. 


a. When a is immediately preceded by another preposition (not 
ending in i) it alone is accented, both prepositions being compounded 
with the verb ; e. g. sam-a-krnosi jiv&se thou fittest (them) to live ; but 
praty a tanusva draw (thy bow) against (them). 

B. In subordinate clauses the exact reverse takes place, 
the preposition being generally compounded and unaccented ; 
e. g. yad . . nisidathah. iv hen ye two sit doivn. It is, however, 
often separated by other words from the verb, when it 
commonly commences the Pada, or much less frequently 
follows the verb ; e. g. vi yo mame" rajasi ivlio measured out 
the two expanses ; yds tastambha sahasa vi jm6 antan who 
with might propped earth's ends asunder. Occasionally the 
preposition is detached and accented even immediately before 
the verb ; e. g. ya ahutim pari v6da namobhih who fully 
knows the offering with devotion. 

a. When there are two prepositions, either both are com- 
pounded and unaccented or the first only is detached and 
accented ; e. g. yuyam hi devih. pari-pra-yatha for ye, 
goddesses, proceed around ; yatra^abhi sam-navamahe 
where we to (him) together shout ; sam yam a-yanti dhenavah 
to whom the cows come together. 

a. Very rarely both prepositions are detached and accented ; e. g. 
pr& yat stota . . upa girbhir ftte when the praiser lauds him with songs. 


This index contains all Sanskrit words and affixes occurring in the 
grammar, except the verbs in Appendix I, which can be found at 
once owing to their alphabetical order. Indifferent words occurring 
in examples of Sandhi, of nominal derivation (Chapter VI), or of 
Syntax, as well as in Appendixes II arid III, are excluded. 

The figures refer to paragraphs unless pages are specified. 


A. = adjective, act., active, adv., adverb, adverbial, ao., aorist. 
Bv., Bahuvrlhi. cd., compound, cj., conjunction, cond., conditional, 
conj., conjugation, -al. corr., correlative, cpv., comparative, cs., 
causative, dec., declension, dem., demonstrative, den., denomina- 
tive, der., derivative, derivation, ds., desiderative. eucl., enclitic. 
Dv., Dvandva. f.n. foot-note, ft., future, gd., gerund, ij., inter- 
jection, indec., indeclinable. inf., infinitive. inj., injunctive. 
int., intensive, inter., interrogative, ipv., imperative, irr., irregu- 
larities, itv., iterative, mid., middle. N., nominative, n., neuter, 
neg., negative, nm., numeral, nom., nominal, ord., ordinal, par., 
paradigm, pel., particle, per., periphrastic, pf., perfect, ppf., plu- 
perfect, poss., possessive, pp., past passive participle, pr., present, 
pri., primary, prn., pronoun, pronominal, prp., preposition, pre- 
positional, prs., person, personal, ps., passive, pt., participle, red., 
reduplication, reduplicated, ref., reflexive, rel., relative, rt., root, 
sb.j subjunctive, sec., secondary. sf., suffix. spv., superlative, 
synt., syntactical. Tp., Tatpurusa. v., vocative, vb., verb, verbal, 
w., with. 

A, vowel, pronunciation of, 15, 1 a ; a, pronominal root, 111 ; 195 B 6 ; 
initial, dropped, 5 c ; 156 a ; accentuation of, p. 452, 8 B c ; 

elided, 45, 2 b ; lengthened, j p. 458)3. 

162, Ic; 1686; 171,1; 175 A 1; 
thematic, 140, 6 ; 141 ; 143, 5. 6 ; 
147, 149 ; change to i, 175 A 1 ; 

a-, augment, 128. 
a- or an-, privative pel., in Bv. 
cds., p. 455, 10 c a ; in Karma- 

dropped, 175 A 2 ; to be restored dharayas, p. 455, f.n. 2 ; p. 456, 

after e and o, p. 487, a 7. , 10 d 1 a. 



-a, sf. of 1st conj., 125 ; pri. nom. 

sf., 182, 1 6; sec. nom. sf., 

182, 2 ; radical nom. stems in, 

97, 8 ; der. nom. stems in, 97. 
ams, attain, pf., 139, 6 ; 140, 3. 5 ; 

'rt. ao. inj., 148, 3, op., 148, 4, 

prc., 148, 4 o. 
aktubhis, inst. adv. by night, 

178, 3. 
aktos, gen. adv. by night, 178, 6 ; 

202 D 3 a. 
aks, eye, 80. 
ksi, n. eye, 99, 4. 
akhkhall-kr, croak, 184 d. 
agratas, adv. before, w. gen. , 202 D. 
agram, adv. 6e/ore, 1 78, 2. 
agru, f. maid, 100, II a. 
6gre, loc. adv. in front, 178, 7. 
agrena, adv. tn front, 178, 3 ; w. 

ace., 197 c /3. 
anga, pel. /us?, 180. 
angiras, m. a proper name, 83, 2 a. 
&cha, prp. towards, w. ace., 176, 1 ; 

197 B c. 

aj, m. driver, 79, 3 a. 
-aj, stems in, 79, 3 &. 
ajav&yah, m. pi. groans and sheep, 

186 A 2; accentuation of, 

p. 457, e. 

ajosas, a. insatiable, 83, 2 a a. 
-anc, -ward, adjectives in, 93; ac- 
centuation, p. 459, c 4. 
afij, onofnf, 'pr., 134 D 1 ; pf., 

139,6; 140, 1. 3. 5. 
anlyams, cpv. of arm, small, 103, 


atatha, a. no* saj/ingr t/es ', 97, 2 a. 
atas, adv. tence, 179, 2. 
4ti, prp. beyond., w. ace., 176, 1 ; 

197 B c. 

atijagati, f. a metre, p. 441, f.n. 6. 
atisakvari, f. a metre, p. 444, 10 a. 
atyasti, f. a metre, p. 445, 10 6. 
4tra,' 'adv. here, 179, 3 ; = then, 

atha, adv. then, 179, 1 ; synt. use 

of, 180. 
Atharvaveda, how accented, 

p. 449. 
4tno, adv. moreover, synt. use of, 

ad, stems in, 77, 3 b. 

&dant, pr. pt. eating, 85 (par.), 
adas, dem. prn. that, 112 ; adv. 

there, 178, 2 a. 
addha, adv. truly, 179, 1. 
adrak, has seen, s ao. of drs, p. 161 , 

f. n. 1. 
adribhid, Tp. cd. mountain- cleaving, 

77, 3 a. 
adha, adv. then, 179, 1 ; synt. use 

of, 180. 
adhas, adv. below, 179, 1 ; prp., w. 

ace., abl., gen., 177, 1. 3. 
adh&stat, adv. below, 179, 2. 
adhi, prp. upon, w. loc., abl.. 

176, 2. 
ddhvau, m. road, 90. 

I an, breathe, pr., 134 A 3 a (p. 143 . 
an, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; stems 

in, 90, 1 ; irr. stems in, 91 ; 

influence of stems in, p. 78, 

f. n. 15. 

-ana, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b. 
an&ks, a. eyeless, 80. 
anadvah, m. ox, 81 ; 96 ; 96, 2. 
anarvan, a. irresistible, 90, 3. 
ana, adv. thus, 178, 3 c. 
-ana, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
anagas, a. sinless, 83, 2 a a. 
-ani, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6. 
-amya, gdv. sf., 162; 162, 6; 

209, 6. 
anu, prp. after, w. ace., 176. 1 ; 

197 B c. 
anudatta, m. low pitch accent, p. 448, 

1 ; how marked, p. 449, 2 ; p. 450, 


anunasika, m. nasal, 10 f- 15, 2/. 
anustubh, f. a metre, p. 438, f.n. 

2 ; " p. 439, 3 b ; later form of, 

p. 439, 3 b a. 
anusvara, m. pure nasal, 3/; 10 /; 

15, 2/; 29 &; 39; 40 a ; 40,2; 

42; p. 33, f. n. 1, 2, 6; 496; 

66 A ; 67 ; for n, p. 163, f. n. 2 ; 

144, 1. 
-ant, stems in, 85 ; sf. of pr. pt. 

act., 156. 
antar, prp. between, w. ace., abl., 

loc., 176, 2. 
antara, adv. prp. between, w. ace., 

177, 1 ; 197 B c. 



antarena, adv. prp. between, w. 
ace., 197 B c p. 

antastha, f. intermediate semi- 
vowel, 11. 

antika, a. near, cpv. and spv. of, 
103, 2 b. 

antikam, adv. near, w. gen., 
202 D. 

anyd, prn. a. otter (par.), 120 a. 

anyatra, adv. elsewhere, 171), 3. 

anyatha, adv. otherwise, 179, 1. 

anyedyus, adv. next day, 179, 1. 

anyo 'nyd, a. o/<e another, concord 
of, ,p. 290, 2 |8. 

anvdnc, a. following, 93 a. 

ap, f. -icafer, 78, 1 ; 78, 1 a ; 96, 1. 

apara, a. lower, 120 c 1. 

aparaya, dat. adv. for the future, 
178, 4. 

aparisu, loc. pi. adv. in future, 
178,' 7. 

apas, n. zoorfc, 83, 2 a Qpar.). 

apds, a. active, 83, 2 a (par.). 

apanc, a. backward, 93 &. 

dpi, prp. wpott, w. loc., 176, 1 b ; 
adv. also, even, 180. 

apsards, f. nymph, 83, 2 o. 

abhi, prp. towards, w. ace., 176, 1. 

abhitas, adv. around, 179, 2 ; prp. 
w. ace., 177, 1 ; 197 B c. 

abhinihita svarita, a Sandhi ac- 
cent, p. 465, f. n. 2. 

abhisndth, a. piercing, 77, 2. 

dbhiru, a. fearless, 98 a. 

am, injure, pr., 134, 3 c ; irr. red. 
ao., 149 a 1. 

-am, gd. in, 166 ; 210 a ; inf. in. 
211, 2 a. 

dma, dem. prn. this, 112 a 7. 

ama, adv. at home, p. 110, f. n. 1 ; 

178, 3 c. 

amad, adv. from near, p. 110, 

f^n. 1. 

ami, dera. prn. those, N. pi. m., 112. 
amiitas, adv. thence, p. 109, f. n. 1 ; 

179, 2. 

amutra, adv. there, p. 109, f. n. 1. 
amutha, adv. thus, p. 109, f. n. 1. 
amuya, inst. adv. in that icay, I 

178, 3 c. 

amba, v. mother, p. 78, f. n. 6. 
-ay a, cs. sf., how added, 168, 1. 

ayam, dem. pru. this here, 111 

(par.) ; 195 B 1. 
aya, adv. thus, 178, 3 c. 
dyat, IMS sacrificed, s ao. of yaj, 

p. 161, f. n. 1. 
dyas, hast sacrificed, 2. s. s ao. of 

yaj, 144, 2. 

ayuta, iim. ten thousand, 104. 
-ar, stems in, 101, 1. 
ar, high grade of r, 5 a ; low grade 

of, 4 a. 

aram, adv. suitably, 178, 2 a ; com- 
pounded w. verbs, 184 b ; synt. 

use, 180 ; w. dat., 200 A 4 a. 
ari, a. devout, p. 81, f. n. 1 ; 99, 3. 
drus, 11. wound, 83, 2 c. 
arc, praise, pf. 139, 6 ; pr. pt. 85. 
arthaya, adv. dat. for the sake of, 

200 B 5. 

ardh, thrive, pf. 139, 6. 
arp&ya, cs. of r, go, red. ao., 

149 a 3. 
arpita" and drpita, pp. cs. of r, go, 

160, 3. 

drbuda, nm. ten millions, 104. 
aryaman, m., a god, 90. 
arvauc, a. hitherward, 93 b. 
arh, deserve, pf., 139, 6. 
alam = dram, adv., synt. use of, 

alalabhavant, pr. pt. sounding 

merrihj, 184 d. 

al, high grade of vowel 1, 5 a. 
alpa, a. stnall, cpv. and spv. of, 

103, 2 b. 

avd, dem. prn. this, 112 a j8. 
dva, prp. doivn, w. abl., 176, 3. 
avagraha, m. mark of separation, 

p. 454, 10 a. 

avatta, cut off: pp. of da, 160, 2 6. 
avdni, f. stream, p. 82, f. n. 3. 
avamd, spv. lowest, 120 c 1. 
avayaj, f. share of oblation, 79, 3 a o. 
dvara, cpv. lower, 120 c 1. 
aVarena, adv. prp. below, w. abl., 

p. 209, f. n. 3. 

avds, adv. downwards ; prp. down 
from, beloio, w. abl., 177, 3 ; w. 

inst., 177, 2. 
av&stad, adv. below, w. gen., 

202 D. 



avaiic, a. downward, 93 b. 

avat, has shone, 3. s. s ao. of vas, 

144, 2. 
avi, m. sheep, p. 81, f. n. 1. 

1. as, reacft, see ams. 

2. as, gaf, pr. stem, 134 E 4. 
asitavant, pf. pt. having eaten, 161. 
as"Iti, nm. ctflrJWy, 104. 

&sman, m. stone, 90, 1. 2 (par.), 
dsrait, 3. s. s ao. of sri, resort, 

144, 2. 
asvin, a. possessing horses, p. 64, 

f. n. 4. 
astakfcvas, nm. adv. e/gr/^ times, 

astadha, nm. adv. -in eight ways, 


astaina, ord. eighth, 107. 
asta, nm. eiflr/tf, 104 ; 106 6 (par.). ' 
astacatvarimsd, ord. forty-eighth, 


astadasa, nm., 104 ; 106 c (par.), 
as, be, pr., 134 A 2 & ; pr. pt. act., 

156 a. 
-as, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6 ; stems 

in, 83, 2 a ; p. 453, 9 A a ; adv. 

sf. w. loc. sense, 179, 3 ; abl. 

gen. inf. in, 163, 3 a ; 211, 3 a ; 

changed to o, 145, 2 b. 
asak&u, dem. prn. that little, 117 a. 
asascat, Bv. cd. unequalled, 85 b. 
asikni, a. f. black, p. 86, f. n. S. 
asikni, f. name of a river, p. 86, 

f. n. 3. 

asrj, n. blood, 79, 3 b. 
asu, dem. prn.- that (there), 112 

(par.) ; synt. use, 195 B 2. 
astam, ace. adv. home, 178, 2 ; \v. 

verbs, 184 c. 

astamikS, loc. adv. at home, 178, 7. 
&stodhvam, 2. pi. s ao. of stu, 

praise, 144, 2 a. 
asthi, n. bone, 99, 4. 
asma, prs. prn. stem, 109 b. 
asmatra, adv. among us, 179, 3. 
asmatsakhi, Bv. cd. having us as 

companions, 109 b. 
asmad, prs. prn. stem in cds., 

109 6. 
asmadruh, Tp. cd. hating us, 109 6. 

asmaka, poss. prn. our, 116 a. 

asmakam, gen. pi. prs. prn. of us, 
116 a. 

asvapnaj, sleepless, 79, 3 b. 

ah, say, defective verb, pf., 139, 4. 

aha, emphasizing pel. just, 180. 

dhamsana, a. rapacious, synt. cd., 
189 B. c. 

ahan, n. day, 90 ; 91, 2 ; as final 
member of Bv. cds., 189, 3 c. 

aham, personal prn., I, 109. 

ahamuttard, n. dispute for prece- 
dence, synt. cd., 189 B c. 

ahampurvd, a. eager to be first, synt. 
cd'., 189 B c. 

ahar, n. day, 91, 2 ; 101, 1. 

aharahar, every day, itv. cd. , 189 C a . 

ahardivi, day after day, mixed itv. 
cd., 189 C a, f. n. 1 ; accentua- 
tion, p. 457, e a. 

aharpati, m. lord of day, 49 d. 

ahl, m. serpent, 100, I a. 

ahait, 3. s. s ao. of hi, 144, 2. 

ahoratra, n. day and night, 186 A 2 ; 
accentuation, p. 457, e. 

ahna = ahan, day, in cds., p. 275, 
f. n. 3. 

A, vowel, dropped, p. 206, f. n. S ; 
low grade of, 5 c ; reduced to I 
or i, 148, I/; 160, 2; 169,2; 
to i, p. 190, 2 ; shortened, 19 a, 
f. n. 5 ; 147 a 1 ; p. 273, f. n. 4 ; 
nasalized, 19 b, f. n. 1. 

a, prp. on, w. loc., ace., abl., 176, 2 ; 
reverses meaning of gam, go, 
and da, give, p. 265, f. n. 6. 

a, emphasizing pel., 180. 

-a, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6; stems 
in, 97, 2 ; sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; 
stems in, 97 ; for a in sb., 
134 A 4 c j8 ; du. ending, p. 78,' 
f. n. 13 ; p. 81, f. n. 1, 2 ; pi. n. 
ending, p. 78, f. n. 14. 

ake", loc. adv. near, 178, 7. 

atmdn, m. self, 115 b a. 

ad, adv. tJien, 178, 5; synt. use, 

adhi, f. care, 100 C a, f. n. 4. 

an-, pf. red., 139, 6 ; shortened, 
140, 1. 



-ana, sf. of mid. pt., pr. 158 a, pf. 

-ana, sf. of 2. s. ipv. act., 125, 

f. n. 9 ; 134 E 4. 
anajand, pf. pt. mid., of anj, 

anoint, 159. 
anaSana, pf. pt. mid., of ams, 

reach, 159. 

arn, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 
apfk, adv. in a m'ued way, 79, 1. 
abhu, a. present, 100, II b. 
-ayana, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 
ayu, n. life, 98 a (p. 83;. 
-ayya,gdv. sf., 162; 162, 2 ; 209, 3. 
arat, abl. adv. from afar, 178, 5. 
arattat, adv. from afar, 179, 2. 
are", loc. adv. afar, 178, 7 ; prp. w. 

abl. or gen., 177, 3 ; 202 D a. 
arya, f. a metre, p. 430, f. n. 2. 
av&m, prs. prn. N. du., we ttco, 


avayaj, m. privst who offers the 
. oblation, 79, 3 a a. 
avis, adv. openly, \\. verbs, 184 b ; 

w. dat., 200 A 4 b. 
asistha, spv. swiftest, 103, 2 0. 
as*f s,' f. prayer, 83, 2 b a. 
is a, a. swift, spv. of., 103, 2 ft. 
asuya, inst. adv. swiftly, 178, 3 b. 
as, ti. /ace, 83, 1. 
asat, abl. adv. /row near, 178, 5. 
a sand, pr. pt. mid., of as, sit, 

158 a. 
asina, irr. pr. pt. mid., of as, sit, 

158 a. 
asmakd, puss. prn. our, p. 113, 

f. n. 2. 

I, vowel, low grade of e and ya, 

4 a ; 5 a, b. 
i, go, 134, lea; pr. system of 

(par.), 132 (pp. 130-1) ; red. pf. 

pt., 157 a. 
-i, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; sec. 

nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems in, 98. 
-i-, connecting vowel, 89 a ; 145. 
-ij, steins in, 79, 3 b. 
id, f. refreshment, 80. 
-it, stems in, 77, 1. 
-ita, pp. sf., 160, 3 ; always taken 

by see. verbs, ibid. 

itara, prn. a. other, 117 b ; 120, a, 

itas, adv. /row here, 179, 2. 

iti, pel. thus, synt. use of, 180 ; 

196 a ft ; use in Pada text, p. 25, 

f. n. 2 ; p. 26, f. n. 1, 5. 
itthdm, adv. thus, 179, 1 a. 
ittha, adv. so, 179, 1 ; synt. use. 

id, emphasizing pel., 180; accents 

verb, p. 467, 19 Ad. 
idam, dem. prn. this. Ill ; as adv., 

178, 2 a. 
ida, adv. noiv, 179, 3 ; w. gen., 

idaiilm, adv. now, 179, 3 ft ; w. 

gen., 202 D 2. 
idh, kindle, rt. ao. op., 148, 4 ; pt. 

148, 6. 

-idhe, inf. to kindle, 167 a (p. 191;. 
-in, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems in, 

87 ; accentuation of, p. 454, B a. 
indra-vayu, du. cd., Indra and 

Vayu, 186 A 1 ; accentuation, 

p. 457, f. n. 2. 
inv, send, pr. stem, 133 A 2 b; 

134 C 4 ft. 

im&, dem. prn. stem, this, -111. 
imatha, adv. in this manner, 179, 1. 
-iya, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 
iyant, quantitative a. so much, 

118 b (par.;. 

iy&m, f. dem. prn. this, 111. 
-iran, 3. pi. mid. ending of ppi. . 

140, 6. 
iva, end. pel. as if, like, 179, 1 ; 

180 ; p. 452, 8 A b. 
is, wish, pr. stem, 133 C 2 ; pr. pt., 

is, f. refreshment, 80, 
-is, ao. suffix, 142 ; 145. 
isu, f. arrow, 98 a (p. 82). 
istapurt&m, n. Dv. cd. what has 
"been offered and given, 186 A 3; 

accentuation, 457, e. 
-Istha, pri. spv. suffix, 103, 2; 

p. 453, 9 A b. 
-is, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; sterns 

in, 83, 2 b. 
iha, adv. here, 179, 1. 

I, vowel, often changed to iy in 



Saiidhi, 57 ; low grade of ya, 
5 6 a ; ending of du. and of ami, 
uncontracted in Sand hi, 25 a, 
6, c ; inserted in int. red. , 172 a ; 
173, 3; sec. nom. sf., 182, 2; 
stems in, 95 ; 100 b ; connecting 
vowel, 144, 2 (s ao.) ; 145 & (is 
ao.) ; 160, 3 a (pp.) ; 162, 4 

t (gdv.). 

id, f. praise, 80. 

id, praise, pr. stem, 134 A 3 b. 

Idfksa, prn. cd. such, 117. 

idfs, prn. cd. such, 117. 

Idfsa, prn. cd., 117, f. n. 4. 

-ina, secondary nom. suffix, 182, 2. 

Im, encl. pronominal particle, 

180 ; p. 452, 8 A a. 
-Im, ending of 1. s. is aorist, 

145 c. 

-iya, secondary nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
-lyams, pri. cpv. suffix, 103, 2 ; 

p. 453, 9 A c. 

lyivams, pf. pt. act. of i, go, 89 a. 
ivant, prn. derivative, so great, 

118 c. 
is, ride, pr. stem, 134 A 3 b; 

134 A 4 c a. 
fs, m. lord, 79, 4. 
Isvard, a. able, concord of, 194 B2 a ; 

w. inf., 216 (p. 365 0) ; w. gen. 

inf., 211, 3 a a; 211, 3 & a; w. 

yad und op., 216 (p. 364 0). 

U, vowel, low grade of o and va, 

5 a, b. 
u, encl. pel. now, pray, 180 ; form 

of, in Pada text, p. 25, f. n. 2 ; 

p. 452, 8 A b. 
u, stems in, 98. 
uksan, m. ox, 90, 1 (p. 68). 
uc, be pleased, red. pf. pt., 157 a. 
ucca, adv. on high, 178, 3 &. 
uccdis, adv. on high, 178, 3 6. 
-ut, stems in, 77, 1 . 
ut, cjj. and, 180. 
uto, cj. and also, synt. use, 180. 
uttama", spv. highest, 103, 1 c. 
uttara, cpv. higher, 103, 1 c ; 120 c 1 

uttarat, abl. adv. from the north, 

178, 5. 
utt arena, adv. prp. north of, w. 

ace., 177, 1, f. n. 3 ; 197 B c 13 ; 

p. 209, f. n. 3. 
ud, f. wave, 77, 3 a. 
-ud, stems in, 77, 3 &. 
udanc, a. upward, 93 a ; northward 

of, w. gen., 202 D #. 
udatta, m. rising accent, p. 448, 1 ; 

p. 451, 6 ; how marked, p. 449, 

2 ; p. 450, 3. 4. 5. 
-uua, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
upa, prp. to, w. ace., 176 b ; upon, 

w. loc., ibid. 
upadhmaniya, labial breathing, 3 g : 

14 ; 15 ; 43, 2. 
upama", spv. highest, 120 c 1. 
I upara, cpv. lower, 120 c 1. 
upa"ri, prp. above, w. ace., 177, 1 ; 

197 B c. 
uparistad, adv. behind, w. gen., 

202' I). 

upandh, f. shoe, 81, f. n. 1. 
ubhaya, a. of both kinds, 120 c 3 

ubhay&tas, adv. on both sides of, 

w. ace., 197 B c 0. 
ubhayadyus, adv. on both days, 

179, 1. 
ubhaya, inst. adv. in both ways, 

178, 3 c. 
-ur, ending of gen. s., 99, 1. 2 ; 

101; of 3. pi. act.: impf.!34A4c; 

p. 125, f. n. 7; pf., 136; ppf., 

140, 6 ; s ao., 143, 1 ; root ao., 

148, 1. 

uru, a. wide, 98 c ; cpv. of, 108, 2a. 
uruvydnc, a. far-extending, p. 54. 

f. n. 1. 

urviya, inst. adv./ar, 178, 3 &. 
urvi, f. earth, du. of, p. 81, f. n. 14. 
us&na, m. a name, 97, 2 a. 
usij, a. desiring, 79, 3 b (par.), 
us, f. dawn, 80. 
usks, f. dawn, 83, 2 a. 
usasa, f. elliptical du., dawn and 

'night, 193, 2 a. 
ustranam, gen. pi. without cere- 

'bral n, p. 43, f. n. 1. 
usnih, f. a metre, 81 ; p. 444, 1 ; 

*p. 476, 11 A. 
us, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; stems 

in, 83, 2 c. 
usf, f. dawn, 101, 1. 



0, vowel often changed to uv in 
Sandhi, 57 ; shortened to u, 
p. 274, f.n. 1 ; pri. nom. sf., 
182, 1 6 ; stems in, 100 (pp. 88- 

udhd, pp. of vah, carry, 160, 2. 

uti, inst. of uti, f. aid, p. 81, f. n. 4. 

udhan, n. udder, 91, 6. 

udhar, n. udder, 91, 6 ; 101, 1. 

urj, f. vigour, 79, 3 a. 

urnamradas, cd., soft as wool, 83, 2 a. 

urdhv&tha, adv. uptvards, 179, 1. 

uh, consider, pr. stem, 133 A 1. 

uh, remove, 133 A 1, f. n. 2. 

B, vowel, low grade of ar and ra, 
* 5 a, b ; before y becomes ri, 58 ; 

stems in, 101. 
r, go, pr., 133 C 2 ; 134 B 3 a ; a 

ao., 147 c ; 148, 1 g ; root ao. 

inj., 148, 3 ; root ao. op., 148, 4 ; 

root ao. pt., 148, 6. 
rgmin, a. praising, 87. 
fc, f. stanza, 79 ; 1, p. 437. 
rjisvan, m. a name, 90 a. 
i-nv, send, pr., 134 C 4 0. 
rtay, inst. adv. in the right way, 
' 178, 3 a. 
rtaspati, m. lord of pious works, 

p. 273, f. n. 3. 
rt&van, a. regular, 90, 3 ; v. in 

-vas, ibid. 

rtutha, adv. regularly, 179, 1. 
rtus&s, adv. season by season, 179, 1. 
rte", adv. prp. without, 178, 7 ; w. 

abl., 177, 3 ; w. ace., 197 B c a 

(p. 303). 

rtvij, m. priest, 79, 3, f. n. 4. 
rdh, thrive, root ao. op., 148, 4 ; 
' pt., 148, 6. 

rbhuks&n, m. chief of the Rbhus, 
' 90, 1 (p. 68). 

B before y becomes Ir or ur. 

L, vowel, low grade of al, 4 a 

' (P- *) 

B, diphthong, originally Si, p. 22, 
f. n. 3 ; high grade of i, 5 a ; 
Sandhi of final, 21 ; internal 
Sandhi of, 59 ; unchangeable 

as du. ending, 26 ; for az, 4 b ; 
134 A 2 b ; p. 149, f. n. 2 ; for a 
in s ao. , 143, 3 ; shortened before 
a, p. 437, a 4. 
e"ka, nm. one, 104 ; 105, 1 (par.) ; 

120 a. 

ekadha, adv. singly, 179, 1 a. 
ekapada verse, p. 441, f. n. 6. 
ekavims&, ord. twenty-first, 107. 
ekasasth&, ord. sixty-first, 107. 
<kada'sa, nm. eleven, 104 ; 106 c 


ekadasS, ord. eleventh, 107. 
ekan n& vimsati, nm. nineteen, 

104 a 0. 
6kaika, nm. cd. one by one, p. 282, 

f. n. 4. 
et&, dem. prn. this, 101 a 1 (par.) ; 

correlative use, 195 B 4 a ; = well 

known, ibid. ; anaphoric use, 

195 B 4 b ; w. following yad = 

that is to say, 195 B 4 a. 
etadfksa, prn. cd. such, 117. 
etadrs, prn. cd. such, 117. 
et,vant, prn. derivative, so great, 

118 c. 

ed, ij. lo ! with ace., 197 B c 7. 
ena, encl. prn., he, she, it, 112 a 

(par.) ; p. 452, 8 A a. 
ena, inst. adv. in this way, 178, 3. 
-enya, gdv. suffix, 162, 3 ; 209, 4. 
-eya, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 
ev&, adv. thus, just, 179, 1 ; synt. 

use, 180. 

evdtha, adv. just as, 179, 1. 
ev&m, adv. thus, 179, 1 ; synt. use, 


eva-yavas, voc. going quickly, 90, 8. 
esa, dem. prn. this, Sandhi of, 48 ; 

'110 a 1 ; 195, 4 a. 

O, diphthong, originally Su, p. 22, 
f. n. 3 ; high grade of u, 4 b low 
grade of, 4 a ; internal Sandhi 
of, 59 ; for az, 15, 2 k a ; p. 47, 
f. n. 3 ; for azh, p. 47, f. n. 3 ; 
4 b ; stem in, 102, 2 ; shortened 
before a, p. 437 a 4. 

okivams, pf. pt. act. of uc, 89 a. 

6tave, dat. inf. to weave, 167 b 4. 



osam, adv. quickly, 103, 2 a. 
osistha, spv. rery quick, 103, 2 a. 
ohand, pr. pt. of uh, consider, 1 58 a. 

A I, diphthong, low grade of, 5 d; 
Sandhi of final, 22 ; internal 
Sandhi of, 59 ; stem in, 102. 

-ais, inst. pi. ending, p. 78, f. n. 9. 

AIT, diphthong, low grade of, 5 d 
Sandhi of final, 22 ; internal 
Sandhi of, 59 ; stem in, 102. 

-au, ending of 1. 3. s. pf. act., 
136, 4; of N. A. du., p. 59, 
f. n. 2 ; p. 78, f. n. 13. 

K, insertion of transitional, 35. 

ka, inter, prn. who? 113. 

-ka, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6; sec. 

nom. sf., 182, 2. 
kak\ld, f. summit, 77, 3 6. 
kakubh, f. peak, 78, 2; a metre, 

p. 444, 3. 
katamd, inter, prn. a. who? (of 

many), 117 b ; 120 a. 
katard, prn. a. which (of two) ?, 

1176; 120 a. 
kdti, nm. du. how many? 113 a; 

11 8 a. 
katidbS, inter, adv. how many 

times? 179, 1. 

katpayd, a. greatly swelling, 113 a. 
kathdm, inter, adv. how? 179, 1 a. 
kdtha, inter, adv. how? p. 354. 2 a ; 

216, 2 a. 

kdd, inter, prn. what? 113. 
kddartha, a. having what purpose? 

113 a. 
kadi, inter, adv. when? 179, 3; 

p. 354, 2 a ; 216, 2 a. 
kadru, f. Soma vessel, p. 89, f. n. 3. 
kanistha, spv. smallest, 103, 2 6. 
kanisthd, spv. youngest, p. 95, 

f. n.' 3. 
kdniyams, cpv. lesser, 103, 2 a ; 

younger, 88. 

kanya, f. girl, p. 96, f. n. 3. 
kaprth, n. penis, 77, 2. 
kam, adv. well, synt. use, 180. 
kam, pel. used after m&, su, hi, 

180 ; p. 453, 8 B d. 

kdya, inter, prn. who? 113 b. 
kaya, inst. adv. how? 178, 3 c. 
kdrna, ear, compounded w. 

184 c. 
karmadharaya, poss. cds., 188 ; 

1 89 d ; accentuation of, p. 455, 

10 <M. 

karman, n. work, 90, 2 (p. 69). 
kasipii, m. n. mat, 98 a. 
kds ca, indefinite prn. any one, 


kds cand, indef. prn. any, 119 ?>. 
kds cid, indef. prn. any, 119 6. 
kakiid, f. palate, 77, S b. 
kakubh.a pragatha, m, a kind of 

mixed strophe, p. 446, 11 B 1. 
Kathaka Samhita, accentuation 

of, p. 450, 3*. 

kamam, adv. at will, 197 A 5 a. 
kamaya, adv. dat. for the sake of, 

200 B 5. 

kas, f. cough, 83, 1. 
ki, inter, prn. stem in cds., 113 a. 
kikkita, ij., 181. 
kikkira, ij., 181; w. kr, tear to 

tatters, 184 d. 

kimkard, m. servant, 113 a. 
kimtvd, synt. cd. asking garrn- 

Imisly, 189 B c. 
kim, inter, prn. what? 113 ; inter. 

pel. why? 178, 2 a; 180. 
kiyant, prn. der. how great? 113 a ; 


kila, adv. indeed, synt. use, 180. 
kidfs, prn. cd. what like? 117. 
kivant, prn. cd. hoivfar? 118 c. 
ku, inter, stem in derivatives, 

113 a. 

kumarf, f. girl, 100, I 6 a (p. 88). 
kuvitsa, some one, synt. cd., 

189 B c. 
kuvid, inter, pel., 180 ; p. 354, 2 a ; 

216, 2 a ; accents verb, p. 467, 

19 B. 
kiiba, inter, adv. where? 113 a ; 

179, 1. 
kr, make, 127, 4 a ; pr. system, 

132 (par.) ; anomalous pr. stem, 

134 C 4 ; pr. pt., 85 ; pf., 38, 2 : 

pf. pt., 157 ; 89, 1 (par.) ; a ao.. 

transfers, 147 a 2 ; root ao., 

148, 16 (par.); op., 148. 4 ; inj., 



148, 3 ; pt., 148, 6 ; sb., 148, 2 

(par.) ; impv., 148, 5 ; ps. ao., 

155; ft., 151 6 (par.); ft. pt., 

85; 151 b 2; prc., 148, 4 a. 
kf-t, a. making, 77, 1. 
krt, cut, pr., 133 C 1 ; ft., 151 a. 
kftvas, nm. adv. times, 108 a. 
kfp, f. beauty, 78, 1. 
krp, lament, pr. stem, 133 A 1. 
krs, drag, red. ao., 149, 1. 
kf,' scatter, pr., 133 C 3. 
kip, be adapted, red. ao., 149, 1. 
ke" vala, a. exclusive, 1 20 c 3. 
krand, cry out, pf., 137, 2 d ; a ao., 

147 b red. ao., 149, 1 ; s ao., 

144, 5. 
kram, stride, pr. stem, 133 A 1 ; 

root ao., 148, 1 d ; inj., 148, 3; 

is ao., 145, 1 (par.). 
kriinc, m. curlew, 79, 1. 
krudh, be angry, red. ao. inj., 149, 3. 
krus, cry out, sa ao., 141 a. 
ksa"p, f. night, 78, 1 ; gen. adv. of 

'a night, 202 D 3 a. 
ks&m, f. earth, 78, 3 ; accentuation 

'of, p. 458, c 1. 
ksar,./7o?0, 3 ao., 144, 5. 
ks&, f. abode, 97, 2. 
ksip, throio, red. ao. inj., 149, 3. 
ksip, f. finger, 78, 1. 
ksudb, f. hunger, 77, 4. 
ksnibh, f. push, 78, 2. 
ksaipra, a. quickly pronounced Sva- 

rita accent in Sandhi, p. 465, 

f. n. 1. 
ksnu, whet, pr. stem, 134, 1 a. 

Kh&, n. aperture, 97, 3. 

khan, dig, pf., 137, 26; ps. stem, 

154 d. 
khdlu, emphasizing pel., indeed, 


kha, f. well, 97, 2. 
khidvams, oppressing, 157 6. 
khya, see, a ao., 147 a I. 

Gam, go, pr. stem, 133 A 2 ; pf., 
137,26; 138,7; 140,3;,, 
157; per. pf., 139, 9 a ; a ao., 
147 a 2 (transfers) ; s ao., 144, 3 ; 
rt. ao., 148, 1 a : op., 148, 4, 

prc. 148, 4 a, impv. 143, 5, pt. 
148, 6; ao. ps., 155; gd., 165 a. 

gdm, f. earth, 78, 3. 

gam&dhye, dat. inf. to go, 167 6 7 a. 

ga, sing, sis aorist, 146. 

gathin, m. singer, 87. 

gayatri stanza, p. 438, 3 a; tro- 
chaic, p. 439, 3 a a. 

gir, f. praise, 82, f. n. 5 ; a. praising, 
82, f. n. 6. 

guggulu, n. bdellium, 98 6. 

guna, high grade (of vowels), 5 a ; 
5 a a; 17; 17 a; 19 a ; 21; in 
dec., 98; in conj., 125, 1. 2; 
127, 1. 2 ; pr. stem, 133 A 1 ; 
134, 1 c ; 134, lea; pr. pt. mid., 
158 a ; a ao., p. 167, f. n. 3 ; a 
ao., 147 c ; 148, 1 g ; red. ao., 
149 ; s ao., 143, 1. 2. 3 ; is ao., 
145, 1 ; ps. ao., 155 ; ft., 151 a ; 
gdv., 162, 1 6, c ; cs., 168, 1 ; 
168, 1 c. 

guh, hide, pr. stem, 133 A 1 ; sa 
ao., 141 a. 

guh, f. hiding-place, 81. 

gudha, pp. of guh, hide, 160, 2. 

gr, waken, red. ao., 149, 1 ; 149 a 1 
'ipv., 149, 5. 

gfbh, f. seizure, 78, 2. 

gf, swallow, pr. stem, 133 C 3 ; 
red. ao., 149, 1. 

go, m. butt, f. cow, 102 ; 102, 2 
(par.) ; accentuation of, p. 458 c 1. 

go -m ant, a. possessing coivs, 86. 

go-s&n, a. winning coics, 77, 5. 

gdha, rt. ao. of ghas, 148, 1 g. 

-gdha, pp. of ghas, eat, 160, 2 a. 

gca, f. divine woman, 97, 2. 

grabh, seise, is ao., 145 6 ; pr. 
system, 132 (par.) ; pr. stem, 
134 E 2; pf., 137, 2c; cs., 168, 
irr 5. 

grabbe", dat. inf. to seize, 167 a 
(p. 191). 

grab, seize, pr. stem, 134 E 2, 4 ; 
pf., 137, 2 c ; ps., 154, 6. 

giaVan, m. pressing stone, 90, 1. 3. 

gldu, m. f. lump, 102 ; 102, 5. 

Gha, emphasizing end. pel., 180 ; 
p. 452, 8 A 6. 



gh&nighnat, pr. pt. int. of han, 

km, 85 b. 
ghas, eat, pf., 137, 26; pf. pt., 

157 a; rt. ao., 148, 1 d ; des., 

171, 5. 
ghrtdvant, a. having ghee, 86 (p. 64 , 

f. n. 3). 

ghn&nt, pr. pt. of han, kill, 85. 
ghra, smell, pr. stem, 134 B 3 ft. 

Ca, cj. and, syntactical use, 180 ; 

if. w. sb., p. 360 5 ; p. 452, 8 A b ; 

467,^19 B. 
cakrvams, pf. pt., having done, 89 

cakri, f. wheel, 100 I a (p. 86, 

f. n. 1). 
caksus, n. eye, 83, 2 ; 83, 2 c ; a. 

seeing, 83, 2 c. 

catur, nm./owr, 104; 105, 4 (par.), 
caturtha, ord. fourth, 107. 
caturdasa, nm. fourteen, 104 ; 106 c 


catur dha, adv. in four ways, 108 b. 
catur vaya, nm. der. fourfold, 108 c. 
cattis, nm. adv. four times, 108 a. 
catustrimsa, ord. thirty-fourth, 107. 
catvarimsa, ord. fortieth, 107. 
catvarimS&t, nm. forty, 104. 
cand, pel. wo# even, synt. use, 180 ; 

accents verb, p. 467, 19 A d. 
caru, a. dear, 98 a, c. 

1. ci, gather, pf., 139, 4. 

2. ci, note, pf., 139, 4. 

cit, perceive, pr. stem, 134 A 4 c a ; 

pf. pt., 157 b a ; rt. ao., 148, 1 d ; 

s ao., 144, 5. 
oft, f. thought, 77, 1. 
cid, pel. even, synt. use, 180 ; 

p. 452, 8 A b. 
cisca, ij. whiz ! 181. 
c6d, cj. if, synt. use, 180 ; w. op., 

p. 366, 5 ; p. 467, 19 B. 
cyu, stir, pf., 139, 8 ; red. ao., 

149, 1 ; inj., 149, 3 ; op., 149, 4. 

Ch, doubling of, 51 ; produces 
length by position, p. 437, a 3. 

-cha, pr. stem sf., 133 A 2 ; 133 C 2. 

chand, seem, s ao., 144, 5. 

chandas, n. metre, p. 436, f.n. 1. 

chid, split, pf. pt., 157 a ; rt. ao. 
inj., 148, 8. 

J before conj. s, 63 (p. 41, f. n. 3). 
j&gat, a. going ; n. inanimate world, 

85 b. 

jagatl, f. a metre, p. 442, 7. 
jaganvams, pf. pt.act. of gam, 89 a. 
jagmivams, pf. pt. act. of gam, 

go, 89 a. 

jajnivams, pf. pt. of jna, 89 a. 
jan, beget, pr. stem, 134 A 3 b ; pf., 

137, 2 b ; red. ao., 149, 1 (par.) ; 

pr. stem, 154 d', ps. ao., 155 a 1 ; 

cs. pt., 85. 

janayitf, a. creative, 101, 2 &. 
jani, f. wife, 99, 1 a. 
janitri, f. mother, 101, 2 c. 
janus, n. birth, 83, 2 c. 
jam, f. earth, 78, 3. 
jamat, palatalized ao. pt. of gam, 

go, 189 A 2 a (p. 280, f. n. 4). 
jar as, m. old age, 83, 2 a a. 
javistha, spv. quickest, 103, 2. 
javiyams, cpv. quicker, 103, 2. 
jahf, 2. s. pr. ipv. of han, strike, 

134 A 2 c ; p. 41, f. n. 1. 
ja, m. f. child, 97, 2. 
janu, n. knee, du. of, p. 81, f. n. 14, 

japya, cs. of ji, conquer : red. ao., 

149 a 3. 
jaraya, den. play the lover, ps. ao., 

155 a 2. 
ji, conquer, pf., 139, 4 ; pf. pt., 

157 6 a ; rt. ao. inj., 148, 3; 

s ao., 144, 5; ft., 151 a; cs., 

p. 196, f. n. 1. 
jit, a. conquering, 77, 1. 
jinv, quicken, pr. stem, 133 A 3 b ; 

134 C 4 j8. 
jihvamuliya, guttural spirant, 3 g ; 

14; 15 j; 43,2. 
ji, overpower, pr. stem, 134 E 1. 
jivatave, dat. inf. to live, 167 6 4. 
juhu, f. tongue, 100, II a ; sacrificial 

spoon, ibid. 

ju, hasten, pr. stem, 134 E 1. 
ju, a. speeding, 100, II a. 
jf, waste away, pr. stem, 133 B 2. 
je"man, a. victorious, 90, 2. 
jogu, a. singing aloud, 100, II a. 
jnapt, pp. cs. of jna,A;wow, p. 185, 

f. n. 3. 
jna, know, pr. stem, 134 E 3 ; pr. 



pt., 85 ; rt. au. op., 148, 4 ; sis 

ao., 140. 

jnapaya,cs.of, 149 a 3. 
jnas, 111. relative, 83, 1. 
jya, f. boivstriny, 97, 2. 
jyayams, cpv. greater, 88 ; 103, 2 a. 
jye~stha, spv. greatest, 103, 2 ; as 

final member of Bv. ed., 189, 1 &. 
jyesthd, spv. e?des/, 103, 2. 
jyotis, n. light, 83, 2. 

T, interposed in Sandhi, 36 a ; 
40, 1 ; in gdv., 162, 1 d ; deter- 
minative sf., 77, 1 ; 182, 1 a ; 
187 A a (in cds.) ; stems in 
secondary, 77, 1. 

ta, dem. prn. MctJ, 110 (par.) ; in 
syntax : position of, 191 j ; as 
corr., 195 B 3 ; w. prs. prns., 
195 B 3 b a w. dem. prns., 
195 B 3 b (3. 

-ta, pri. noui. sf., 182, 1 b ; sf. of 
pp., 160. 

tarns, shake, pf., 137, 2 d ; a ao., 
147 b. 

taka, dem. prn. that little, 110 a 3 ; 
* 117 a. 

t&tas, adv. thence, syiit. use, 180. 

t&ti, nni. der. so many, 118 a. 

tatpurusa compounds, 100, I a ; 
187, 2 a ; w. ace. sense, 187 A 1, 
inst., A 2, dat., A3, abl., A 4, 
gen. , A 5, loc. , A 6; as possessi ves, 
189, 2 ; accentuation of, p. 456, 2. 

tatha, adv. thus, 110 a ; 179, 1 ; 
synt. use, 180. 

t&d, adv. then, thither, synt. use, 

tadapas, Bv. cd. accustomed to that 
'fork, 110 a. 

tada, adv. then, 179, 3. 

tadanim, adv. then, 179, 3 (3. 

tan, stretch, pr. stem, 134 C 4 a ; 
pf., 137, 2 a, 6; 140, 1. 2; s ao., 
144, 2 ; 144, 5 ; rt. ao., 148, 1 d; 
ps. stem, 154 d. 

t&c, f. succession, 77, 5 ; accent, 
p. 458, c 1. 

-tana, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 

-tana, ending of 2. pi. impf. and 
ipv., 133 A 5. 

tanu, a. thin, 98 c. 

tanu, f. body, p. 89 (par.) ; self, 

115 b. 

tandri, f. weariness, p. 88 a. 
tap, heat, pf, 137, 2 a ; 138 b ; 
140, 1 ; s ao., 144, 2 ; red. ao. 
sb., 149, 2. 
tapus, a. hot, 83, 2 c. 
tarn, faint, pr. stem, 133 B 3. 
-tama, sec. spv. sf., 103, 1 ; 117 b; 
120 a ; 182 ; ord. sf., 107 ; ad- 
verbs formed vv., p. 301 /3; ac- 
centuation of, p. 454, 9 B b. 

tar, f. star, 82, f. n. 5 ; 82 b. 

-tar, loc. inf. of stems in, 167, 4 b. 

-tara, sec. cpv. sf., 103, 1 ; 117 b ; 
120 a ; 182, 2 ; adverbs formed 
w., p. 301 0. 

tarhi, adv. then, synt. use, 180. 

tavastara, cpv. stronger, 103, 1. 

-tavai, dat. inf. in, senses of, 
211, 165; accentuation of, 
p. 452, 7. 

-tavya, gdv. suffix, 162 ; 162, 5 ; 
209, 5. 

tavyams, cpv. stronger, 103, 2 o. 

-tas, adv. sf., w. abl. sense, 179, 2. 

tasthivams, pf. pt. of stha, 89 . 

tdsmad, abl. adv. therefore, 180. 

-ta, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 

-tat, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; steins 
in, 77, 1 ; adv. sf. w. abl. sense, 
179, 2 ; ending of 2. s. pr. ipv. 
act., p. 125; 133 A 4 ; 133 C 3 a; 
134 C 4 5 ; 168 e, f. n. 2 (cs.). 

-tati, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 

tad, adv. thus, 178, 5. 

tadfs, prn. cd. such, 117. 

tadrsa, prn. cd., such, p. 113, 
f.'n. 4. 

tavak6, poss. prn. thy, 116 b. 

tavant, prn. der. so great, 118 c. 

-ti, inn. a. sf., 118 a; pri. nom. 
sf, 182, 1 6. 

tirasci, m. a man's name, 100, 1 b. 

tir&s, prp. across, w. ace.. 176, 1 ; 
197 B c ; adv. across, ' 179, 2 ; 
aside, compounded w. verbs, 
184 6. 

tiryanc, a. transverse, 93 a. 

tlksnd, a. sharp, 103, 2 /3. 

tiksmyams, cpv. sharper, 103, 2 0. 

tu, pel. then, but, synt. use, 180. 

I 1 



-tu, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6. 

tud, thrust, pr., 125, 2 ; 133 C 1 ; 

pf., 138, 1. 

-turn, ace. inf. in, p. 194; 211, 2 6. 
turiya, ord. fourth, 107. 
tuvisvan, a. roaring aloud, 77, 5. 
-tr, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6 ; stems 

'in, 101,2; p. 453, 9 Ad. 
tfroa, m. n. triplet, p. 446, 11 A. 
trtiya, ord. third, 107 ; 120 c 3. 
trp, be pleased, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 
trsnaj, a. thirsty, 79, 3 b. 
trhj crush, pr. stem, 134 D 2. 
tr, cross, pr. stem, 133 B 2 ; 133 C 3. 
te, encl. dat. gen. s. of tvam, thou, 

109 a; p. 452, 8 A a. 
tdjistha, spv. very sharp, 103, 2. 
tsjiyams, cpv. sharper, 103, 2. 
tena, inst. adv. therefore, 180. 
Taittirlya Aranyaka, accented, 

p. 448, 1. 
Taittirlya Brahmana, accented, 

p. 448, 1 ; p. 449. ' 
Taittirlya Samhita,how accented , 

p. 449. 
-tos, abl. gen. inf. in, 167, 3 b ; 

211, 86. 
-tta, syncopated pp. of da, give, 

160, 2 6. 

-tna, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
tnu, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
tman, m. self, 90, 2. 
tya, dem. prn. that, 110 a 2 ; 

195 B 5. 

-tya, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
-tya, gd. suffix, 164 ; 165 ; 210. 
tyaj, forsake, pr. stem, 135, 4. 
tyad, dem. prn. n. as adv., 195 B 5. 
-tra, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
tra, adv. sf. \v. loc. sense, 179, 3 ; 

- loc., 179, 3 a. 

traya, nm. der. threefold, 108 c. 
tra, protect, s ao. op., 143, 4. 
tra, m. protector, 97, 2. 
-tra, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b. 
tri, nm. three, 104 ; 105, 3 (par.) ; 

in Bv. compounds, p. 455, lOc, d. 
trimsat, nm. thirty, 104; 106 d 

tridha, nm. adv. in three ivays, 

trivft, a. threefold, 77. 

tristubh, f. triple praise, 78, 2 
ij>ar.) ; a metre, p. 438, f n. 1,2 ; 
p. 441,5; triplets, p. 446, 11 A. 

tris, nm. adv. thrice, 108 a ; 179, 1 ; 
AV. gen., 202 D 3. 

tredha, nm. adv. in three tvays, 

108 6. 

tva, dem. prn. many a one, 112 a a 

(par.); p. 452, 8 A a. 
tva, poss. prn., thy, 116 b. 
tva- = tvam, thou, in derivatives 

or as first member of a cd., 

109 fc. 

-tva, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2 ; sf. 

forming gdv., 162 ; 162, 4 ; 

209, 2. 

tvae, f. skin, 79, 1. 
tvad-, prs. prn. as first member 

of a cd., 109 &. 

tvadyoni, a. derived from thee, 1096. 
-tvana, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
tvam, prs. prn. thou, 109 (par.). 
tvayata, Tp. cd. presented by thee, 

tva, encl. prs. prn. ace. of tvam, 

109 a ; p. 452, 8 A a. 
-tva, suffix of gd., 163, 2; 210. 
-tvaya, suffix of gd., 163, 3 ; 210 ; 

added to cs. stem, p. 189, f. n. 1. 
tvava, emphasizing pel., 180. 
tvavant, prn. der. like thee, 118 c. 
tvis, be stirred, pr. stem, 134 A 4 c. 
tvis, f. excitement, 80. 
-tvi,suffix of gd., 163, 1 ; 210. 
tvai, pel. but indeed, 180. 
ts&,r,approach stealthily, s ao., 144, 5. 

-Tha, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; sec. 

nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
-tham, adv. suffix, 179, 1 a. 
-tha, pri. vom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
-tha, adv. suffix of manner 

(=inst.), 179, 1. 

Dams, bite, pr. stem, 133 A 4. 
daksat, ao. pt. of dan, lurn, 85 b. 
daksinatas, adv. from the right, 

179,' 2 ; \v. gen., 202 D. 
daksinatra, adv. on the right, 

179,' 3. 
daksinena, adv. south of, w. ace., 

197 Be ^3; p. 209, f. n. 3. 



dagh, reach, rt. ao. inj., 148, 3 ; 

ipv., 148, 5; prc., 148, 4 a. 
dattd, pp. of da, give, 160, 26; 

134 B 3 0. 

d&dat, pr. pt. of da, </tre, 85 b. 
dadhf, 11. cw/tfs, 99, 4. 
dadhfk, adv. boldly, 80. 
dadhfs, a. bold, 80. 
d4nt,'m. tooth, 85 a. 
dabh, /tarm, pf., 137, 2 a. 
dam, n. (?), house, 78, 3. 
-dam, adv. suffix of time, 179, o. 
d&mpati, m. Zorc? o/ the house, 

78, 3 a ; p. 273, f. n. 3. 
daviyams,/arMer, 103, '2 a. 
d&sa, nni. ten, 10(5 c (par.). 
dasataya, inn. der. tenfold, 108 c. 
dasamd, orcl. fentfi, 107. 
d&syave vfka, in. Wolf to theDasyv, 

as a name, 200 A 2 a 7. 
dah, burn, s ao., 144, 5 ; s ao. pt., 

143 6; 156 a; ft., 151 a ; pt., 

151 6 2. 

1. da, give, pr. stem, 134 B 1 6 ; 
134 B 3 a ; 134 B 3 ; pf. pt., 
157 ; 157 b a ; s ao., 144, 3 ; 
a ao., 147 a 1 ; rt. ao, inj., 
148,3; op., 148, 4; ft., 151 a; 
pp., 160, 2 b. 

2. da, ait, s ao., 144, 3 ; op., 143, 4. 
da, m. giver, 97, 2. 

-da, adv. suffix of time, 179, 3. 
datar, m. giver, 101, 2 (par.), 
-danim, adv. suffix of time. 

179, 3 0. 

daman, n. giving, 90, 2. 
daru, n. wood, 98 a (p. 83). 
davan, n. giving, 90, 3. 
das, f. ivorship, 79, 4. 
das at, pr. pt. ivorshipping, 85 b ; 

156 o. 

dasivams, unred. pf. pt., 157 b. 
dasvams, unred. pf. pt., 157 b. 
didrks^nya, ds. gdv. ivorthy to be 

seen', 162, 3. 

div,play, fourth conj. class, 125, 3. 
div, m. f. sky, 99, 5 (p. 85, f. n. 1). 
diva, inst. adv. by day, 178, 3. 
divSdive, itv. cd. day by day, 

189 C a ; 200 B 3 a. 
dis, f. direction, 63 b (f. n. 1) ; 


| dip, shine, irr. red. ao. , 149 a 1. 
dirgh&, a. long, 103, 2 a. 
dughana, pr. pt. mid. of duh, 

milk, 158 a. 

I dus, spoil, cs. future of, 151 a a. 
; dustara, a. hard to cross, 50 6. 
duhs&ha, a. hard to resist, 50 b. 
dus-, adv. in cds., Sandhi of, 49 c ; 

accent of, p. 455, 10 c a. 
duh, milk, pr. stem, 134 A 4 b ; 
134 A 4 c a ; sa ao., 141 a ; s ao. 
op., 143, 4. 

i duhana,, mid. of duh, 158 a. 
I duhitar, f. daughter, 101, 2. 
! du, f. gift, 100 II a. 
| dudabha, a. hard to deceive, 49 c. 
', dudas, a. not tvorshipping, 49 c. 
| dudhi, a. malevolent, 49 c. 
dundsa, a. hard to attain, 49 c. 
dunasa, a. hard to destroy, 49 c. 
i duti, f. messenger, p. 88 a. 
| dur&, a./ar, cpv. of, 103, 2 d. 
j duram, adv./ar, 178, 2. 
durat, abl. adv. /row cr/ar, 178, 5 
dur6, loc. adv. afar, 178, 7. 
dr, fear, s ao. op., 143, 4 ; 

'148, 1 d. 

-drksa, sf. in prn. cds. =like, 117. 
drs", 'see, pf. pt., 157 ; rt. ao. inj., 
'148, 3; pt., 148, 6 ; a ao., 147 c ; 
ps. ao., 155. 

dfs', f. look, 63 b (f. n. 1) ; 79, 4. 
-drs, sf. in prn. cds. = like, 117. 
drs~e", to see, dat. inf., 167 a (p. 191). 
di-sad, f. nether millstone, 77, 3 6. 
drh, make firm, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 
d^ya, gdv. to be given, 162, 1 a. 
Devata-dvandva cds., accent of, 

p. 457, e )8. 

devatat, f. divine service, 77, 1. 
devattd, Tp. cd. given by the goda, 

160, 2 6. 
devadrydnc, a. godward, 93 (p. 73, 

f. n. 1). 
devasas, adv. to each of the gods, 

179, 1. 

devanc, a. godward, 93 6. 
devi, f. goddess, 100 I b (par.). 
devf, m. husband's brother, 101, 1. 
dehi, 2. s. pr. ipv. act. of da, give. 

134 BIZ/, 
dos, n. arm, 83, 1. 

i 2 



dydv, in. f. sky, 99, 5 (p. 85, f. n. 1). 
dySvah, N. pi. the (three) heavens, 

193, 3 a. 
dyava, elliptical du. heaven and 

earth, 193, 2 a ; 186 B 3 a. 
dyu, in. day, 98 d ; m. f. sky, 99, 5 

dyut, shine, pf., 139, 8 ; s ao., 

144, 5 ; red. ao., 149, 1 ; irr. 

red. ao., 149 a 1. 
dyut, f. brilliance, 77, 1. 
dyo, in. f. sky, 102 ; 102, 3 (par.) ; 

accentuation of, p. 458, c 1. 
dyaus, m. N. of dyo, sky, 99, 5 ; 

voc., accentuation of, p. 457, 

11 a. 

draghman, m. length, 90, 2. 
draghistha, spv. longest, 103, 2 a. 
draghiyams, cpv. longer, 103, 2 a. 
dru, n. wood, accent, p. 458 c 1. 
drub, m.. fiend, 81. 
dva, nm. <tco, 104 ; 105, 2 (par.). 
dvandva, n. .pair, 189 (p. 282, 

f. n. 4) ; compounds, 186 ; ac- 
centuation of, p. 457, 10, 2 e. 
dvay&, nm. der. twofold, 108 c. 
dvadasa, nm. twelve, 104 ; 106 c 


dvapancasd, ord. fifty-second, 107. 
dvar, f. door, 82 (f. n. 5) ; 82 a. 
dvi, nm. two, in cds. and der., 

105, 2 (f. n. 2) ; in Bv. com- 
pounds, p. 455, 10 c a. 
dvita, adv. doubly, synt. use, 180. 
dvitiya, ord. second, 107. 
dvidha, iim. adv. in two icays, 

108 b ; 179, 1. 
dvipada, f. stanza of two verses, 

p. 441, 5 a. 
dvipada viraj, f. a metre, p. 437, 

f. 11. 2 ; p. 443. 
dvis, hate, sa aorist, 141 a. 
dvis, f. hatred, 80. 
dvis, nm. adv. twice, 108 a ; 179, 1 ; 

w. gen., 202 D 3. 

Dh, stems in, 77, 4. 

-dhak = -dah + s, N. sing., 81 a. 

dh&ksat, s ao. pt. of dan, burn, 

85 & ; 143, 6. 
dh&nvan, n. bow, 90, 3. 
dhartr, n. prop, 101, 2 b. 

1. dha, put, pr. stem, 134 B 1 6 ; 
134 B 3 a; 134 B 3 ; pf., 
137, 2 e ; 138, 3 ; a ao., 147 a 1 ; 
rfc. ao. inj., 148, 3 ; op., 148, 4 ; 
ipv., 148, 5 ; ps. ao., 155. 

2. dha, suck, pr. stem, 133 B 1. 
-dha, adv. sf. of manner, 179, 1. 
-dhi, compounds in, 98 d. 

-dhi, 2. s. ipv. act. ending, 

134 C 4 5. 

dhik, ij. fie I w. ace., 197 B c 7. 
dhi, f. thought, 100, la; 100, I b 


-dhuk - -duh + s, N. s. milking, 81 a. 
dhiir, f. burden, 82, f. n. 5. 
dhursdd, a. being on the yoke, 49 d. 
dhursah, a. bearing the yoke, 49 d. 
dhr, hold, irr. red. ao., 149 a 1 ; 

inj., 149, 3; ipv., 149, 5; ps. 

stem, 154 d ; ca. ft., 151 a a. 
dhrsaj, a. bold, 79, 3 &. 
dhrsad, f. nether millstone, 77, 3 b. 
dhehf, 2. s. pr. ipv. act. of dha, 

put, 134 B 1 b. 
dhmatr, n. smithy, 101, 2 b. 
-dhyaij inf., used elliptically, 

211, 1 & 7 . 
-dhruk = druh + s, N. s. hating, 

81 a. 
-dhva, ending of 2. pi. mid., 

133 A 5. 

dhvams, scatter, a ao., 147 6. 
-dhvam, 2. pi. ending, cerebra- 

lized, 144, 2 a. 

N, dental nasal, never cerebra- 
lized in ghn = han, in cds., 
50c/3 ; inserted, in N. s., 79,4 a, 
in N. pi. n. of as, is, us steins, 
83 ; loss of : in pr., 134 A 2 c, 
p. 121, f. n. 1, 134 A 4 a, in 
final an stems of Karmadha- 
rayas, 188, 2 a, of Bahuvrihis, 
189, 4 a, in -ant, 156 a ; stems 
in radical, 77, 5 ; influence of 
stems in, 98 ; 98 a. 

na, pel. not, 180 ; w. sb., 215 C 2 ft, 
w. inj. (=ft.) 215 c 1. w. op., 
p. 362 a, p. 364 7, \v. prc., 217 ; 
like, 180. 

-na, pri. 110111. sf., 182, 1 b ; pp. 
sf., 160. 



ndkis, indec. prn. no one, never, 

180 ; 113, f. n. 2. 
n&kim, adv. prn. never, 180. 
ndktam, ace. adv. by night, 178, 2 ; 

197 A 5 a. 

naktaya, inst. adv. by night, 178, 3 a. 
nadi, f. stream, 100, 1 a ; 100, I b a. 
n&dh, f. bond, 77, 4. 
n&nandr, m. husband's sister, 101, 1. 
ndnu, adv. by no means, 180. 
n&pat, m. grandson, 101, 2, f. n. 5; 

101, 2 a. 

ndptr, m. grandson, 101, 2 ; 101, 2 a. 
nabti, f. destroyer, 78, 2. 
nam, feenrf, pf., 137, 2 or. 
namas, n. obeisance, w. kr, 184 c. 
namasyd, den., 175 B (par.), 
n&mi, m. a name, 100, I b. 
naVa, a. neir, cpv. and spv. of, 

103, 2 0. 

naVa, nm. nine, 104 ; 106 c (par.), 
navatf, nm. ninety, 104 ; 106 d 

naVadasa, nm. nineteen, 104 ; 

106 c (par.). 
navadha, nm. adv. in nine trays, 

108 6. 

navamd, ord. ninth, 107. 
naVistha, spv. newest, 103, 2 0. 
ndvedas, a. cognisant, 83, 2 a a. 
naviyams, cpv. nearer, 103, 2 #. 
naVyasa, inst. adv. anew, 178, 3. 
navyams, cpv. newer, 103, 2 a. 

1. nas, reach, rt. ao., 148, 1 d, inj., 
148, 3, op., 148, 4. 

2. nas, be lost, red. ao., 149, 1 ; 
irr., 149 a 2. 

nds, f. m0W, 79, 4. 

nas, prn. MS, ace., dat., gen., pi., 

109 a; p. 452, 8 A a. 

rahf, adv. for not, by no means, 180. 

n&hus, m. neighbour, S3, 2 c. 

-na, conjugational class formed 

w., 127, 5. 

-n, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
ntinadh.1, a. having diverse intentions, 

ICO, I a. 
nama, adv. by name, 178, 2 ; 180 ; 

197 A 5 a. 

namatha, adv. by name, 179, 1. 
na, ^ nose, S3, 1. 
-ni, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 

nii, n-ash, s ao., 144, 2; int., 

174 (par.). 

nity&m, adv. constantly, 178, 2. 
nid, f. contempt, 77, 3 a. 
nidhf, m. treasury, 98 d. 
nimruc, f. sunset, 79, 1. 
iiiyiita, n. a hundred thousand, 


nirnfj, f. bright garment, 79, 3 . 
nih, f. destroyer, 81. 
ni, lead, pf., 138, 4 ; s ao. ipv., 

143, 5 ; ft., 151 a. 
-ni, secondary nom. sf., 182, 2. 
mi or nu, adv. now, synt. use, 180. 
-nu, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
-nu, conj. class formed with, 

127, 3. 
nud, push, rt. ao. inj., 148, 3 ; 

ft. sb., 151 6 1. 
-nude, dat. inf. to push, 167 a 

(p. 191). 
nu cid, adv. never, w. op., 216, 2 a a 

(p. 362). 

nunam, adv. now, 178, 2 a ; 180. 
nf, m. man, 101, 1 ; accentuation 

'of, p. 458, c 1. 
nft, f. dancing, 77, 1. 
ned, neg. pel. certainly not, lest, 
180; toa* wo w. sb., 215 
(p. 355 a) ; accents verb, 467, 
19 B. 

nedistha, spv. nearest, 103, 2 b. 
nedistham, adv. nearest, w. gen., 

202 'D. 
nediyas, adv. nearer, w. gen., 

202 D. 

nediyams, cpv. nearer, 103, 2 b. 
nema, prn. other, 120 c 2 (par.), 
nau, encl. du. prn. us two, 109 ; 

p. 452, 8 A a. 

nau, f. ship, 102 ; 102, 4 (par.), 
ny&nc, a. downward, 93 a. 
nyarbuda, n. a hundred millions, 


-ns, original ending of ace. pi. of 
a stems, 97, f. n. 8 (p. 78). 

Pankti, stanza, p. 440, c ; triplets, 

p. 446, 11 A. 
pac, ro<;fr, pf., 137, 2 . 
panca, nm.five, 104; 106 c (par). 



p&ncadasa, nm. fifteen, 104 ; 106 c 

pancadha, nm. adv. in fire u-ays, 


pancamd, ord. fifth, 107. 
paficas&t, nm. fifty, 104. 
p&t, fly, fall, pf., 137, 2 a; 137, 2 6 a ; 

pf. pt., 157 a ; red. ao., 149 a 2, 

ipv., 149, 5. 

pat&ya, iterative vb. fly about, 168. 
pati, m. husband, lord, 99, 1 ; ac- 
centuation of, in cds., p. 456, 2a. 
p&tir d&n, m. lord of the house, 

78, 3 a. 
p6tni, f. wife, lady, 99, 1 ; as f. for 

p&ti when final member of Bv., 

189, 4 e. 

p&tk, m. path, 77, 2. 
p&thi, m. path, 99, 2 . 
pad, walk, precative, 148, 4 a. 
p&d, m. /oo, 77, 8 a. 
pada-patha, m. Pada text, 2 ; 25 c a, 

f. n. l" (p. 26) ; p. 25, f. n. 2 ; 

41 a ; p. 88. f. n. 5 ; p. 37, f. n. 5 ; 

p. 64, f. n. 3 ; p. 67, f. n. 4 ; 

p. 205, f. n. 3 ; p. 206, f. n. 2; 

p. 454, 10 a. 

pan, admire, pf., 187, 2 b. 
p&nthan, m. path, 91, 1. 
p&ntha, m. path, 97, 2 a. 
p&nyams, cpv. more wonderful, 

103,/2 a. 

papivams, pf. pt. of pa, drink, 89 a. 
paptivams, pf. pt. of pat, fiy, 89 a. 
-paya, cs. suffix, 168 d ; irr. 2. 
para, a. ulterior, 120 c 2 (par.) ; 

higher, as final member of Bv., 

189, 1 b. 

parama", spv. farthest, 120 c 1. 
par&s, adv. beyond, 179, 3 ; prp. w. 

ace., 177, 1, inst., 177, 2, abl., 
. 177, 3. 
par&stad, adv. prp. after, w. gen., 

177, 4, f. n. 1 ; above, 202 D. 
p&ranc, a. turned away, 93 b. 
parad&i, dat. inf. to give up, p. 79, 

f. n. 1 ; p. 191. 
p&ri, prp. around, w. ace. and abl., 

176, 1 a. 

p&rijman, a. going round, 90, 1 a. 
paritas, adv. round about, 179, 2 ; 

prp. around, w. ace., 177, 1. 

paribhu, a. surrounding, 98 d. 
paribhu, a. surrounding, 100, II a. 
pdritta, pp. of pari-da, give away, 

160, 2 6. 
p&rena, inst. adv. beyond, w. ace., 

197 B c ; p. 209, f. n. 3. 
parvas&s, adv. joint by joint, 179, 1. 
pas = spas, see, pr. stem, 133 B 1. 
pas', f. sight, 79, 4. 
pasutfp, a. delighting in cattle, 78, 1, 
pasum&nt, a. possessing cattle, 86 

(p. 64, f. n. 3). 
pasca, adv. behind, 178, 3 6. 
pascat, abl. adv. from behind, 

178, 5 ; w. gen., 202 D. 
pascatat, adv./rom behind, 179, 2. 

1. pa, drink, pr. stem, 133 A 3 a ; 
134 B 3 0, rt. ao. prc., 148, 4 o ; 
ipv., 148, 5. 

2. pa, protect, pr. stem, 134 A 4 c. 
Panini, m. a grammarian, 15. 
pad, m. foot, 77, 3. 

pada, m.foot, compounded w. gd., 

184 c ; quarter stanza, verse, 16 ; 

18 a ; 48 ; p. 436, 1. 
pap&, a. bad, cpv. of, p. 96, f. n. 1. 
papiyams, cpv. worse, p. 96, f. n. 1. 
pitar, m. father, 10J, 2 (par.). 
pitara, elliptical du., father and 

mother, 186 B 3 a ; 193, 2 a. 
^inv, fatten, 133 A 3 b ; 134 C 4 0. 
pis, adorn, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 
pis, f. ornament, 79, 4. 
pumscalii, f. courtesan, p. 89, f. n. 1 . 
pums, m. man, 83, 1 ; 96, 3. 
pur, f. stronghold, 82 (par.), 
purausnih, f. a metre, p. 444, 2. 
pur&s,' adv. before, 179, 3 ; prp. 

before, w. loc., ace., abl., 176, 2 ; 

202 I) ; compounded w. verbs, 

pur&stad, adv. in front, 179, 2 ; 

prp. in front of, w. gen., 177, 4 ; 

202 D. 
pura, adv. formerly, w. pr., 

212 A 2 a ; w. sma, 180 ; prp. 

before, w. abl., ace., inst., 177, 3 ; 

179, 3 7. 

puranavat, adv. as of old, 179, 1. 
I puru, a. much, in Bv. compounds, 
p. 455, 10 c a. 



purutra, adv. in many places, 

179, 3. 

purudha, adv. variously, 179, 1. 
purodas, m. sacrificial cake, 79, 4 a. 
pu, purify, pr. stem, 134 E 1. 
purpati, m. lord of the stronghold, 

^49 d. 
purva, a. prior, 120 c 2 (par .) ; 

p. 454, 10. 

puiva'th.a, adv. formerly, 179, 1. 
purvam, adv./orwerZ*/, 178, 2. 
purvavdt, adv. as of old, 179, 1. 
pusan, m. a god, 90 (p. 68). 
pr, cross, pr. stem, 134 B 3 a ; s ao. 

'ipv., 143, 5 ; red. ao., 149, 1 ; 

loc. inf., 167, 4 c. 
pfks, f. satiation, 80. 
pro, mix, s ao., 144, 4. 5. 
pfch, a. asking, 79, 2. 
prche", dat. inf. to ask, 79, 2 j 

'167 (p. 191). 
prthivis, f. pi. the (three) earths, 

'193, 3 a. 

pfthi, m. a man, 100, I & (p. 87). 
prsant, (pt.) a. spotted, 85 a. 
pf I fill, pr. stem, 133 B 2, 134 E 4 a ; 
'rt. ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; red. ao. ipv., 

149, 5 ; ps., 154, 4, f. n. 2 ; cs., 

168, irr. 5. 

pya,./?M up, sis aorist, 146. 
prakhydi, dat. inf. to see, 97, 2 

(p. 79), f. n. 1. 
pragatha, m. mixed strophe, p. 446, 

11 B. 
pragrhya, unconir 'actable, vowels, 

24-6 ; 24, f. n. 2. ; p. 437, f. n. 3. 
prach, as/,-, s aorist, 144, 5. 
pratar&m, ace. adv. furthermore, 

197 A 5 & 0. 
pr&ti, prp. against, w. ace., 176, 1 ; 

197 B c. 
pratimai, dat. inf. to imitate, 97, 2, 

f. n. 1. 
pratitta, pp. of prati-da, give back, 

160, 2 &. 

pratndtha, adv. as of old, 179, 1. 
pratnavat, adv. as of old, 179, 1. 
pratyafic, a. turned towards, 93 

(par.) ; w. ace., 197 B a. 
prathama, ord. first, 107; 120 c 3. 
prathamam, adv. ace. first, 

\ 97 A 5 b a. 

prathamajd, a. first-born, 97, 3. 
prathiman, m. icidth, 90, 2. 
prame, dat. inf. to form } 167, 1, 

f. n. 2 (p. 191). 
prayaj, f. offering, 79, 3 a. 
prayuta, nm. n. million, 104. 
pravat, f. fcgW, 77, 1. 
pras, asA-, pr. stem, 133 C 2. 
prahye, dat. inf. to send, 167 a 

(p. 181). 
pr, fill, irr. pf., 136, 4 ; s ao., 

144, 5. 

praktat, adv./rom the front, 179, 2. 
piaca, inst. adv. forwards, 178, 3 6. 
pranc, a. forward, 93 &. 
pratar, adv. earZt/, w. gen., 202 D 2. 
prataritvas, v. of -van stem, 90, 3. 
pradur, adv. before the door, w. bnu, 


pras, f. dispute, 79, 4. 
priy^i, a. dear, 97, 1 (par.) ; sec. 

cpv. of, 103, 1. 
priyadha, adv. kindly, 179, 1. 
prem&n, m. love, 90, 2. 
pr^yams, pri. cpv. of priy, dear, 

103, '2 a; f. of, 88, f. n. 1. 
pre"stha, spv. dearest, 103, 2 a. 
plu,' 'float, red. aorist, 149, 1. 
psur, f. victuals, 82, f. n 5. 

Phat, ij. crash! 181. 
phai, ij. splash! 181. 

Bat, ij. frwfy, 181. 

bata, ij. afas / 181. 

bandh, bind, pr. stem, 134 E 3, 4 ; 

pf, 139, 1 ; ft., 151 a ; ps., 

154, 5. 

babhru, a. f. brown, 100, II &. 
barhistha, spv. very lofty, 103, 2 a. 
bahirdha, adv. outioard, 179, 1 ; 

prp. /row* out, w. abl., 177, 3. 
bahu, a. much, in Bv. compounds, 

p. 455, 10 c a. 

bahutra, adv. among many, 179, 3. 
bahudha, adv. in many loays, 

17$, 1. 
bahuvrihi (a. having much rice} 

compounds, 100, I a ; 189 ; as 

substantives, 189, 3 ; ending 

modified, 189, 4 d ; suffixes a, 



ya, ka, in added to, 189, 4 ft, c; 

accentuation of, p. 455, 10 c. 
barhata pragatha, m. a kind of 

mixed strophe, p. 446, 11 B 2. 
bal, ij. dash ! 181. 
bibibabhavant, pt. crackling, 184 cL 
bibhyat, pr. pt. of bhi,/cor, 85 I. 
bibhatsu, ds.a. loathing, 100, lib a, 

f. n. 3. 
budh, wake, ao., 141 ; rt. ao. pt., 

148, 6 ; red. ao., 149, 1 ; ps. ao., 

brhati, f. a metre, p. 444, 8 6 ; 

'p. 446, 11 A. 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, ac- 

'cented, p. 448, 1. 
brhant, (pt.) a. great, 85 a ; cpv. 

" of, 103, 2 a ; accentuation of, 

p. 459. 
bodhi, 2. s. ipv. rt. ao. of bhu, be 

and budh, wake, 148, 5 ; cp. 62, 

f. n. 1. 

bru, speak, pr. stem, 134 A 1 c a ; 
134 A 4 c a. 

-Bha, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
bhagavattara, cpv. more bounteous, 

103, 1. 

bhagavant, a. bounteous, 86. 
bhaj, share, pf., 139, 1 ; s. ao. op., 

143, 4; red. ao., 149, 1 ; cs., 

154, 6 a. 
bhanj, break, pr. stem, 134 D 1 ; 

pr. pt., 85 ; ps., 154, 5. 
bhadrapapas, N. pi. Dv. cd., the 

good and the bad, 186 A 2. 
bhartf, a. supporting, 101, 2 6. 
bharbharabhavat, impf. became 

confounded, 184 d. 
bhala, pel. indeed, p. 452, 8 Ab. 
bhavan, m. Your Honour, w. 3. 

prs. s., 195 A c. 
bhavlyams, cpv. more, 88. 
bhas, cheiv, pi*, stem, 134 B 3 ; 

134 B 3 0. 

bhasad, f. hind quarters, 77, 8 6. 
-bhaj, a. sharing, 79, 3 a, f. n. 3. 
bhamitfi,, den. pp. enraged, 160, 

3, f. n. 2. 

bhfb, n. light, 83, 1. 
bhid, pierce, rt. ao., 148, 1 d ; inj., 

148, 3. 

bhid, f. destroyer, 77, 3 a. 

bhi, f.fear, 100, I a. 

bhi, /ear, s ao., 144, 2 ; rt. ao. inj., 

148, 3, pt., 148, 6 ; red. ao., 

149, 1 ; cs., 168, in*. 3. 
bhisaya, cs. frighten : red. ao., 

149 a 3. 

bhuk, ij. bang ! 181. ^ 
bhuj, enjoy, rt. ao. inj., 148, 3. 
bhuje, dat. inf., to enjoy, 167 a 

(p. 191). 

bhurij, f. arm, 79, 3 b. 
bhuv<, inf. to be, 167 a (p. 191). 
bhu, be, as representing first class 

of theaconj., 125, 1 ; pr. system 

of, 132 (par.); pf., 139, 7; 

140, 3. 4. 5; pt. 157; rt. ao., 

148, 1 c (par.), inj., 148, 3, prc., 

148, 4 a, op., 148, 4, ipv., 148, 5 ; 

red. ao., 149, 1, pt., 151 a ; 

per. ft., 152. 

bhu, f. earth, 100, II ; II b (par.). 
bhumdn, m. abundance, 90, 2. 
b human, n. earth, 90. 2. 
bhumi, f. earth, 98 a. 
bhuyas, cpv. adv. ace. more, 178, 2. 
bhuyams, cpv. more, 88 ; becoming 

more,*108, 2 a; as final member 

of Bv., 189, 1 &. 

bhuyistha, spv. greatest, 103, 2 a. 
bhuridavattara, cpv. a. giving more 

abundantly, 103, 1. 

M, final^ before vowels, 41, some- 
times dropped, 41 a ; before 
consonants, 42 ; 42, 1, f. n. 1 ; 
unchanged in internal Sandhi, 
68 ; becomes n, 68. 

ma-, prn. stem of first prs. in der. 
and cds., 109 6. 

-ma, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; sec. 
nom. sf., 182, 2 ; p. 454, 9 B c. 

mamhistha, spv. most liberal, 103, 2. 

maghdvan, a. bountiful, 91, 5. 

maghaVant, a. bountiful, 91, 5, 
f. n. 3. 

matkrta, Tp. cd. done by me, 109 6. 

mattds, adv. /row me, 179, 2. 

mad, be exhilarated, pr. stem, 
133 B 3 ; rt. ao. ipv., 148, 5. 

mad-, prn. stem of 1st prs., 
109 b. 



madfntara, cpv. more gladdening, 

103, 1 a. 

m&dhu, a. sweet, 98 (par.), 
madhyamd, spv. middlemost, 

120 c 1. 
madhya, inst. adv. in the midst, 

178, 3 6 ; 211, 3 b. 

man, think, pr. stem, 134 C 4 a ; 

pf., 137, 2 fc ; s ao., 143, 3 ; irr. 

144, 3. 
-man, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; 

stems in, 90 ; p. 453, 9 A e. 
manas, n. mind, 83, 2. 
manuv&t, adv. like Manu, 179, 1. 
maims, m. a name, 83, 2 (. 
-mant, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems 

in, 86. 

manth, shake, pr. stem, 134 E 3. 
mantha, m. churning stick, 97, 2 a. 
manmasas, adv. each as he is 

minded, 179, 1. 

mamaka, poss. prn. my, 116 a. 
mamasatyfi,, n. dispute as to owner- 
ship, synt. cd., 189 B c. 
-maya, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
mariit, m. storm-god, 77, 1. 
martitsakhi, a. having the Maruts 

as friends, 99, 2 a. 
martyatra, adv. among mortals, 

179, 3. 

marmrj^nya, int. s;dv. to be glori- 
fied,' 162, 3. 

malmalabhavant, pt. glittering, 
184 d. 

masmasa-kr, crush, 184 d. 

-mas, vocatives in, 86. 

-masi, 1. pi. ind. ending, fre- 
quency of, p. 125, f. n. 2. 

masmasa-kr, crush, 184 d. 

mah, a. great. 81. 

mahaiit, a. grreaf, 85 a (par.) ; 
accentuation of, p. 459. 

mahds, a. great, 83, 2 a a. 

maha, a. great. 97, 2 a ; for mahat- 
in Karmadharayas and Bahu- 
vrlhis, p. 275, f. n. 1. 

mahapaiikti, a metre, p. 440 d. 

mahimaii, m. greatness, 90, 2. 

mahe", inf. to be *glad, 167 a 
(p. 191). 

1. ma, measure, pr. stem, 134 B 1 a 
root ao. ipv., 148, 5. 

2. ma, bellow, pr. stem, 134 B 3/3 ; 
red. ao. inj., 149, 3. 

3. ma, exchange, pr. stem, 133 B 1. 
ma, f. measure, 97, 2. 

ma, encl. prs. prn. ace. s., me, 

J09a; p. 452, 8 A a. 
ma, prohibitive pel. not, 128 c; 

180 ; w. inj., 215 c 2 a ; never 

w. ipv., 215 b a. 
makis, prohibitive prn. pel. no 

one, never, 113, f. n. 2 ; 180. 
makim, prohibitive prn. pel. no 

one, 180. 

xnatfir, f. mother, 101, 2 (par.), 
matara, f. du. mother and father, 

186 B 3 a. 

| matarisvan, m. a name, 90 a. 
matali, m. a name, 100, I b. 
matftama, f. spv. most motherly, 

103, 1 e. 

-mana, sf. of mid. pt., 158. 
mamaka, possessive prn., 116 a. 
mampasy&, synt. cd., a plant, 

189 B c. 

mavant, prn. der. like me, 118 c. 
mils, m. month, 83, 1. 
mas, n. flesh, 83, 1. 
-mi, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
mitradha, adv. in a friendly way, 

179, 1. 
mitra, m. du. Mitra and Varuna, 

186 B 3 a ; 193, 2 a. 
mitrasas, m. pi. = Mitra, Vanina, 

Aryaman, 193, 3 a. 
mith&s, adv. wrongly, 179, 3. 
mithu, adv. wrongly, 179, 3 7. 
: -min, stems in, 87. 
I mih, shed water, ft., 151 a; inf., 

167 (p. 191). 
mih, f. mist, 81. 
-mi, pri. nom. suffix, 182, 1 b. 
\ mldhvams, a. bountiful, 157 b. 
mimamsitdi,, pp. of des. of man, 

think, 160, 3, f. n. 2. 
milhustama, spv. most gracious, 

l'03,'i 6. 
; muc, release, pr. stem, 133 C 1 ; s 

ao. opt., 143, 4 ; rt. ao., 148, 1 a; 

prc., 148, 4 d. 
mud, f. joy, 77, 3 a. 
mu>, m. destroyer, 82, f. n. 6. 
murdh&n, m. head, 90. 



1. mr, die, rt. ao. inj., 148, 3 ; ps.. ! 
154 rf. 

2. mr, crush, pr. stem, 134 E 4 a. 
mrc, 'injure, s ao. op., 143, 4. 
mfc, f. injury, 79, 1. 

mrj, wipe, pr. stem, 134, 1 b ; sa 

ao., 141 a. 
mfd, f. clay, 77, 3 a. 
mfdh, f. conA'trt, 77, 4. 
mrs, fcwcft, sa ao., 141 a. 
mrs, neglect, rt. ao. inj., 148, 3. 
mrsmrsa-kr, crush, 184 rf. 
me, encl. prn. dat. gen. s. of 

aham, 109 a ; p. 452, 8 A a. 
medha, m. sacrifice, accent of, in 

cds. , p. 454, 10. 
medhas, n. wisdom, 83, 2 a a. 
Maitrayam Samhita, accent ua- 

,tion of, p. 450,' 3. 
-mna, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
myaks, be situated, rt. ao., 148, 1 d. 

Y, interposed in ps. ao., 155 ; in 

cs., 168 ; irr., 4. 
ya, i'el. prn. who, 114 (par.). 
-ya, gdv. sf., 162; 209,1; gd. sf., 

210; den. sf., 175; sec. nom. 

sf., 182, 2. 
yams6nya, ao. gdv. to be guided, 

162, 3. 

yaka, rel. prn. who, 114 6; 117 a. 
yakrt, n. liver, 77, 1. 
yaj,' 'sacrifice, pr. stem, 135, 4 ; pf., 

137, 2 c ; sa ao., 141 a ; s ao., 

144, 5 ; root ao., 148, 5 ; pt. ft., 

151 6 2. 
yajivams, pf. pt. act. of yaj, 

sacrifice, 89 a. 

yajistha, spv. sacrificing best, 103, 2. 
yajiyams, cpv. sacrificing better, 

103, 2. 
yajfiani, a. leading the sacrifice, 

100, I a. 
yajnapriya, a. sacrifice-loving, 100, 

I a. 

yat, stretch, pf., 137, 2 a. 
yatama, prn. a. who (of many], 1 17 b ; 

120 a. 
yatara, prn. a. who (of two), 117 6 ; 

120 a., 
yati, nm. der. as many, 118 a. 

ydtkama, a. desiring tvhat, 114 a. 
yatkarin, a. doing what, 1 14 a. 
yatra, adv., synt. use, 180 ; 215 

(p. 358) ; w. op., 216 (p. 366). 
yatha, adv. as, 114 a ; 179, 1 ; 

loses accent, p. 453. 8 B a ; cj. 

in order that, 180 ; 216 (p. 365) ; 

as, so that, 215 (p. 358). 
yad, prn. what, 114 ; when, so that, 

w. sb., 215 (p. 357) ; when, 

178, 2 a ; when, if, 180 ; if, w. 

op., 216 (p. 363 7 1 ; p. 365 e) ; 

in order that, 216 (p. 364 a) ; that, 

w. op., p. 364 j8 ; w. cond. 218 

(p. 368). 
yada, adv. ivhen, 179, 3 ; cj., 180 ; 

w. sb., 215 (p. 359, 4) ; as soon 

as, w. op., 216 (p. 366, 4 0). 
yadi, cj. if, when, 180; if, \v. sb., 

215 (p. 359, 5) ; if, w. op., 216 

(p. 364). 
yaddevatya, a. having what deity, 

114 a. 
-yant, prn. sf. expressing quantity, 

118 b. 
yam, stretch, pr. stem, 133 A 2, 

135, 4; pf., 137, 2 a; 139, 2; 

gd., 165 ; s ao., 144, 5; root ao. 

ipv., 148, 5. 
yarhi, adv. when, w. op., 216 

(p. 366, 4 7). 

yavistha, spv. youngest, 103, 2 a. 
yasas, n. glory, 83, 2 a. 
ya, low grade of, 4 a. 
ya, go, sis aorist, 146. 
-y^* g^' s f-5 164 ; how added, 

164, 1. 
-yams, cpv. sf., 103, 2 a ; stems 

in, 88. 
yad, adv. as far as, 178, 5; cj., 

180 ; so long as, w. sb., 215 

fp. 359, 6) ; in so far as, h'rst 

member of synt. cd., 189 B a. 
yadfs, prn. cd. what like,lUa; 117. 
yadrsa, prn. cd. what like, 117, 

f.'n. 4. 

yavat, cj. as long as, 180. 
yavant, prn. der. as great, 118 c. 

1. yu, unite, pr. stem, 134, 1 a. 

2. yu, separate, 133 A 2 ; 134 B 3 a. 
-yu, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; stems 

in, 98 a. 



yuj, join, pr. system, 132 (pp. 136- 

7); root ao. ipv., 148, 5; ft., 

151 . 

yuj, m. companion, 79, 3 a. 
yudh, fight, root ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; 

ds. pr. pt., 85. 
yudh, f. fight, 77 ', 4. 
yuva-, prs. prn. you two, 109 b. 
yuvati, f. young, 95 c. 
yuvan, m. youth, 90 a ; 91, 4 ; f. 

of, 95 c; cpv. of, 103, 2 a; 

accentuation of, p. 458, c 1. 
yuv&m, prn. ye two, 109. 
yuvayu, a. desiring you two, 109 b. 
yuvaVant, prn. der. devoted to you 

two, 118 c. 
yusma-, prn. you (as first member 

of a cd.), 1096. 
yusmayant, prn. der. desiring you, 


yusmaka, poss. prn. your, 1166. 
yusmakam, prn. (G. pi.) o/ ?/<m, 

116 6. 
yusmavant, prn. der. belonging fo 

you, 118 c. 

yuyam, prs. prn. ye, 109. 
yeyajamahd, synt. cd., 189 B 6. 
yodhana, pr. pt. of yudh, fight, 

158 a. 

yosan, f. woman, 90. 
y6s, n. welfare, 83, 1. 

R, original final, 46, f. n. 1 ; 

49 d ; before r, 47 ; two r 

sounds in same syllable avoided, 

39, f. n. 4 ; r inserted in conj., 

134, 1 c ; stems in, 82. 
ra, low grade of, 4 a (p. 4). 
-ra, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6 ; sec. 

nom. sf., 182, 2. 
raks&s, m. demon, 83, 2 a. 
raghudru, cd. a. running swiftly, 

98 d. 
raghuya, inst. adv. rapidly, 

178, 3 a. 
ratnadhatama, spv. best bestonier of 

treasure, 103, 1. 
rathasp&ti, m. lord of the car. 187 

(p. 273, f. n. 3). 
rathi, m. f. charioteer, 100, I a 

(p. 86 ; 87, par.). 

rathitama, spv. best charioteer, 

103, 1. 
r&n, m. joy, 77, 5 ; accentuation 

of, p. 458, c 1. 
-ran, 3. pi. ending in ppf., 140, 6 ; 

in root ao., 148, 1 ; 148, 1 h. 
randh, make subject, a ao., 147 6. 
rabh, grasp, pf., 137, 2 a. 
r&bhiyams, cpv. more violent, 

103, 2 o. 
ram, rejoice, red. ao. sb., 149, 2, 

inj., 149, 3; sis. ao., 146. 
-ram, 3. pi. mid. ending in ppf., 

140 6 (p. 158, f. n. 1) ; in root 

ao., 148, 1 ; 148, 1 h. 
rayintama, spv. a. very rich, 

103, 1 a. 

rarivams, red. pf. pt. of ra, 89 a. 
rasm&n, m. rein, 90, 2. 
ra, low grade of, 4 a ; 5 6 a. 
ra, give, pr. stem, 134 B 1 a ; 

134 B 3 ; s ao. op., 143, 4, 

ipv., 143, 5 ; root ao. ipv., 148, 5. 
raj, m. king, 79, 3 a. 
raj an, m. king, 90. 
ratri, f. night, as final member of 

cds., 186 (p. 269), f. n. 2 ; 189 A 

(p. 279), f. n. 3. 
| radh, succeed, s ao., 144, 2 ; red. 

ao. sb., 149, 2 ; red. ao. inj., 

149, 3. 
rastranam, G. pi., 65 (p. 43), 

f.' n. 1. 

rastrl, m. ruler, 100, I 6. 
-ri/pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 6. 
ric, leave, s ao., 144, 5 ; root ao. 

inj., 148, 3 ; red. pf. pt., 157 b o. 
rip, f. deceit, 78, 1. 
ris, hurt, red. ao. op., 149, 4. 
ris, f. injury, 80. 
1 rih&nt, (pt.) a. weak, 85 a. 
ru, cry, pr. stem, 134 (p. 142, 

f. 11. 1). 

j -ru, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b. 
-ruk, N. of -ruh, a. mounting, 81 a. 
rue, shine, red. pf. pt., 157 b a. 
rue, f. lustre, 79, 1. 
ruj, break, root ao. inj., 148, 3. 
rud, weep, pr. stem, 134 A 3 a. 
rudh, obstruct, s ao., 144, 5. 
rup, f. earth, 78, 1. 
rusant, (pt.) a. brilliant, 85 a. 



ruh, ascend, sa no., 141 a ; 168 

irr. 2, f. n. 1. 
ruh, f. sprout, 81. 
rupdm, ace. adv. inform, 178, 2. 
-re, 3. pi. mid. ending, pr., 

134 C 4 7 ; pf., 136 a, f. n. 1. 
ri, m. f. wealth, 102 ; 102, 1 (par.). 

-La, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 
laksmi, f. mark, 100, I a (p. 88). 
laghiyams, cpv. lighter, 103, 2 a. 
laghu, a! light, cpv. of, 103, 2 a. 
labh, take, pf., 137, 2 a. 
lip, swieor, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 
lup, break, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 

Va, low grade of, 4 a. 

-va, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b adv. 

sf., 179, 1. 

vaghat, m. sacrifices; 85 b. 
vac, speak, pr. stem, 135, 4 ; pf., 

137, 2c; 138, 8; red. ao. irr., 

149 a 2, op., 149, 4, ipv., 149, 5 ; 

ps., 154, 6 ; ps. ao., 155. 
vane, move crookedly, ps., 154, 5. 
vanfj, m. trader, 79, 3 5. 
-vat, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems 

in, 77, 1 ; adv. sf., like, 179, 1 ; 

advs. in, 197 A 5 & 7 (p. 301). 
vad, speak, pr. stem, 135, 4; pf., 

137, 2c; ps., 154, 6. 
vadhar, n. weapon, 101, 1. 
van, 7 pin, pr. stem, 134 C 4 a ; 

135, 4 ; pf., 137, 2 b ; 139, 2 ; s 

ao. op., 143, 4 ; 3 ao., 144, 3 ; 

sis ao., 146 ; root ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; 

ds'., 171 (p. 200), par. 
v&n, n.(?) mod, 77, 5 ; accent, p. 458 

-van, pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b ; 

nouns in, 90, 1. 2; fern, of, 90 

(p. 59, f. n. 2) ; 95 c ; sec. nom. 

sf., 182, 2; v. in, 94, f. n. 4. 
vanad, f. longing, 77, 3 b. 
vanarsdd, a. sitting in the ivood t 

49 d. 
-vant, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems 

in, 86 ; pf. pt. act. in, 161 ; 

205, 1 a. 
vap, strew, pr. stem, 135, 4 ; pf., 

137, 2 c. 

vdpustara, cpv. more wonderful, 


vapus, n. beauty, 83, 2 c. 
vam, vomit, pr. stem, 134 A 3 a. 
! -vam, adv. suffix, 179, 1. 
vay&m, prs. prn. ?re, 109. 
vayas, n. vigour, 83, 2 a a. 
vara, a. choice, spv. of, 103, 2 a. 
varaya, dat. adv. according to wish, 

178, 4. 

varimdn, m. width, 90, 2. 
v&ristha, spv. most excellent, 103, 2 a ; 

widest, 103, 2 a. 
vdriyams, cpv. wider, 103, 2 a. 
varjivams, pf. pt. act. of vrj, 

heist, 157 6. 

varsistha, spv. highest, 103, 2 6. 
varsiyams, cpv. higher, 103, 2 &. 
varsman, n. height, 103, 2 b, f. n. 5. 
vas, desire, pr. stem, 134 A 2 rt. 
1 vas, dwett, pf., 137, 2 c ; s ao., 

144, 1; s ao., 144, 2; red. pf. 

pt., 157 a. 
\ 2. vas, wear, pr. stem, 134 A 3 b ; 

135, 4; pf., 139, 2; cs. ft, 

151 a a. 
j 3. vas, shine, pr. stem, 133 C 2; 

s ao., 144, 1 ; s ao., 144, 5 ; root 

ao., 148, 1 d. 
vas, m. (?) abode, 83, 1. 
vas, encl. prs. prn. A.D.G. pi. you, 

109 a; p. 452, 8 A a. 
-vas, v. in, 86 ; 89 ; 90, 3 ; 94, 3, 

f. n. 3. 

vasistha, spv. best, 103, 2 a. 
vasu, n. wealth, 98 a ; spv. of, best, 

103, 2 a. 

vasuvan, a. bestoiving wealth, 90, 3. 
v&stos, gen. adv. in the morning, 

178, 6 ; 202 D 3 a. 
vasyams, cpv. belter, 103, 2 a. 
vah, carry, pr. stem, 135,4; pf., 

137, 2 c ; s ao,, 144, 2 ; 144, 5 ; 

root ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; ps., 154, 6; 

ps. sb., 154 & ; ps. ao., 155 a 1. 
vahat, f. stream, 85 &. 
va, low grade of, 5 & a. 
va, weave, pr. stem, 133 B 1. 
va, encl. cj. or, 180 ; p. 452, 8 A b. 
-vams, sf. of red. pf. pt., 157; 

pf. pt. in, 89 (par.). 



vao, f. speech, 79, 1. 

-vtbe, iiif. to apeak, 167 a (p. 191). 

Vajasaneyi Samhita, how ac- 
cented, p. 449. 

-vat, N. sing, of -van, carrying, 
81 a. 

vatikrta, n. a disease, 184 d a. 

vam, prs. prn. du. we two, 109 ; 
p. 452, 8 A a. 

vam, encl. prs. prn., A. D. G. du., 
you tioo, 109 a. 

var, m. protector, 82, f. n. 0. 

var, n. water, 82, f. n. 7. 

varkarya, a. producing water, 49 c?. 

vava, pel. certainly, 180. 

vas, leUow, red. ao., 149, 1. 

vi, m. bird, 99, 3 a; accent, p. 458, 

vimsati, nm. twenty, 104 ; 106 d 

vie, sift, red. pf. pt., 157 & o. 

vij, tremble, root ao. inj., 148, 3. 

vij, f. (?) stake, 79, 3 a. 

vitaram, adv. more widely, 178, 2. 

1. vid, know, unred. pf., 139, 3 ; 
ao. ps., 155. 

2. vid, find, pr. stem, 133 C 1 ; 
!34A4ca; aao., 147,1 (par.) ; 
a ao. op., 147, 4 (par.). 

vid, f. knowledge, 77, 3 a. 
vidana, and vidana, pr. pt. mid. 

of vid, find, 158 a. 
vidustara, cpv. wiser, 103, 1 &. 
vidvams, pf. pt. knowing, 157 b. 
vidhartf, a. meting out, 101, 2 &. 
-vidhe, inf. to pierce, 167 a (p. 191). 
-vin, sec. nom. sf., 182, 2 ; stems 

in, 87. 
vina, prp. without, w. ace., 197 c a 

(p. 303). 
vip, f. rod, 78, 1 ; accent, p. 458, 


vipas, f. a river, 63 &, f. n. 2 ; 79, 4. 
viprus, f. drop, 80. 
vibhavas, v. radiant, 90, 3. 
vibhu, a. eminent, 100, II b. 
vibhvan, a. far-reaching, 90, 1 a. 
viraj, f. stanza of three verses, 

p. 441, 5 a. 
vivisivams, red. pf. pt. of vis, 

enter, 89 a ; 157 a. 

vis, f. settlement, 63 b, f. n. 2 ; 79, 4 

visivams, unred. pf. pt. of vis, 
enter j 157 b. 

visevise, itv. cd. in every house, 
189 C a. 

vispati, m. lord of the house, 49 a. 

visva, prn. a. all, 120 b (par.); 
accent in cds., p. 454, 10. 

visvatra, adv. everywhere, 179, 3. 

visvatha, adv. in every ivay, 179, 1. 

visvadanim, adv. always, 179, 3 /8. 

visvadha, adv. in every way, 179, 1. 

visvaha, adv. always, 179, 1. 

vistap, f. summit, 78, 1. 

visvanc, a. all-pervading, 93 a. 

visarjaniya, m. spirant, 3 g ; 14 ; 
15 ; 27 ; 31 ; 32 ; 37 ; 43 ; 43, 3, 
f. n. 4 ; 44 ; 48 ; 49 c ; 76 ; 
sandhi of final, 43 ; 44 ; some- 
times becomes s before gutturals 
and labials, 43, 2 a ; dropped, 
43, 3 a ; 45, 1 ; 45, 2 a ; 4'8 ; 
changed to r, 44 ; 46. 

vispas, m. spy, 79, 4. 

vi, m. receiver, 100, I a. 

vlra, m. hero, accent of, in com- 
pounds, p. 454, 10. 

1. vr, cover, pr. stem, 134 C 3 ; 
root ao., 148, 1 d, inj., 148, 3, 
ipv., 148, 5, pt, 148, 6 ; red. ao., 
149, 1 ; cs. ft., 151 a a. 

2. vr, choose, root ao. inj., 148, 3. 
vrj, twist, sa ao., 141 a; root ao., 

'148, 1 d, op., 148, 4. 
vrt, turn, ft., 151 a ; red. pf. pt., 


vrt, f. host, 77, 1. 

vrtratara, cpv. aivorse Vrtra, 103, 1. 
vrtrahan, a. Vrtra- slay ing, 92. 
vrddha, pp. groion up, cpv. of, 

'103, 2 &. 

vfddhi, f. strong grade of vowels, 
; 5a; 5aa; 17; 17a; 19 &; 22; 
23 (for Guna) ; 128 b ; in pr. 
stem, 134, 1 a (irr.) ; in pf. stem, 
136, 2. 3 ; in s ao., 143, 1 ; in 
is ao., 145, 1 ; in ao. ps., 155 ; 
in gdv., 162, 1 & ; 168, 1 c. 
vrdh, grow, red. ao., 149, 1. 
vrdh, f. prosperity, 77, 4 ; a. strength- 
'ening. 77, 4. 



vrsanasva, Bv. cd. having stallions 

as steeds, 52 a. 
vfsan, m. bull, 90. 
vrsantama, spv. . most manly, 

' 103, 1 a. 
vedi, f. altar, loc. of, 98 (p. 81), 

f. n. 6. 

vedhas, m. ordainer, 83, 2 a a. 
vehat, f. barren cow, 85 b. 
v&i, emphasizing pel. indeed, 180. 
vaitallya, n. a metre, p. 436, f. 

n. 2. 

volhave, dat. inf. to carry, 167, 164. 
vyac, extend, pr. stem, 134 B 2 : 

135, 4. 

vyadh, pierce, pr. stem, 133 B 1. 
vya, envelope, pr. stem, 133 B 1 ; 

a ao., 147 a 1. 
vyatta, opened, pp. of vi-a-da, 

160, 2 6. 

vrasc, cut, pr. stem, 133 C 2. 
-vraska, a. cutting, 133 C 2, f. n. 2. 
vra, f. troop, 97, 2. 
vradhaiitama, spv. being most 
mighty, 103, 1 6. 
vris, f . finger, 79, 4. 

S, stems in, 79, 4. 

-sa, sec. nom. suffix, 182, 2. 

sams, praise, ps., 154, 5. 

sak, fee able, pf., 137, 2 a ; root ao. 

ipv., 148, 5. 

sakrt, n. excrement, 77, 1. 
sakvari, f. a metre, p. 440 d ; 

p. 441, f. 11. 6. 
sad, f. might, 100, I &. 
satakratu, a. having a hundred 

powers, 98 (p. 82), f. n. 6. 
satatam&, ord. hundredth, 107. 
satadavan, a. giving a hundredfold, 

, 90 - 

Satapatha Brahmana, accentua- 
tion of, p. 448, 1 ; 'p- 451, 5. 

sat&m, nm. a hundred, 104 ; 106 d 
(par.) ; concord of, 194 B 1 6. 

satasas, adv. by hundreds, 179, 1. 

satruha, a. slaying enemies, 97, 3. 

sanais, adv. slowly, 178, 3 b. 

sap, curse, pf., 137, 2 a. 

sam, n. happiness, 78, 3. 

s&yana, pr. pt. mid. of si, lie, 
158 a. 

sayutra, adv. on a couch, 179, 3. 

sarad, f. autumn, 77, 3 6. 

sal, ij. clap ! 181. 

sasayana, pf. pt. mid. of si, lie, 

159 . 
saslyams, cpv. more frequent, 

103, 2 a. 
sasVattama, spv. most constant, 

103, 1. 
sasvadha, adv. again and again, 

179, 1. 

sasvant, a. constant, 103, 2 a. 
-sas, adv. sf. w. distributive sense, 

179, 1. 
sa, sharpen, pr. stem, 134 B 1 a ; 

134 B 3 a. 
sas, order, pr. stem, 134 A 4 a; a 

ao., 147 a 1. 
sas, m. nifer, 83, 1. 
sasat, pr. pt. instructing, 85 b ; 

156 a. 

siras, n. head, 90, 1 a. 
sista, pp. of sas, order, 160, 2 6. 
siksanara, a. helping men, 189 A 2 fr. 
fi!,Zfc,pr. stem, 134, 1 c ; 134 A 4 c a ; 

pf., 139, 7<f. n. 1). 
sirsan, n. head, 90, 1. 
sue, shine, red. pf. pt.. 157 b a ; 

red. ao. inj., 149, 3. 
sue, f. flame, 79, 1. 
suei, a. bright, 98 (par.). 
subh, shine, pr. stem, 183 C 1 ; 

rootao. pt., 148, 6. 
subh, f. splendour, 78, 2. 
su, swell, red. pf. pt., 157 b a. 
socis, n. gloiv, 83, 2 &. 
scandra, a. &n'#M, 50 a. 
snath, pierce, pr. stem, 134 A 3 b ; 

red. ao., 149, 1. 

srath, slacken, red. ao. ipv., 195, 5. 
srad, heart, compounded with 

verbs, 184 b. 
sraddhe, inf. to trust, 167, 1, f. n. 2 

(p. 191). 

sram, be weary, pr. stem, 133 B 3. 
sri, resort, root ao. inj., 148, 3 ; 
red. ao., 149, 1 ; ps. ao., 155 ; 
cs., 168 c, f. n. 1 (p. 196). 
sri, f. glory, 100, 1 a. 
sru, hear, pr. stem, 134 C 3 ; root 

ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; ps. ao., 155. 
srut, a. hearing, 77, 1. 



srenisas, adv. in rows, 179, 1. 

sre"yarns, cpv. better, 103, 2 a. 

srestha, spv. best, 103, 2 a ; 189, 1 6. 

sresthatama, double spv., 103, 1 c. 

sloka, m. a metre, p. 439, 3 & a. 

svan, m. dog, 90 a ; 91, 3 ; accen- 
tuation of, p. 458, c 1. 

svasru, f. mother-in-law, 100, II b, a, 
f. n. 1. 

svas, blow, pr. stem, 134 A 3 a. 

sv&s, adv. to-mon-ow, 179, 3. 

svit, be bright, s ao., 144, 5. 

S, stems iu, SO. 

sat, nm. six, 65 c, f. 11. 2 (p. 43). 

sas, urn.' six, 104 ; 106 a (par.). 

sasti, nm. sixty, 104. 

sastha, ord. sixth, 107. 

sodasa, nm. sixteen, 104 ; 106 c 

sodha, nm. adv. in six ways, 108 &. 

S, changed to t, 83, 1 a ; 89; 

171, 5 (ds.) ; 144, 1 (s ao.) ; loss 

of, 133 B 1, 144, 2 a, in s ao., 

144, 6, between consonants, 

148, 1 </ ; of N. in cds., 189, 1 b ; 

adv. sf., 179, 1; ao., 142; 143; 

stems in, 83. 
sa, deni. prn., 110 ; Sandhi of, 

48 ; pleonastic formulaic use of, 

-sa, sf. of ao., 141 a ; of ds., 

169, 1.2; pri. nom. sf., 182, 1 b. 
sak, deni. prn., that little, 117 a. 
sakft, nm. adv. once, 108 ; w. 

gen., 202 D 3. 
sakthi, n. thigh, 99, 4. 
sdksant, s ao. act. pt. of sah, 

overcome, 85 ; 156 a. 
sakha for s&khi, in cds., 188, 2 

(p. 275), f. n. 2 ; 189, 4 d. 
sdkhi, m. friend, 99, 2 ; in Balm- 

vrihis and Karmadharayas, 

188, 4 d, f. ri. 1 ; in governing 

cds., 189 A 2 a (p. 280), f. n. 3. 
sac, follow, pr. stem, 133 A 3 a ; 

134B30; 134B3; pf.,137,2a; 

137, 2 6 ; s ao. op., 143, 4 ; root 

ao. ipv., 148, 5 ; red. pf. pt., 

157 a. 
s&ca; prp. with, w. loc., 177, 5. 

sajosas, a. united, 83, 2 a a. 
sanjj hatig, pr. stem, 133 A 4. 
satobrhatl, f. a metre, p. 444, 3 c. 
saty&m, adv. truly. 178, 2. 
satra, adv. in one place, 179, 3. 
sad, sit, pr. stem, 133 A 3 a ; pf., 

137, 2 a, f. n. 2 ; a ao. ipv., 

147, 5; red. ao., 149, 1. 
s&dam, adv. always, 179, 3. 
sada, adv. always, 179, 3. 
sadivas, adv. to-day, 179, 3. 
sadyds, adv. to-day, 179, 3. 
sadha-, adv. together, 179, 1 (p. 212). 
sadhryanc, a. converging, 93 b 

(p. 74), f. n. 1. 
san, gain, pr. stem, 134 C 4 a ; 

red. pf. pt., 157. 
-san, loc. inf. of stems in, 167, 


sna, a. old, cpv. of, 103, 2 a. 
sandj, a. old, 79, 3 b. 
sanat, abl. adv. -from of old, 178, 5. 
-sani, loc. inf. in, 211, 4. 
sanitur, prp. apart from, w. ace. , 

177, 1 ; 197 B c. 
sanutar, prp. far from, w. abl., 

177, 3. 

s&nt, pr. pt. of as, be, 85. 
samtaram, ace. adv. closer together, 

197 A 5 6 0. 

samnam, f. favour, 78, 3. 
sdnyams, cpv. older, 88 ; 103, 2 a. 
sap, serve, pf., 137, 2 a ; red. ao. 

inj., 149, 3. 
sapar^nya, den. gdv. to be adored, 

162, 3. 

sapta, nm. seven, 104 ; 106 c (par.), 
saptatf, nm. seventy, 104. 
saptathd", ord. seventh, 107. 
saptadasa, nm. seventeen, 104 ; 

106 c. r 

saptadha, adv. in seven ways, 108 b. 
saptamd, ord. seventh, 107. 
sama, indef. prn. any, 119 a (par.) ; 

p. 452, 8 A a. 
samaha, adv. in some toay or other, 

179, 1 ; p. 452, 8 A 6. 
samand, a. similar, 120 c 2 (p. 117). 
samudri, f. oceanic, 100, I a (p. 86), 

f. n. 1. 
samprasarana, in. distraction, 5 6 ; 

17 o, f. n.2';69c,f.n. 2 ; 89 ; 91, 



3. 4. 5 ; 96, 2 ; 99, 5, f. 11. 1 ; pr. 

stern, 133 B 1 ; 133 C 2, f. n. 1 ; 

134 A 2 a ; 134 B 2 ; 134 E 2 ; 

135, 4 ; 137, 2 a, f. n. 1 ; 137, 2 c ; 

139, 2 ; 154, 6 ; 160, 2 ; 160, 3 a ; 

inf., 167, 1, f. n. 3; cs., 168, 

irr., 5. 
samy&iic, a. united, 93 a ; w. ace., 


saniraj, in. sovereign ruler, 49 b, 
sarah, f. (?) lee, 81. 
sarit, f. stream, 77, 1. 
s&rva, prn. a. i(;/o?e, 120 b (par.), 
sarvada, adv. always, 179, 3. 
sarvahut, a. offering completely, 

sascat, pr. pt. of sac, follow, 85 b, 

f. n. 5. 

sasc&t, m. pursuer, 85 &. 
sah, overcome, 140, 3 a ; s. ao., 

144,3; op., 143, 4; ipv.,143,5; 

pt., 143, 6 ; pf. prc., 150 a ; ft., 

151 c ; s ao. pt. act., 156 a. 
sah, m. conqueror, 81 ; a. victorious, 

81 a (par.). 
sah, prp. with, w. inst., 177, 2 ; 

adv , 179, 1. 
saliantama, spv. most victorious, 

103, 1 6. 

sahasa, inst. adv. forcibly, 178, 3. 
sahasra, n. thousand, 104 ; 106 d 

(par.) ; concord of, 194 B 1 6. 
sahasratam6, ord. thousandth, 107 

(p. 102),^f. n. 2. 
sanasradna, iim. adv. in a thousand 

ways, 108 6. 
sahasras&s, adv. by thousands, 

179, 1. 

sahyams, cpv. stronger, 103, 2 a. 
sa, bind, root ao. ipv. , 148, 5. 
sak&m, prp. with, w. inst., 177, 2. 
saksat, abl. adv. visibly, 178, 5. 
-sac, a. accompanying, 79 (p. 54), 

f. n. 1. 
sadh, succeed, red. ao. sb., 149, 2 ; 

inj., 149, 3. 

sadhistha, spv. straightest, 103, 2 a. 
sadhu, a. straight, spv. of, 103, 2 a. 
sadhuya, inst. adv. straight, 

178, 3 6. 
sanu, m. 11. summit, 98 (p. 81), 

f. n. 13 ; 98 a. 

\ Samaveda, accentuation of, 

p. 450, I. 

say&m, adv. in the evening, 178, 2. 
say&mpratar, adv. evening and 
morning, accentuation, p. 475 e a. 
sahvams, unred. pf. pt. act., pre- 
vailing, 157 b. 
j -si, 2. s. ind. ending = ipv., 


simhi, f. lioness, 100, I a (p. 88). 
sic, sprinkle, pr. stem, 133 C 1. 
j sic, f. hem of a garment, 79, 1. 
! sima, dem. prn., 100, 3 a. 
! siri, m. weaver, 110, I b. 
\ sis aorist, 142 ; 146. 
i sidant, pr. pt. of sad, sit, 85. 
sim, encl. prn. pel., 180 ; p. 452, 

8 A a. 

su, impel, pr. stem, 134. 1 a (p. 142). 
su, press, root ao. part., 148, 6 ; 

pr.jpt., 85. 
su, sii, adv. well, 180 ; in Bv, cds., 

p. 455, 10 c a. 
! sudas, a. liberal, 83, 1. 
sudhi, a. wise, 100, I a, f. n. 4. 
supti, a. clarifying well, 98 d. 
| sumad, prp. with, w. inst., 177, 2. 
sumedhas, a. in